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Supvhmenl to the Building News, Jul,i n, I9ir 






Published fop the STRAND NEWSPAPER CO., Ltd., by E. J. KIBBLEWHITE, Managing Director, 



Supplement to the Biilding News, July 11, 191:. 


[For Index to lUustrations see page V.] 



20; Jit|Uid, hlnsting 
iliirability of con- 

ABBOT'S house,. Mudielney Abbev, 

ScjiiicTaetsIiire, 282 
AiaiitmicaJ dub, Eiiinburgh, 631 
Atuulomj-: Jtoyal, .'102, iu (;irdii- 
t<;cts at) 394 (exhibitions) 1, 01, 
179, ISi; Scoltisll, 2ti3, 394 
Act: liusine.-« Panics Registration, 
17D; Uel'ence of the IJtalm, some 
notes on the, 138 
A<-tiou, libel. Lord Mayor of 

lion's. Ml. 530 
Acts, l)uildijig (London) 390 
Aden, construction in, 611 
Advt-rti.senients. jjoster, 242 
AITorestatioil, 2-18, 304 
.Vir : board, 22; disputi', light 

132; dust in 

with, 205 

Alkali waters, 
Crete in, 4911 

.Mnishouses, row of, Jlarahflelds, 
Uloueostershire, 109 

American: cement plant production, 
notes on. 217; institute of archi- 
tt-cts, 51, 221, 893 

Analysis of niedlicval construction, 

Ancient: buildings, society for the 
protection of, 382 ; earth dwell- 
inus. 4119 ; irm.-i, ;fcl 

Angles, how to plot, 227 

Antii|uarics, .society Of, 451 . 

Vrbitration. coinpulsorj' md gtplkes, 

.VrchiEoloKieal ; institute of America, 
174; sooiety, Norfolk; 512 

Architect; anij csitineer, timber dc- 
Quy, a'lid its growini; importance 
to the, 529; aiiii the theatre, ]3h ; 
French, award of royal gold ihtNlal 
to, 113, 107; remuneration (West 
Kani), 491 

;\rchitects: American institute of, 
51, 231, 393; , liencvdl«itt society. 
3119; Hriti^l, ' nnal institute 
*r, 8C, 375, 391, 511, 549; charges 
■^Uputed. thcatrieal, 651 ; house, 
128; institute, of Scottish, 493, 490; 
Ireland (royal .i^tttute •■ 1), '174; 
Manchester (society of), 08 : 
.National service and. 241, 245, 371; 
(Quebec, demand legal qualification, 
52; registration of (iJJew York). 
5;j3; roval Victorian institute of. 
451 ; .ShefBcId society of, 391 ; 
society of, 1«, 309, 491; South 
Afriran branch, 17 

Architectural: as.-ociatJon (Edin- 
burgh). 197 (Ireland) 08, 174, 220. 
2SC, 350. 391 (northern) 870 (pushes 
oni 5(1 (nil cross detachment) 190: 
boautillcatiou of the city. 413; in- 
stitute of Canada (royal), 491 ; 
si-hool3 in war time, 550 ; soc-iety 
(Devon and Kxcter) 314 (Liv^^rpooi) 
:i7u (Nottingham and Dcrbv) 220, 
:!91 : styles, control of, 48 

■Vrehitecture : at the royiul ncadeniy. 
;194: Itirmingliam, 241; Indiii, 
modern, 159, 172, 242; Italian 
oriler!> of, 431 

Ardenriiu illindlev Keath, Surrey, 

Armouries o( tlie Tower of London, 

Vrt : Hirmingliam school of. 3D2; 
Cambrian, academy of (roval). 472; 
Clapham ^ehool of. Ill: club. Glas- 
uow. 2<;ri: exliititic*; 202; gollerv 
(uuiblli.all) ;t92: (Manchester) 453 
(Walker) 3!i:!, 409; in Rubl«ben. 
\9*: lottery, 409; .mastMplece of, 
the (Iloryuji. ms a. son ;, masters, 
national society of. 47; Polish and 
Poland. .327; school of King Ed- 
ward VII.. Sewcastle, ,509 

Artiflcial .stone material. 48 

Artiaic impulse, encimroiiini;. 135 contributions, blinded sol- 
diers" bazaar. ;t51 ; rilles, 221; roval 
society of Britisli, 240; women "ex- 
hibition, 170 

Arts- club, Scottish, Ediivburgh SI"- 
leasue, imperial, good work by, 

Ashbins, economy in. 201 

Ashcroft manor, DC.. 282 

Ashes or diiNt, coal concreted from, 

Association : architectural (Edin- 
burgh) 197 (Ireland) 08. 174, 202. 
2.10. 391 (pushes on) SO; g:irden 
ilties, 170: honicstead. .5.'*3; master 
decorators' (lx)ndon) 280; ma.ster 
masons' (Ola«ttow) 132; master 
painters (Scotland) 110; property 
owners', n.".. 45.'> 473; war savings, 
1.S8: Welsh housing and develop- 
ment, 472 ^ 

-AUicnicum. tlic. .331 

Auctioneers' anil surveyors' clerks, 

Australia : new federal capital, Can- 
berra, competition for, 333; orna- 
mental stone of, building and, 489; 
western, water supply -svork in 

-Viistralian carpenters for war work 

Authority. Port of London, 287 

.\vonmouth housing scheme, 240 

BAGD.'ID. 2:3 

Balcony, dressmakers', A^enice 150 
Ball, the bite Mr. W., 197 

Btilu-strades .-is skylines, 471 
Bank, London County and Westmin- 
ster, 111 

Banks, river, upkeep of, 334 

Baiiquc Dreyfus, Paris, 200 
B:,rKor, .Mr. E. H. L., the ktU, 131 

Barn, grange, great, Alciston, Sus- 
sex, 150 

Barnjsley, church of St. Peter, 510 

Baron, -Mme. Helen, the late. 19 

Batsford, .Mr. H.. the laU-, 65 

Baza;ir. soldiers, blinded, 286, 409 

Bewiutiflcation, archite<tural, of the 
city, 413 

Belgravia, 221 

Bench ends in English ohurclies, 312 

Benefit, sanatorium, 353 

Benevolent Society, Arcliit-ects', 309 

Bcrgcr (.Mr.) sees it through, 23 

Bet'lilehiOi. m-anger at, German 
photograph of. 20 

Biggart. .Mr. Andrew S., the late. 

Bill: coinage, ■decimalisation of, 175; 
-National Gallery. 133 

Binuend village, houses at, 242 

Birmingham : generating station. 
371 ; school of art, ,3g2 ; town- 
plannln>g scheme, 291 

Birthd'ay ^honours, 473 

Bisliop's throne, .Manchester Cathe- 
dral, 349 

BUinc, .Mr. Hippolvto J., the late, 

Blasting with liquid air, 205 

Blinded soldiers' bazaar. and 
builders'. 280 (contributions, 
artists') 351 

Blocks, granite, joint fillers for. 285 

Board of dMucation, 308 (accommo- 
<lation) 473 

Boiler explosions, kitclien. 114 

Bonus. «;ir. 511 war. anil railway .stalTs, 334 

Booklet for painters, 114' 

Boslon Xavy Y:ird. te«t<s of eoncret-e 
specimens in swi water at, 65 

Birtilders. large, 631 

Boys : garden city. Woodford Bridge. 
449: house for (Lord Wand.sworth's, 
Long Sutton, Hants. 390. 429 

BraiLshaw. Mr. C. H.. the late. 288 

Brasenos** College. Oxford, the cnmera 
from, 202 

Brebner. Mr. T., the late, 372 

Bribery in war time. .'(.50 

Brick c:irbf)run(lum. finislnng con- 
crete surfaces with. .510 

Brickwork, caused of efflorescence on, 

Bridge: ClKirins Cross. 241. 245. S.53. 
.IIS; Manresa, ISpain, 172: piers, 

Bridgewater Canal. 414- 

Bristol contractor's claim. 19.5 

British: Archit..><>t.s. Roval Institute 
of. 80. 375. .391. 511. 549; Artists. 
Royal .Society of, 246: Columba 
(Ashcroft Manor). 282: Indfiist-i^s 
Fair. 179: manufacture, 223: 
Mu.senin. 4^ : reinforced Conor* te 
(Comiwny v. Lind), .373: Trade Cor- 
l>oraUon. 454 

Bl\wn. Mr. P .T.. 4.32 

Buckton. Cjijit. A. 8., the late, 432 

BuUders : affairs, .lesmond. 90: and 
contractors' price l>ook. 1.33: blinded 
soldiers* bazaar an-d, 280; ftnea. 
XA; institute of, 292: Icences to 
limitations, 157; National Federa- 
tion of bouse. .390; prixflege of. 
Canadian law of. 449 

Bnibliuc: Acts. Tx>ndon. .390: aft-' 
the war, 311: bylaws. 49. .53. 4.34: 
committee. SI : eontraots, 1 ; during 
the war 409. 433: Oovernnient, New 
SoutJi Wales. 194; (and tie 
property market). 333 (flniin.'al 
help in) 453; lecturfrrooms. 230: 
line (Euston (R<vid) 90: materials. 
72 (cost of) 491 ; oper.itiions. 208 : 
ornamental stones of Anstrspa 
nnrt. ISO: prize, .Sun-evors' Jnstitn- 

tion, 491 ; regulations. 245; si:icnce ol". 
271, 450; teaching of, 198; timbers, 
decay of. 112; tr:ide (piece work in 
tlic) 450 (workers wanted) 19- 
trades, employers, national fe»lera- 
tion of 08, 154 (central .idvisory 

203"" ^'' "'"'■''• ""''<^n*'l- 

Buildings: ancient, society for the 
protection of, Xi\ ; effect of ivlaster 
on, 450; ctlloresccnce on. to-ether 
with the means of comb.ating it 
Jlo; historic. 154; new, and escape' 
from lire, 471; private enterprise in 
erection of, 1.58; Prudential (Lei- 
cester) 4.56; si-hool (London County 
Council) 3.30: Tower of London 
(cracks in) .551 

Burie<l city unrartlud. 493 

Bursting pipes. .'iOS 

Burston. Norfolk, new "strike" 
.SK-Jiool, 450 

Business: names. Registration 4ct 
179. 198. 280; point, important. 154- 
premises, new (•Kingswav) 130- 
Butler, T.ady. 409: Buttbrworth, 
air. A S., 392; by-laws, building, 
49, o3 

Byways, highways .and, 160 

CABINETS, old wviliuit. and ni. bol- 
stered chairs. 2.38 

Cambrian academv of ;(rt ro,-al 
472 • ■ ' 

Oamera: club, 22; from Bra.senose 
College. 292 

Canada: royal architectural insti- 
tute. 491; trees in. 432 

Caiuidian: ball ot fame. 265: law of 
privilege of builders. 449; society 
of civil engineers. 287 

Canal, Bridgewater, 414 

Canals : control of. 157. 19S ; derelict. 

Carborundum brick, flnisliing concrete 

surfaces with. 510 
C^irdiir reservoir contract, 490 
Caricatures, 198 

Oarmichael, the late Mr. John, 196 
Carpenters. Australian, and war 

work, 391 
Carved oak chair, 432 
C.a,seb.y, Sec Lt. W. R.. the lat.-. 410 

Cast-iron pulley, repairing, 170 

Castle of Coney, 309 

Cathedral : ehurdi. St. Giles (Edin- 
burgh). .549; Edinbursh (St 
Miwys), 2.39:», 174; Lion. 
.309; Alanclie.sler, Bishop's throne 
349; Pet erborou gill. 243; St. Paul's 
m (preservation of) 308; Ypre.^ 

C.T^usos of eHlorcscence on brickwork. 

Cement: foundations. 198; plant 
practice, notes on American. 217- 
Portland. 201 

Oentre. tramway (Manchester) 135 

Certancates. leaving. 331 

Chair, carved oak. 43'> 

Chairs, upholstered, and pair of old 
walnut cAbiiM>ts, 238 

Channel Tunnel. 472 

Chapel, war memorial. Windermere, 

Chargea. R.I.B.A. scale of. 533. 650 

Charing Cross bridge, 241, 245, 353 

Chelsea, 221 

Cheshire : Hindorton (house all "S" 

^.JJ*?' •'•imcs -Smith memorial. 109 

t hichcster, county liall, 450 

Chimney : largest, in tlie world. 531 : 
piece, royal cxohange, Edinburgh, 

CJiina. hoiLsoA In. 132 

Chiireh : All tlallowa. Tottenham 
(war memorial) 429; ancient (Wilnei 
•242: at Newpiirt. Co. Mavo, 4.'>6 I 
Barnsley (.M. Peter) 510; caMiedril. 
St. Giles (Edinburgh) .549; doorwav 
(St. Gulst's) 73: Ksclu.sham (ne\V 
Teredos) 510 OlengarilT, 308: Harro- 
gate (.St. Wilfrid'.s) 456: memorial 
in I-anercost. 70; Mltcbam (St 
Barnaba-s) 4,89; Nea.silen (St 
Catherine) 04. 2l'.0; old (Smelhwick) 
.3.51; Potters Bar (St. Mary and 
All Saints) ,309; St. Xichol.a.i Cole 
Abbey, 331. 

Churches: All Hallows (Barkin:; I" i 
10: Devon, some old. 181, 194; Fai:- 
lisll. ben<-li end in. 312: free scats 
in. 409: Great Ponton. 20; new. at 
Gretna. 410; pews in, .329: Slirews- 
hury (St. Mary's). 170 

Cinema decoration, rco 

Cities, new. 2 

; ''«3;i[^'i;'i:-tno'jrrissfr <"■ 

534- living in (v '" wOek towerl 

i^trie^? 493 ^^- '"■ ""^''rWi.d. 
Civil: engineers, Cananian M- • =»- 

vice estimates, 264 ' ^' ' '^^'^ 

Claim, timber, 331 
Clapham school of art I'l 
Clay products In engineei.n.. con 

struction, 330 7 ^° '^'*" 

S'.',"';^ ^i?**"' *■''•>■ ''■'^'' '^ew Vork, 534 
Cloth Fair. 351 ^ 

Club : Binninghim rotary 39" 

'J""\''\- --• (Glasgow ir't, 2oi: 

.Si«ttish arts. Edinburgh. .312; Sene: 

s;E.rm'- ''"'**" ^'"^- ^"^■ 

509: slack, concreting of, 551. 
170"'""' ■vationa! importance. 

Coinage decimalisation Bill 175 

a™"' ^'''"'' ''■ *"■ "■• "'* '"''• 

College: collection, pottery and tile 

- .l?'''h=°l-„.'^''-'^^"<>^. camera fn.m 
292. Cardift university, 449; Queen 
( anibs. restoration of tile presi- 
d>nt I..Hlge. 429; St. Jolin's, Cam 

Wales,' m' ""'""^">- «' ^''»' 

^'va^' *'^' ^*' "■ ''* ^'**'*'' "'^ '^'''' 
Colonial and provincial galleries, loan 

of pieliires to, 49 
Coloured concrete, 40 
Colouring concrete, 530 
covin, cap(, R ^ ,^^ ,^j^ ^jj 

i?i?'".- ''^'■"1 '■'''• -«■'*: supports 
subsidence of, .and slab deflection: 

Cotnmittee: building. 21, 3,-,x - cm- 

ployment dep.ortment, 204 

°S2:*?S,a.?'i„'*^,l?"'''' 2«; Promot. 
Competition : .and contracUs. .334 - for 

Austr.ilias new federal capital 

( aubcrra. 333 

'':-';;!': 'i!,™"'-- •'"■si' 'or mediUs. 

oio Oldham (nur.sos' home) "6I 
CompLoint. reasonable "49 
Concrete: and stone foundations 28'- 

British lieinforced Cio. v. Lin<l T.i- 

fm,7''"'- f'i <^"'<>"f*»?. 530; disign: 
fundamental principles of reiu- 
forced. 3; durability of, in alk-ili 
waers, 490; cfTect of esceiS of 
water in, 410; proportions, mcatur- 
ing device tor varying. 194; protrc 
tion for fre.-flily laid, 90; leinforced 
SO^ 9.-, 128 152, 221, 308, .388; (in 
sen-water tests ofi .-iSI: f.sliip con 
structjon) 195; (under fire) •2,'i,H 
•ships. 4.50; surfaces, flnisliing with 
carborundum brick, 510; waterproof- 
ing. 153 

Concreting coal slack. 551 

Conditions, indu.sf.rial, future, 13i; 

(ongcstion, railwav, 136 

Conscientious objector, 240 

Conspiracy to defraud, 19 

(>>nstruction : dam, J72; englneirine. 
clay proilucts in, 330; 
analysis of, 133; modern fireproof. 
182; plaster and stucco, durabilitv 
of, 18; ship, relnfon-ed concrete 
195; work in Aden, 511 

Constructors, wonu'n as, 268 

Consumptives, slielters for, 47 

Contract: la <lecorator's, 175; iKtw- . - 
emplo.ver and cmploved, 413- c.i ■' 
reaenoir, 490; conn'oillors and " . 
notes and contracts, 157; or c-J- 
raate, 47 

Contractor, cost accoooting fc->r. the. 

Contractor's claim. Bristol, !it5 

Oontr.acts: and contract notes, 1,57 i-' 
building, II ; eompetitioB and. 3*4 

Control: canal. 157: of architectural 
styles, 48: of st<»ic quarries. 4H : 
timber, 133, 13;. 170. 198. 907 

Convalescent liome, Deganwy. Xi.rth 
Wales. .327 

Cornwall, old towers of, 204 

Cost : acoiinting for the contractor. 

430; of linilding materials. 491 
Cottage lit IxingfleM, Kent, 109 

Coucy, ca.stle of. 309 

Council : cliamtoer, Edinlnirijb. ifc- 
I'onition of, OO; London County land 
printing, 4S1 ; surveyors, 90, 392: 
olllces, L«l<*«tersbire, 489; schools, 
London. 330 

Councillors an.1 contracts. 72 

Coiuitv : court system. 21 ; hally- 
ChicJiester. 450: of London valniK 
tJon lists. 290 / 

(>ovenAnt<s. repairing. 135 / 

Cracks in buildings of the Tower of 
London, 651 

Cremation. Hoval, 24." 

.Tanuarv to June. 1917. 


Supplement to the 
BriLDisG NEW3, July 11. 1917- 


Criterion restaurant aii.l tlicatrc, 432 
Cromer, Lord, storiis ot. 13- 
Currettcy rei'orni, «eignt5 aoa mea- 
sures, 110 

DAMS, cou-^fc''"^'''"'' ?'• 5" ,,.7 «■'• 

Decav; of buildinf timber, 113, 2^;- 
timber, a«l ^ growing -mPfH^.f 
to tlie engineer and ar"*'*^'',,"- „ 

Decoration: cinema. 209; of fo-""'' 
ohamber, Edinburgli, 90 . 

Decorations, luxurious, m war time. 

oS'rator-s: oontr^-t. 1T5; council. 

national i.ainters' and, 28, , master. 

London as-socijtion of, -8b 
Detects in dwelliiiB. «"'^<^'"'°v"L,„ 
Defence of tlie^ Realms Act. 1916, 

some notes on the, Ids 
Deflection, sl-^b.. "Ud subsidence of 

cflumn supports, 24 
Iiefraud, roospiracy to, 19 

D"l'Sio.^rMT*^w'.!-thi>te %, 
rtenham, Capt. George P., the .{ite, 

Dpi-artment o£ public works, Sew 

South Wales, 394 
Derelict canals, 1, 111 . 

Design : of retaining walls, principles 

of, 475; structural, 247 
Det.ail : of elevation for tJie muni- 

cip^il buildings, Arbour square. 

Stepney, E.. 109; ot new premises 

at Higlv Holborn. 109 ; Queen s 

house, Kingsway, 292 
Details : chimney-pieoe, royal es-, Edinburgh, 369; library and 

close. Wells cathedral, 64; Stockport 

grammar school, 3S9 
Detrermination, weight per cubic toot 

of san<i, 490 
Devon : and Exeter architectural 

society, 314: churches, some more 

old, 181, 194 
DiBieultv, housing, 511 
Di^pcnsiry (Muisoorie), 172 
Dispute, curious, memorial tjiblet. 

District*, rural, re-population ot our, 


Doors, safes, ajid strong rooms {J. 

Tann's) 89 
Drainage system ot Lon«loD, main, 

117 , 

Drawing : society, royal, 69; value of, 

to the scientific worker, 112 
Draw^ings, water-colours exliibitjon, 

Dredging macliin^rj'. recent progress 

in, 52 
Dressmakers' balcony, Venice, 150 
Driscoll, Bombardier W. T., the late, 

Dunkeld, Sapper E., the late, 174 
Dublin port and docks, engineer to, 

Durability of stucco .ind plaster con- 
struction, 18 
Dust in air, 20 
Dusts, coal concreted from ashes or. 

Duties of a surveyor. 349 
levelling : liouses and munition firms, 

197 ; p<;rfect. at last. 248 
Dwellings; ^ancient earth, 409; short - 

a-ge of working-class, 513; small, 

problem of. 434, 454, 456, 474, 489, 

404. 513, 516, 634, 550 

EARTH d« tilings, ancient, 409 

Eai Ihworks, ancient, pr.;?erving, 19H 

East window, Prestbury ciiurch, 

Chesliire. 2^8 
Ecclesiijlogical Society. Scottish, 263 
Economic recuperation after war, 261 
Economy in ashbius. 201 
Edinourgh : academical club, 531 ; 
architectural association, 197; 
exchange, 369 ; dhlmney-piece, 
Royal council chamber, decoration 
of, 90 : Momingside library, 128 ; 
St. Giles Cathedral .^Iiurch, f49 : 
St. Marv's Cathedral. 239; Scottish 
Arts Club, 312; wash-houses, public 
172, 194 
Education, Board of, 3u8; (accom- 
modation) 473 
Effect : ot vnT Conditions upon the 
property market, i'Mi ; of piaster, on 
buildings. 450 
Efftorescence on buildings, notes on, 
tos<tti6i «ith Uie me.ins of com- 
bating it, 115 
Electric: lamp glass regulations, 282; 

power supply, 245 
Element^ of the science of I uilding. 


I'jnbeUishmetrtfl, overdoor and panels, 

Empire, niiity of the. 94 
Emijlo\ national federation of 

buildm; Ir.ides. 68, ;54 
Employmcni . depaitnient committee, 

264; exchanges, wjrkmen end, 492; 

wrong, the waste of, 202 
Encouraging artist'C impulse, 1S5 
Ends, bencli, in English churches. S12 
Engineer; and architect, timber 

decav and its growing importance 

to the, 529; to Dublin Port and 

Docks, 133 
Engineering construction, clay pro- 
ducts in, 330 
Engineers: institution of water. 451; 

municipal unC county, installation 

cf 'President, 634 

English churches, beiicli ends 'n, 3- 
Enterprise: failurs of pnvate, 114, 
private, in ofeetion ol buildings. )o8 
Khtranec hall witli furniture, 126 
Erection: dwellings, detects in, 4:i3: 

of war momori.ils, 414 
Esclu?ham Church. Wrexl'am (rere- 

dos), 5lo „ ., ^ 

Estates, sale ot one of the anest, 

Estimate, contract or, 4/ 
Estimates, Civil Service, 264 
Eustoa Road building liu-.;, SO 
Evolution of Roman pottery, 2(;3 
Exemption, 511 

Exeter: 511— and Devon architec- 
tural society. 314 
Excess ot water m concrete, 410, 4.<i. 
Exhibition: art, 20-.: ="■'■"• ^'i J: 
troops, 80, 128; Autumii. W..lker 
art gallery. 409; furniture, 180 
Irish material. 221; i-iverpoo 
autumn, 47 : ot pictures, . 4o9 , 
Royal Academy, 152 (winter, 
graphic art) 1. 51; sculpture, war- 
timt, 159; water-colour drawings, 

E-xhibitions : 413 
E:xmoor, 197 

Expansion dt ciuicklimp, 309 
Expenditure, Uovcrnment, so.i 
Experi.nent-al building 5';'<!nc«, 1^6 
Explosion: in East London, il. 

kitchs-n boiler 114 
E>traordiuafy tramc, m 

PAIR British indastrie*, 179 
FanVe. Hall ot Canadi n, ?6o 
Famine, house, 307 . ,., 

Famous paintings destroyed lot 
Fares railway, increase, 21 
Filaments, -tungsten 290 
Fillers for gcanite blocks, o nt , -8.5 
Financial help Ln house-buiIding, ii>i 
F4nes, builders*, 354 
Fire • escape from new buildings and, 
471; in!.urance. 176; reinforced con- 
crete under, 283 
Fireproof construction, modern, 18- 
Flag-sellers, young girls as, 494 
Flood lighting. 270 
Fogs in London, 1 
Folk museum. 430 

Foo<i: growiong in public i)arks, oo : 

supply. 24;J „ T T, * 

Forces: memibers of tlie K. 1.11. A. 

serving with tlie, 176 . 

Form: buildings supports provide 
storage within, 516; tie, a simple 
column. 283 
r st.r. Mx. R. C, the late, 86 
Foundations: cement, 198; stone and 

concrete. 282 .,.-., 

" Foxbury " garden Jiouse .at CSuslc- 

iiurst. 449 . ^ . 

France : private house in, intenor, 
327; roadjnen for. 243; sketdics in, 
128 ; " somewhere in," lecturing, 
Free Library, Stafford, 327 
Freezing of water-mains. 172 
■ French architect, awaid of Royal 
gold medal to. 113, 157 
Frost affecting gas-meters, 155 
Fundamental principles of reinforced 

concrete design, 3 
Furnished houses and lodgings, law, 1 
Furniture : deacon's oak chair (.\ber- 
deen) 46; entrance hall with, 128; 
exhibition, 180; romance of old, 263; 
suite of painted (Windsor Castle) 
Future : indiustrial conditions, 136 ; 
Ixmdon of ihe, 473 

GALLERIES: colonial and provincial 

loan of pictures to, 49 
Gallery ; art (Guildhall) 392 (Walker) 
392; Ooupil, 474; Manchester, art, 

453: national, 205, 512 
Garden : cities association, 176 ; city, 

boys', at Woodford Bridge, 449; 

house, Foxburv, Ohislehurst, Kent, 

Gils profits, 264 

Gas-meters, affected by frost, 155 
Gates. wTOUght-iron, St. Peter's, 

London Docks, 160 
Gateway of the Maniaces Castle, 

Syracuse, Sicily, 369 
Geddes, Major A., the late, 430 
Generating station, Birmingham, 371 
German : firms, insurance with, G9 ; 

museums and their spoils, 354 ; 

tentacles in London, 551 
Girls, young, as flag-sellers, 494 
Glasgow: art club, 265; cathedral, 

174 : master masons' .issociation, 132 
Class: plate, 154; regulations, electric 

lamp, 282; sUined, 203, 216, 249 
Gleave, Capt. H. M., the late, 263 
Glenariff, church at, 308 
Gloucestershire, row of almhouscs, 109 
Godwin, Capt. D. F.. the late, 308 
Gold medal, royal institute of British 

architects', presented to M. Henr. 

Nenot, 549 
Golden square, 472 

Good: lighting, fundamental prin- 
ciples of, 306; work done by the 

imperial arts league, 90, 374 
Ootch, Capt. R. M., the late, 429 
Ooupil gall»r]', 474 

Government: building in New South 
Wales, 194; departments' methods, 
113; expenditure, 353: housing the, 
•287; inspection of picture galleries, 
158; offices, hired or reiiuisitioned, 

Grammar scliool, Stockport, 194, 200, 

Grange great barn, Alciston, Sussex, 

Granite blocks, joint fillers for, 2S5 
Graphic art, royal academy wmtsc 

exhibition of, 1, 51 
Gravers, painters, and sculptors 

international society of, 615 
Great Ponton church, 20 
Gretna, new churches at, 410 
Guestimate and jestimate, 734 

HAGUEt -^li'. Anderson, the late, 17 
Uall : city. New York (clock tower) 
.5:S4; furniture, entrance. 128; of 
fame, Canadian, 265 
Hampshire, Lord Wandsworth insti- 
tution, 396, 429 
Harpur, Mr. W., the late. 492 
Harr.>g.ate, St. Wilfrid's church, 456 
Health : housing and. Lord Rhoiidda 
on, 516; public, 240 (institute of, 
royal, 371 (ministry of) 472; ser- 
vice (Philippine) 491 
Heat, transmission through .window- 
sashes, 2-26 
Heating a porous house, 87 
Heathman's telescopic ladders, 69 
Henman, F.R.I.B.A., Mr. W., the 

late, '260 
Henri, Paul, Nenot, gold medalhst, 

180, 201 
Henrf James memorial, 198 
Heraidry, effect of the war on, 133 
High Holborn, detail of new 

premises, 109 
Highways and byways, 160 
Hinderto-n, Chesliire, .house at, 282, 

Holdina power of nails, 47 
Home, »ar memorials in the, 311 
Homestead as.?ocJation, 533 
Honours, birthday, 473 
Horyuji .is a masterpiece of art, 390 
Hospital. St. George's, Hyde Park 

Corner, 509 
Hospitals, smallpox, 353 
Hostel, Star and Garter. 155 
Hotel: de la cie g^n^nale transatlan- 
tique and la nationale assurance 
offices, Paris, 292; Meurice, Paris, 
House : Abbot's, Muchelney .\bbey, 282 ; 
architect's, 128; builders, national 
federation of, 390; building (finan- 
cial help and) 453 (property mar- 
ket and) 333; country (Wiltshire) 
489; famine, 307; for boys, Lord 
Wandsworth's, Hampsjiire, 369, 4'29 ; 
furnished, law of, 1; Hinderton 
(Cheshire), 282, 349; ideal, 23; 
painters, 199; Parliament (Aus- 
tralian) 131; porous, beating, 87; 
private, in France (interior) 327; 
Queen's, Kingsway, W.C, 292; 
refuse, delay in removal, 133 
Houses: at Binnend, 242; demolitiou 
of, 413; dwelling, and muniition 
firms, 199; for military occupation, 
493; in China, 1.32; repairs ot, 49; 
shortage of, 69, 113, 198, 221, 265, 
267, 289, 333 
Housing: alter the war (Wales) 433; 
Americana and, 474; and develop- 
ment association (WelsW 472; and 
Town-planning Act, 90; conference, 
(Edinburgh, 491; difficulty, 611; 
government department, 287 ; indus- 
trial. 240; problem, 157. 531 
(national) 491; scheme:; (.\von- 
moutb) '246 (town-planning and) 
309 393 
Howell, Lieut. W. A., the late, 46 

ICE in water mains, 47 

Iced London, 71 

Ideal house, 23 

Increase of railway fares, 21 

Imiwrial: arts league, good work 
done by, 90, 374; institute, 351 

Improvements. Delhi, 265 

Income tax, 533 

India: modern architecture in, 153, 
172. 242 : Queen's message to the 
women of, 414; town-planning in, 

Industrial and commercial prosperity 
after the war, 68; conditions, 
future, 136; housing, 240 

Industries' fair, British, 179 

Industry, slate, 198 

Inn, ancient, 351 

Inquiry, royal commission, 333 

Inspection of meat, 221 

Institute : archseological (America) 
174; architects (American) 51, 221, 
393 (British royal) 86, 375, 391, 511 
549 (Ireland) ' 174 (royal Victorian) 
451 architectural (Canada, royal) 
491 (scale of charges) 633, 550; 
builders', 292: imperial, 351; 
painters ;n water-colour (royal) in- 
spection of galleries by the gov- 
ernment, 158 ; public health, 371 ; 
Scottish arcliitects', 493, 496 

Iu.stitution : Lord Wandsworth's, 
Hiints, 369, 429; municipal and 
county engineers', installation of 
president, 534; of civil eng neers. 
243; surveyors', 135, 152, 243, 432, 
430, 476, 509 (building prize) 491; 
water engineers, 451 

Insurance: fire, 170, with German 
firms, 69 

Interior: in Paris, 319; of private 
house, France, 327 

International society ot sculptors, 
painters and gravers, 515 

Inventors' patents, 113 

lona, picture of, 472 

Ireland: architects of, royal institute 
of, 174, 532; architectural associa- 
tion ot, 68, 174, 286, 350, 391 

Irish materials, exhibition of, 221 

Italian orders of architecture, 431 

Italy, my six months' travel in, 73 

JADE. 492 

J:)mes Smith memorial, Wallasey, 

Jersey, Trinity Manor, 396 
Jesmond builder's affairs, 90 
Jest'mate and guestimate, 374 
Johnson, Capt. Kouald Lindsay, the 

late, 536 
Joint fillers for granite blocks, 285 
Jury methods, 71 

KELLY, C.E., Mr. G. J. S., the late, 

Kesteven, Baron, memorial to the 
late, 409 

King V. Hampstead borough council, 

King Edw-ard VII. school of art, New- 
castle, 509 

Kingsway, new business premises, 
150, 292 

Kitchen: boiler explosion, 114; plan- 
ning, 434 

Kydd, Sec. Lt. W. S., the late, 492 

LADDERS, Heathman's telescopic, 

Lamp : glass regulations, electric, 282 
Laud surveyors, Britsll Columb-a, 2C5 
Lanerco.-t church, memorial in, 71 
Laon cathedral, 309 
Largest chimney in the world, 631 
Latham, Mr. B., the late. 265 
Law : Canadian, of builders' privi- 
lege, 449 ; courts, and shabby road- 
way. 354 ; furnished lodgings or 
house, 1; property, 393 
Lead, sale of. 133 
League, imperial arts, good work by, 

90, 374 
Leaves from the life of the late W. 

U. Lynn, R.H.A., 169 
Leaving certificates, 331 
Lecture-rooms, building, 239 
Lecturing, " Somewhere in France." 

Legal qualification. Quebec archi- 

te(fts' demand. 52 
Leicester. Prudential buildings, 456 
Leicestershire, county council offices, 

Libel: action, Ruberoid, 110; suit, 

lord mayor of London's, 511. 532 
Liberty, Sir X, L., the late. 429 
Library : facade. Cardiff university 
college. 449 : Momingside, Edin- 
burgh, 128; Stafford free, 327 
Licence: petrol, 242; wood. 243 
Licences to builders, limitation of, 

Life ot W. H. Lynn, leaves from the, 

Light and air dispute. 132 
Lighting: flood. 270; fundamental 

princples of good, 305 
Liquid air. blasting with. 265 
Line: engraving, etchings, and, 198; 

Euston road, building" 90 
Lists, valuation, county of London, 

Little. Mr. John, the late, 371 
Littlecourt: Farthingstone, North- 
amptonshire. 516 
Liverpool: archJtectural society, 370: 

autumn exhibition, 47 
Living in the city. 50 
Loans, new war. 72 : of pictures to 
colonial and provincial galleries. 
Lockwood's builders* and contractors' 

prize book. 132 
Lodge, presdent. Queens' college, 

Oambs., restop.ation of. 429 
Lodgings, furnished, law relating to, 

London, after the war. 392 ; associa- 
tion of ma.ster decorators. 286; 
building acts. 390 : county council. 
227. 248, 392 (printing anij) 451 
(school buildings) 330; fogs in. 1; 
Germaji tentacles in. 551; tower of, 
cracks in buildings. 551 : 'ced. 71 ; 
main drainage system of, 117: of 
■the future. 473: port of. authority, 
287 ; society, 241 ; tower of, ar- 
mouries of the, 173; university of. 
531 ; valuation lists. 290 
Lonefield: cottage at. 109; poultry 

farmhouse at, 46 
Lord Rhondda, 513; on bousing and 

health, 616 
Lottery, art, 409 


Supplement to the 
BuiLniNG NKwa, July 11, 1917. 


Luckley, Wokingham, Btrksliire, 4:i9 
Ludlow, staircase of the "Header's" 

house. 238 
Luxurious di;corations in war-time, 

Lymi, the late W. H., leaves (roiu 

thr life of, 159 

MACAULAY, the late Major Henry, 


Machinery, dredging, receJit progress 

in, 52 
Mahogany, 287 

Main dritmase system of London, Ih 

jMaiiis. water, freezing of, 173 

Manchester: art. t'allory, 453; rathe- 

(Iral, bishop's throne, 34'J; housc- 

buildinj! in, 47; ollicers' (memorial) 

131; pictures lor, 223; society ol 

architectKS, 08 , , 

Manger uit Ik'thlehem, German plioto- 

graph of, 20 
Maniaees easrtle, Sdoily (gateway) 309 
Manor: Trinity (Jersey) 3W;; Upton 

Grey (llimts) 450 
:Manu1acture, liritish, 223 
Marsh-I'liillips, Mr. L., the late, 130 
JIares'-nests. Anders of, 48 
Market ; property (and house buil<l- 
ing) 35:i (effect of war conditions 
on) 330, 355 
Martin. Ueut. W. G., the late, 112 
Master ixiinters' association, Scot- 
land, no 
Masterpiece of art, Mie Horyuji as a, 

Material, artificial stone, 48 
Materials, building, 72 
Maxim. William, the late. 30S 
M.-:inin.g of Acts of Parliament, 201 
Sleasures, weights, and currency re- 
form, 110 
Measuring device for varying concrete 

proportions, 194 
Meat, inslH'ction of, 221 
Medal : award of royal gold, to . 
Frini-h :irehLt-ect. U3, 157 (pre-' 
s.iif.ation of) .'i49 
Muihils. designs for (competition) 510 
.\bdiieval construction, amilysis of, 

Members of the R.I.B.A. serving with 
the forces, 176 

Memorial : All Hallows (Tottenham) 
4-'ll; Canon Winter (Kllaml) 409: 
cliap.l (Windermere) 371 : llenry 
Janus. 19S; James Suiiith (Wjil- 
la.sev) 109; Lanereost ehurch( 71; 
ol<l boys (Marlborough college) 371; 
Scions. Capt., the late. 173; -tarn- 
ford war-shrine. 210; tablet, curious 
disimtc, .371; -war, a worthy, 130, 175, 
198; window (Ix>ngside church) 249 

Memorials : erection of war. 4.32 ; Lord 
Kcsteven. the late, 409; MancJiesUr 
ollliers'. 131; to soldiers, 472; war, 
i]i Uio home. 311 

Messiige. (Jueen's, to the women of 
IjKlia. 432 

Metr.>poIitan water board v. Mesfrs. 
Diek. Kerr and" Co.. Lt<l., Sll 

M,-Z7,<.tints. 242 , ■ ,„„ 

Military: oceupatJon. houses for, 493; 
stupidity. 245 

Miniatures and snuff-boxes, exliibl- 
tion of. 331 

Minis-try : of nvuiiit.!on«. 220 ; of pnlil.c 
health, 472 

Misunderstanding, some. 490 

MJteham. Rl . Hnrnal>as ehurcli. 489 

M'l^eod. Sec. T,t. J. A.. tJie late, 410 

Modern : architecture ill Imlia. l-*»8. 
172: fireproof construction. 182 

Morris. I'aul W.. tJie late. 40 

Moses, Kzekiel. the late. 308 

Motor truck, transportation by. 434 

AMuchelncy abbey, Somersetshire, ab- 
bot's house. 282 

.Municipal: buildings, Arbour square. 
Stepney, E., 109 

Munition firms and dwelling-houses, 

Munitions, min'etry of. 220. 492 

Mural painting, plea for. 469 

Museum: liritish. 48: folk. 4:tO ; St. 
Quentin. 311 : Victoria and Albert 
fpr<-M'ntation to) 49 (sculptured 
panels in the arcliivolt of the) 549 ; 
war. 180. 267 

Museums, German, and their spoils. 

Mussoorie. India, dispensary. 172 

NAILS, holdiig power of, 47 

Num.,- Itegistration Act, business, 
179. 198, 200 

National; academy of deslcn. 491; 
federation (of liouse builders) :190 
(property owners and ratrpayers) 
551: gallery. 1.S3, 309. .112: housing 
problem, 491 : painters' and decora- 
tors' council, 287; portrait society. 
3.'i4 ; service. 224 (architects and) 
?41. 245. 371 ; society of art mas- 
ters. 47; war memorial. l.'W. 176. 

Native timber, use of, 240 

N^not. Henri Paul, gold mc<la11ist. 
190. 201. BSl 

Ne*its. mares', finders of, 49 

New: buildings, escape from fire. 471; 
postal scheme. 242; South Wales 
government buildings, 194 

New York: clock tower, city hall. 
534 : registration of architects, 533 

Newcastle to Carlisle, Koman «all 

from, 05 
Newport, Co. Jfayo, new church, 460 
Noble. Mr. J{., the late, 432 
Norfolk archmological society, 512 
North Wales, convalescent home. 

Beganwy. :j27 
Northern architectural association, 

Notes: American cement plant prac- 
tice, 217; contract and contracts, 
].)7; one-pound, new, 68; Parlia. 
tary, 174, 198, 242, 204, 287, 332 409 
Nottingham and Derby arbhXectural 
society, 220, 391 

OBITUARY: Hall, Mr. \V., 197; Bar- 
ker. Mr. K. H.. 131; Baron. Mdme. 
Helen, 19: liarratt, Mr. K., 153- 
liatsford, .\fr. H., 65: Biggart, Mr 
A. S., :i89; lilanc, K.S.A.. Mr. H J 
24( ., .Mr. C. U ''88- 
Bi'elmor, iMr. T., 372: Brown, Mr! 
I'. J.. 432; Bucliton, Capt. A. S., 
432: ButterwortJi, Mr. A. S., 392- 
Ciiileiidn-. Lieut. G W.. S60; Car- 
niKlKiel. J. p.. Mr, J.. 196: Casebv, 
bee.-Lt W. ]{.. 410 ; !Mr. J. Colfins, 
o; Collcutt, Lieut. P. M. B., 451- 
Collier. Sec-Lieut. U. de Zoete! 
350; Colvin, Capt. iR. A,, 432- 
Crawford, Sec.-Licnt. W. S , 369 ■ De 
-Morgan, Mr. W. Krend, 'sO; 
Denhani, Capt., 389; Dick, Mr. 
Robert, 652; Dictnchson, Prof. L 
227; Driscoll, Bombardier W. T ' 
419; Duiikeld, -Japper I!.. :74- Fer- 
guson, Afr J., ]8:i; Oeddcs, Major 
Alistair, C.B., 430; Cleave, Capt. 
11. M., 283; Godwin, Capt. D. F 
308; Gotcll, Cajit. R. M. 429' 
Hague, ..Mr, A.. IV. Uarpur, Mr. 
»., 492; Henman, F.R.I.U.A.. Mr 
W., -20(1; Hob.-oii. Mr. O. A II"- 
How,Hrd, Sir .lolin. .'iOO; Howell', 
Sec.-Licut. N. A., 4ii; Johnson, 
Oapt. Ronald Lindsay. R.p.A. 530- 
Kelly, C.K., Mr. G. J.' S., 536; Kydd', 
Se«.-Lieut. W. S., 492; Luke. Pri- 
vate C, 551; Latham, Mr. Baldwin, 
265; Liberty. Sir Arthur I asenbv, 
429: I^we. Mr. T.. 17; Lyons, Sir 
Joseph, 6.52 ; M;i.iaulv, Major Henry, 
350; ^^a^sh-Phillips, Mr. Lisle, 131; 
-Martin. Lieut. W. G., 112- 

".LlttlieWS, >fr, 11. 1),^ r,rj^. JI„xi„,' 

William, 308; IW'Unid. Sec-Lieut. 
John K.. 410; Morris. Paul W., 46; 
Moses. Kzekiel, 308; Noble, Mr, R., 
432; O'Connor. Mr. J., 48; O'Moara, 
Sec.-Liejt. L A , 100 : Peach. Lieut. 
C. S., 392; Pryce. Mr. T. E., 530; 
Robson. .Mr. E. R., 87; Russell, 
Sapper R., 390; SencKiil, Jlr. J. A., 
410; Shears, .Mr. W., 287; Smith, 
Mrs. Catherine, 550; Spiers, Jlr. 
W. L.. 492; Stath.xm. Lieut. N. H., 
190; 'tiwiirt. Licut.-Col. W. \V.. 
451; Sweliey. Mr. E.. 91; Talbot. 
Itrs. Fannv, 551; Talbot, Capt. 
L. L., 492; Talbot, Mr. C, H,. 17; 
Thompson. Mr. G.. 200; Townsend. 
Mr. H. M.. 470; Tvsoe. ?ec.-Licut. 
L., 530: Ward. Mr. W. H., 260: 
Ware, Mr. W. R.. 451; Waterhousc. 
R.A., .Mr. J. W.. l:-,0; Weale. Mr. 
W. H., 391 : WesKake, Lieut. J. H., 
650; &ec. -Lieut. 
(L. S., 332; Willett, Mr. H. W., 
4.32; Willoughbv, Mr H.. 530; Wil- 
son. Mr. 0. M., 283; Wood, Mr. 
J. F,, 131, Wyatt-Papworth, Sec,- 
l.ieut. A,, 350 ; Yoimi;, Right Hon. 
R.. 86. 

(D.ik chair, cin'od, 4il4 

Objector, conscientious. 210 

Occupation, houses for militarv, 493 

O'Connor. .Mr, J,, the bite. ■:8 

Oincers: Memorial. 'Mancliestcr, 131 

OHlccs: County Council (fieicester, 
shire) 489; Government. hire<l or 
rer]i:isitioncd, 331; new Dtj.piirt-i.i.'iit 
Ol Eduoatinn (S.vdney) 1:1:1) 

Old: boys' me:norial. Marlborough 
College, 371 ; Devon chur'-Iies, some 
more, 181 ■ furniture, romance of. 
263; pe*ker, 221; widnut e*binets 
and chairs, 238 

One-pound notes, new, 6? 

Open-air scho<drv>oma, 18 

Ornamental stones of' Australia, 
building an.l. 489 

Ovcrdoor embellishments and iianels. 

Overhead wires. Scottish Arts Club 
and, 241 

Oxford studies, 29J 

PAINT, sale and use ol. .392 

Piiinters: and decorators' conn-'il 
( •28;'. Association. Master. 
110; booklet for. 114; house. 197: in 
water-colour4 (Roval Institute of) 
158 (Royal Society of) 354 (Scottish) 
'263 : Sculptors and Graincjs, Inter- 
national Society of, 516 

Painlin,;: Canterbury cathedral (in 
apse) 470 ; mural, a" plei for. 4(.9 

Palmer, Mr. P. H installation as 
President of the Municipal and 
County Engineers, .534 

Panels: overdoor embellishments and. 
416; sculptured, in the archivolt, 
Vicioria .and Albert Mufic-jui, Soutn 
Kensington, 649 

January to June, 1917. 

Paper: restriction, 179; shortage, 287; 

supply, 201 
Paris: Banipie Dreyfus, 200; Hotel de 
la cie. generale trans;itlantique and 
la nationale assurance olllces 292- 
intcrior for Messrs. Maple .-nd Co, 
S49; new Sorbonne, 210, 309; 8t. 
Germain, D'Auxerrois and Pont 
Neul. 389 
Park Stowell. Gloucest«rsliire, 389 
Parlws, public, growing food in, 60 
Parliamentary notes, 174, 198, 242, 264, 

House. .\u6tr;ilian. 131 
Parliamentary notes, 174, 198. 242. 264 

287. 33;!. 4'J3 
Patents, inventors and, 113 
Paving: company, Vil de Travers 
iisplialte, meeting of the, 831 ; ex- 
periment, wood. 1«C 
Peach, Lieut. C. S,. t/hc late. 392 
Perfect dwelling at last. 248 
Peterborough cathedral, 243 
Petrograd, 289 
Petrol licence, 242 
Petroleum, storing, 334 
Pews in churches, 3'i9 
Pewter, old. 221 
Philii.piue health service, 491 
Photograpli of mingcr at Bethlehem, 

a Germ in, 20 
Photographs Royal Academy and, 170 
Picture : galleries. Government inspec- 
tion of, 158; of lona, 472 
Pictures: collecticn of (Manchester) 
223, 453; famous, destroyed by fire, 
154; loan of. to Colonial and pro- 
vincial galleries, 19; sale of, 164; 
scnools, 631 
Piecework in the building trade, 4.56 
Piers, bridge, 514 
Planning, kitchen, -134 
Planting trees, 361 

Plaster: and stucco construction, 
durability of, .8; effects of, in 
ouildings, 450 
Plate glass, 154 
Playgotrs' Club, 513 
Plot an.t:;es, how to, 227 
Poland and Polish art, 327 
Pimte S, .Vngelo and Costello. Rome, 

Porkcss Lieut. D. A., the late, 371 
Porous Iionse. heating a, 87 
Port of I<ondon Authority. 287 
PortUind cement. :'01 
Portrait Society, National, 354 
l'ost<al scheme, new, 242 
Poster advcrtisemenlo;. 242 
Potter's P-ar, Mxldlestx, church of 

St. Mary and All Saints, 309 
Pottery: Roman, evolution of, 203; 

tilework and c<illfcction, 267 
Power : holding, of nails, 47 ; supply, 

electric. 245 
'M-actical sanitation, 154 
Preniises: business, new, Kingsway, 
150; new. High Holborn, 109 
(.Messrs. John Reeks, Ltd . Guild- 
ford), 40 
Presentation to the Victora and 

•Albert Museum. 48 
Preservation ot St. Paul'e Catlicdral, 

Prices: timber, 297; war, tOO 
Principles: good lighting, funda- 
mental. 303; of reinforced concrete 
design, 3; of .•etsiining waPs. <'esign 
of, Ir'S 
Printing, London County tlouncil, 461 
Private: enterprise, failure of, 114; 

house in France, interior. 327 
Privilege, builders' Ciuuidian law of, 

Problem: bousing 20 ISi", 531; of the 
smnli dwelling, -184. jl.l. i.'.O, 474, 
489. 494, 500. 514, 516. 534, 560 
Problems, tuberculosis, 107 
Pixiducts, clay, in engineering con- 
struction. 3:10 
Prollts, gas, 264 
Progress recent, in dr«>dging 

maohincry, 52 
Property: laws, regarding, 393: 
m.arket (house building and) .333 
(war conditions ujion flic) 3.16, 355 : 
of OMuers, 651; National Federa- 
tion Owners' .\ssoeiation, 95, 463, 
473; tax, 651 
Proportions, varying concrete, me-i- device for, 194 
Prosperity, commercial :ind indus- 
trial, after tlie war, 68 
Protection : for freshlv-laid concrete 
90 ; of ancient buildings, society for, 
Prudential Assurance Company, 221 

(buildiiigs-^I/eicester) 466 
Prvce. Mr, T. E,. the late. 530 
Public: health, 2S9 'ministry of) 472; 
wash-houses (Edinburgh) 178, 191: 
works dep.artnicnt. New South 
Wales, S94 
Piiiley, cast-iron, .'epairing. 76 
Pu.sli on ! keep moving, 22 
Pushi-s on. Arcbitcctur.1l .Association. 

QUARRIES, stone, control of. 414 

(jiulii'i architects demand legal 

c|Ua,illi.ition, .52 

Queens' College. Cambs., ivstorati'Hi 

of tne Ptesident's lodge 429 
Queen's house, Kingsway, 292 
Quicklimi, expansion of, 30) 

.\,nS,'U '*""'• *"'~'»^^ 
Rates, water, 133 
I'.ealni, defence of the. Act, some 

notes on the, 138 
Ria.-.on.iljle complaint, 249 
Recuperation after war, ccouomic. 

Red Cross detachment, architectural 

association, 198 
Redcote, Ha-lemere, Surrey, 449 
Refuse, house, .Ulay in removal, 133 
Registration: Act. business names, 

\'^\y^h.,~'^' °* architects (New 
i ork) 533 

Regulations: building. 245; Defence 
of the Realms, 531; timber, 135 

Reinforced : concrete. >«i, 95, 128, 162, 
308, 328 (fundamental [.rjnciples of) 
3 (ship construction) 197 (imder Urc) 

Reinforcement, road, 394 

Rents be doubled'.' should, 19; 

Reorganisation, tramways, 172 

Repairing covenants, 135; cast-iron 
pulleys, 176 

Repopulation of our rural districts, 

Report, annual, of the surveyors' in- 
stitution, 476 

Reredos, new. Ksclusham church, 
Wrexham, 516 

Reservoir, wall, fixing a scour valve 
in a, 220 - ■ 

Residence, Yardley Wood, Birming- 
ham, 224 

Restrictions, paper, 179 

Restaurant and theatre. Criterion, 

Restoration of the president's lodge. 

Queens' College. Cambridge. 429 
Reta iiing walls, principles for design 

of„ 175 
Reviews: April Town Planning Re- 
view. 531; Berger's .Mcrciry, 493; 
BritiiJh Reinfort-eil Concrete, 414; 
Calculations ot Steel Frame Struc- 
tures, 809; Canadian Mining Jour- 
nal, 4i)-i; Commcrciril Photogmphy, 
474; Electrical Engineering Prac- 
tice, 511; Holiday in I'mbria, 268; 
How to do Business -with Russia, 
511; Laxton's Price Book, 1917, 287; 
l/ockwood's liuilders' and Con- 
tractors' Price ilook. 132, Manual 
of Reinftvrce<i -Concrete. 265: 
" News Sheet," Bribery and Secret 
Commissions Prevention League, 
.311 ; Pr.actical 6anit!ition, 164 ; 6t. 
Paul's Eeclesiologic;il Society, 
transa<:tions of, ^0!i; Vegetable Cul- 
ture for all .351; Wl'IsIi hoiusing 
and develojiment Year Book, 114 
Rhondda, I,.ord, 513 (on bousing and 

health) 516 
River liaiiks. upkeep of, 33-1 
Road reinforcement. 394 
Roadmen, company of, 243 
Roads, concrete, 451 
Roadway, shabby. Law Courts, SSI 
Robson. .Mr. E. R,, the late, '87 
Rogers. Captain L. N.. the late. 371 
Roll of honour, London County Coun- 
cil, 308 
Roman: pottery, evolution of, 263; 
wall from Newcastle to Carlisle, 
Romance of old furniture. 263 
Rome : 511 ; Castt-flo ami Ponte S, 

Ancelo. 349 
Rliohng and wallpaper from waste 

tanbark. making, 17 
Rooms: open-air school, 18; safes and 

strong (John Tann's), 89 
Rouen, Rue Damiette, 327 
Row of almshouses. Marsbfleld, 

Gloucestershire, 109 
Royal: Academy. 392, 414 (architec- 
ture at) 394 (exhibitions) I. 61, 179. 
182 (Scottish) 176. 394. architectural 
institute of Canada. 491 ; Cambrian 
academy of art. 472; commission 
inquiry, 333; cremation. 245; draw- 
ing society, 69; exchange, Edin- 
burgh (chininev-picce) 369; instUute 
(British architects). S6, 375. 391. 511, 
549 (painters in water-colours) l.'-r; 
society (British artists'), 246 (pain- 
ters in water-colours) 364 ; A'l-rtorian 
instituto of architects. 451 ; Rube- 
roid -libel action. 110 
Rue Damiette, Rouen. 327 
Ruhleben, art in. 19S 
Rural districts, rcpopulatiou of, 60 
Russell. Sapper R,, 390 

SAINT: Barnabas (MiUftam) 489; 
Catherine (Ncasden) 64, 260; Ger- 
main d' \ii,\errois. et Pont Neuf. 
Paris. 3.S9: Ouist's (doorway) 73; 
Mary and All Saints (Potters Bar) 
369; Mary's (Shrewsbury) 170; 
Nicholas Cole Abbey. 331; Paul's 
Cathedral. 308; Quentin (museum) 
311; Wilfrid's (Harrogate) 456 
Salary: surveyors', 72 (St, Ives) 513 
Sale: and use of paint, 392: of lead, 

133: or of spelter, 287 
Sanatorium benefit, 353 . / 

Sand, cubic foot of, determinatiOD' 
ot weight per, 490 

January to June, 1917. 


SitppUment to the 
BriLDiNo Nhws, July 11, 1917. 

Scale of charges, R.I.B.A.'s, 633, 5M 

Scavenging, 113 

Scheme: Avonnwuth housing, 240; 
housing and town-planning, 309: 
tonn-plann:ng. East Birmingham, 

School: .lit, Birmingham. 392; bulla- 
m"s London county, 330; new gram-, Stockport, i'Ji. 200; pictured. 
531; rooms, open-air, 18; •'strike. 
Burston, Norfolk, 450 
Schools: architectural, in war time. 

550; technical regulaliPls, 243 
Science: experimental luililing, 4.50; 

of buiklins. elemeniS of, 271 
Scientific worker, v^'i'e o' arawin^s 

to the, 112 
Scotland: housing problem in, 20; 

surveyors of, ^.^0 
Scottish: academy (royal) 263, 394; 
architects, institut* of, 493, 490; 
Ecclesiologic' society, 263; painters 
in water-colours, 263 
Scour valve, fixing in a. reservoir 

wall. KO 
Sculp^jrs, painters, and gravers, in- 

t>-rnationaI society of, 515 
sculpture: 208; exhibition, war-time. 

Sculptured panels, archivolt, A'ic- 
toria and .\lbert museum. South 
Kensington, . 549 
Sea : tests of concrete in the, 331 ; 
water, tests of concrete specimens 
in, at Boston navy yard, 65 
Seats, free, in churches, 409 
Selous, the late Capt., memorial, 173 
Senecal, Mr. J. A., the late, 410 
Senefelder club, 69, 95 
Service: architects and national, 241. 
■ 245, 371 : for national, 224 
Shabby roadway. Law Courts, 354 
Shears. Mr. W., the late, 287 
Sheffield society of architects, 391 
Shelters for consumption, 47 
Ship construction, reinforced con- 
crete, 195 
Ships, concrete, 450 
Shortase: houses, 09. 11,3, 198. 221, 
265, 267, 290: paper, 287: soft wood, 
351 : working-class dwellings, 513 
Shrewsbury, St. Mary's church, 176 
Shutters, raise the, 224 
Sicily, gateway of Maniaces castle, 

Sketches in France, 12S 
Skylines, balustrades as, 471 
Slab, dellection and subsidence of 

column supports, 24 
Slack, coal, concreting of, 551 
Slate industry, 198 

Slump in company promoting, 1.15 

Small dwellings, problem of, 434, 4.54. 
4.50. 471. ISO, 509, 514. 516. .534, 

Smallpox hospitals. 3.53 

Smethwick old church, 351 

Snuff-boxes and miniatures, exhibition 
of, 331 

Society: .\ntiquaries, 451: architec- 
tural (Devon and Exeter) 314 
(Derby) 220 (Nottingham and ■Liver- 
pool) 370; architects, 309 (South 
,\fr{can branch) 170; artists (Brit- 
ish) 246, (women, exhibition) 176: 
civil engineers' (Canadian) 287; Lon- 
don, 512; national portrait, 354; 
qjainti-rs in water-colouns (Koyal) 
354; protection of ancient build- 
ings, 331; sculpture, painters, and 
gravers, 515 

Sii.ft wood, sfliort.age of, 351 

Sails, bure.-.u of. U.S.. Ill 

Soldiers: bazaar, builders and the 
blinded. 280, 409: memorials to. 472 

Somersetshire, abbott's house, Mu- 
chelney abbey. 282 

" Somewhere in France," lecturing, 

Sorbonne, the. new, Paris, 216, 309 

South: African branch of society of 
architects, 17; Kens'ngton, Victoria 
an(d Alberts museum (Sculptured 
panels) 549 ; Wales, university col- 
lege of, 109 

Spain, bridge (Manresa) 172 

Spelter, sale or purchase of, 287 

Spiers, Mr. W. L^ the late, 492 

Spoils, German mu.seums and, 354 

Stafford free library, 327 

Stained glass, 203, 210, 249 

Staircase of the '* Reader's " hous.*. 
Ludlow, 238 

Stamford, war memorial, 210 

Star and Garter hostel. 155 

Statham. the late Lieut. N. H.. 19S 

Statues, scraping, 208 

Steel, high itensile, v. mild, for rein- 
forced concrete, 221 

Stewart, Lt.-Col. W. W., the late. 451 

Stockport, new grammar school, 194, 
260. 389 

Stone : and concrete foundations. 
282; material, artificial, 48; quar- 
ries, control of, 414 

Stonehenge, 111 

Stones, ornamental, of Australia. 
building and. 4,89 

storage within building, special form 
supiiorts provide. 516 

Storing, petroleum. :i34 

Story of Lord Cromer, 132 

Stowell park, Gloucestershire, 380 

Strikes, compulsory arbitration and. 

Structural design. 247 

Structures, resistance of, testng, 265 

Stucco and plaster construction, 
durability of. 18 

Studies, Oxford, 292 

Stupidity, military, 245 

Styles, architectural, control of. 48 

Subsidence, of column supi>orts, and 
slab defection. 24 

Sun Temple. Mesa Verde national 
park, repair of, 09 

Supplies, timber, 472 

Supply, food. 243; paper, 201; power, 
electric, 345 ; water work, in 
Western Australia, 328 

Surrey, Ardenrun, 396 

Surveyor : and auctioneers' clerks. 
241; duties of a, 349; St. Ives 
(salary of) 513 

Surveyors: in.stitution. 135. 1.52. 243, 
432, 436. 470. 509; laud (British 
Columbia) 205: London county 
council. 90, 392: of Scotl:>.nd. 220'; 
salary, 72 

Supports, special form, provide .stor- 
age within building. 516 

Sweney. 5tr. E., 91 

Sydney, lu-w ofllces. department of 
education, 260 

TABLET, memorial, curious <lisp itc. 

T.ilbot. Capt. L. L., (he l:it«, •!02 
T.dbof, .Mr. C. H., the late, 17 
Tanb;irk, making roofiii-j :inil 

wallpaper Irom, 17 
Tami.s. .John, s'afes, door, and strong 

rooms, 89 
'r;ix, income, 533 (propertv) .551 
Teaching of building, 198 
Technical schools, revision of regula- 
tions for, 243 
Tele-^copic la-dders, Heatliman's. 09 
Temple, Sun, 'Meso Verde national 

|v\rk, rei>air of, 09 
Tentacles, -Gennan an Txunlon. 551 
Testing resistance o-l' stru tureti. 265 
Tests: in seji-water, concrete, 331; of 

concrete apeeimens in >-.ea water at 

Boston Navy Yard, 05 
Thames water, 491 
nieatre, aivliitect and the, 138 

Theatrical ardhitect's ch.arges dis- 
puted, 551 

Tliompson, Mr. G., the late, 260 

TMe, column form, 285 

Tilework and pottery, collection of, 

Timbei': claim, 331; decay, an<l its 
growing importance to the engineer 
and architect, 529; liome-growii, 
205; prices, 287; soft-sawn, control 
of, 133, 135, 170, 198, 207, supplier. 
472; use of native, 240 

Timbers, decay of building, 112. 242 

Tower: clock, C'ty Hall, New York. 
534; of f/>ndon (armouries of the) 
173 (cracks in the buildings) 551 

Towers of Cornwall, old, 264 

Town-pliannjng : 373, .3f>3: Act, housing 
and, 90, 221; in India, 307; scheme. 
309 (East Birmingham) 290 

Trade cori'onation, Eritisl), 454 

Traffic, extraordinary. 373 

Transmission, heat, through window 
sadies, 226 

Tramway centre (Manchester) 135 

Tr.iniways reorgani.s..tion, 172 

Tr;ins])ortatioa by motor tru:-k. 4:U 

Travels, my six months in Italy. 73 

Trees: in Canada. 432: jilanti'iig. .'i.)! 

Trinity Manor, .Jersey, '-i^ii 

Truck, motor transportation by. 4::4 

TubereulosLs jii-oljlems. 197 

Tungsten fil;i.-nent, 290 

Tunnei, ClKinnel, 472 

Tunnels, railway, 22 

Type, use of small, in safe .notice. 490 

Tysoe, S'ec.-Lieut. L., the late, .5.30 

UNEARTHED, buried city, 493 
L'nion Jack Club, Waterloo lir^u^i 

Road, 396 
I'nity of the (Empire, 94 
L^niversitv: College, Cardift', lilirar\ 

facade, 449 CSouth Wales) 109 
I'nlicensod building work, 2(i3 
Upkeep of river banks, 334 
Upton Grey Manor (Hant«) 45C 
U.S.: 'building operations in. 268: 

bureau o*" soils. 111 

VAL de Travel's Asplialte Paving 
Company, meeting of, 331 

Valuation lists. County of Loudon, 290 

Valve, scour, fi.xing in a reservoir 
wall, 220 

Venice, dressniiikere' balcony, 150 

Vicar's curious claim, 68 

Victoria and .\lbert Museum (pre- 
sentation to) 48 (sculptured panels 
in archivolt) 549 

WALES: housing, after the war, 43:); 
XortJh, Deg-amvy convalescent .home. 
:iJ7; South (Univtr.sitv College)-. 1I19 

Walker art gallery. 392, 409 

WaP. Romsin, from Newcastle to Car- 
lisle, 65 

\\'alla.sey. Cheshire, James Smith 
niemorial, 109 

Wallpaper and roofing, niaking from 
w;u9te t^anbark. 17 

Willis, retaining, iirimiples for <lesign 
of, 476 

Walnut caihinets. 'pair of old, and up- 
holstered chairs. 23S 

VVa.sHiliouses, public (Edinburgh) 172,- 

War: bonus, 511; bonuses, railway 
.■tail's. XU: Iniildiing. :ilter the, 311 
(during the) 409, 433; economic re- 
cuiivration after, 201; effects of the. 
on heraldry, 133; loan, new, 72; 
London after the, 392; luxurious 
decorations during 371 ; materials, 
491 ; memorial (.411 H:illows, Tot- 
teniham), 429 (erection of) 415 
(wOTthy) 136, 175, TOO ; memoriajs in 

the home, 3U; museum, 180, 207; 
olfice claim, 432; prices, 390; jiro- 
perty market and efleets of,' ;(.'«i. 
355 ; savings associatioui 158 ; time 
(bribery) 356 (architectural schools 
in) 560; waste, 93; work, Austrahaii 
car])enters for, 391 

Ward, Mr. H. W., the late, 200 

W:ire. .Mr. W. R., the late. 451 

War-time sculpture exhibition, 159 

Waste of wrong employment, 202 

Water: engineers, institution of, 451; 
excess of, in concrete, 410, 4;«; : 
mains, freezing ol, 172 (ice in) 47: 
rates,. 133: sea, tests of concrete 
si>ecimens in, 05; supply works in 
Western Australia, 328; Thames, 

Water colour drirwings, exhibition of. 

Water-colours: painters in (Roval 
institute of) 515 (Roval Scottisih) 203 
(Royal society of) 354 

Watcrhouse, 'R.A., .Mr. J W., 1.50 

\\ :i 1 1 1 proofing concrete, 153 

Waters, alkali, diirabiilitv of concrete 
in, 490 

W'ciglit, determination per cubic foot 
of sand, 490 

\N'eigiits, measure?, and currencv re- 
form, 110 

Welfare works, 203 

West H<am, arciitect's remuneration, 

Whittiugham, Sec.-Lt. L. S., the kite, 

Wigwam, 224 

Will, Mr. W. Andrew's, 112 

Will.ingliby, Mr. fl., tilie late, .5.'in 

Wilne, piuish cliuroliyard of, 242 

Wibon, i51r. G. M. the late, 283 

Vv'iltshire, country house in, 489 

Uiudermere, war memorial chapel, 370 

Window: east, Prestbury church, 23!i; 
sashes, lieat-transmissioii through. 

Winter: Canon, memorial to the late. 
400 ; exhibition of graphic art. 
Royal Academy, 51 

Wires, overhead", and Scottish arts 

club, 241 
WokingJiani. Berksliire, Luckley, 429 

Women: artists, society of, exhibi- 
tion, 176; as constructors, 208; of 
India, Queen's message to tlie. 432 
Wood: licences, 243; Mr. J. F., the 
late, 131: fwving experiment, 1.80; 
soft, shortage of, 351 

Woodford Bridge, boys' garden citv 
at, 449 - 

Work: building, unlicensed, 263; con- 
struction, in Aden, 511; piece, in 
building trade, 450; iK)stures at, 
490 ; water supply in Western .\iis- 
tridia, 328 

Worker, scientific, value of drawing 
to the, 112 

Working-class d'ft'ellings, sliortagc of, 

Workmen and Em|iloyment Kv- 
cJianges, 491 

Works: public, department. New 
South Wales, 394; welf:ire, 2(!5 

Wrexhajn, Eselu^iam church (new 
reredos) 510 

Wrought-iron gates, St Peter'^. 

London Docks, 150 
Wvatt-Papwortli, Stic.-Lt. A., the 
late, 3.i0 

YARD; Boston Navy tests of concrete 

specimens in sea water at, 05 
Vardley Wood, Birmingham, residence 

at, 238 
Voima: girls .as flag-sellers, 493; 

Right Hon. Kobert, tJie iate. 80 
Vpres. ruined cathednil of St. Martin, 



ASBOT'S, Muchelney r.bhev, 

Somersetshire. 282 
Ai.. rd<!»n. deacons' chiiir. Scottish oak 

iiirniture, 40 
All Halloas Barking (restoration 

and additions). 16 
,vlMisliouM.s, row of, Marshflelil. 

(.loucesteishire, 109 
.■Vrcbitect's hou.i*, jgS 
Areliitn tare: Italian, examples of, 

80; iiindirn. in India, 172 
Archivolt. main entrance, Victoria 

and Albert museum. South Keii- 

sington, -culptured panels in the 

Ardenrun. Blindley heath. Surrey, 39c, 
Art, school of. king Edward VII., 

Newcastle, 509 
•>rts. exliibition. GjH.Q. troops, so. 

Ashcroft manor, Briti.-h Columbia, 282- 
Avena chapel, Padua (wall decora- 
tion), 74 

BALCONY, dressmakers' (Venice). i:,ii 
liai' room .scheme. 46 
Bamiue Dreyfus and grand h;ill >'l 
the Hotel Menr'cc. Paris, 2r>ii 

Barn, Griiuge great, Alciston, Sus- 
sex, 150 « 

Barnsley, St. Peter's church, 516 

Beach school, Christ church square. 
Lowestoft, 16 

Bishop's new throne, Manchester 
cathedral, 349 

Biaekfriars house, now in course of 
erection near the site of Bridewell 
palace. Biaekfriars, E.G., 45 

Boston public library, decoration of, 

Brat^enose college. Oxford, the Camera 

from, '292 
Bridge, Manresa (Spain), 172 
British Columbia, Ashcroft manor, 282 
Buildings: municipal. Arliour Square, 

Stepney. E., detail of elevation for 

the, 109; Prudential (Leicester), 456 
Bu.sine.^ premises, new. Kin'jswav. 

150, 292 

CABINETS, pair of old walnut, and 
upholstered chairs, 238 

Cambridge: Queens' college, restora- 
tion of the president's lodge, 4'29 ; 
M John's college. 45 

Camera, from Brasenose college, Ox- 
ford, 292 
Card ft' university college, 449 
Castello and Ponte, St. Angelo, 

Rome. 349 
Cathedral: Canterbury (painting in 
apex), 470; church of St. Giles. 
Edinburgh, 549; Manchester, bis- 
hop's new throne, .349; of St. .Mar- 
tin, Ypres, ruined, 238 
Ceiling decoration, Siena cathedral, 

Chairs : de,icons', 'Scottish oak furni- 
ture. Aberdeen. 46; upholstered 
pair of old walnut cabinets, 2:J8 
Chapel ind library. Wells cathedral. 

Cheshire: house at ninderton. 282; 
James Smith memorial, Wallasev, 
1 liininey-piece. Royal Excbanse. 

Edinburgh, 369 
I'lairch : All Hallows Barking (restora- 
tion) 16: Barnsley (St. Peter) 510; 
c.ithedral, Edinburgh (St. Giles), 
549; Esclushaiu (new reredos) 510: 
Harrogate (St. Wilfrid',*) 4.iO: Lon- 
don docft (St. Peter's, wrought-iron 

gate.s) 150; Jlitchara (St. Barnabas) 
4S9; Potter's Bar (St. Marv and 
All Saints) 371 : Prestbury (new east 
window) 238; Tottenham (All Hal- 
lows, and war memorial) 429 

Churches : All Hallows BarkingT E.C. 
trcstoratiions and additions), 16; 
doorway (St. Giust's, Xllth cen- 
tury) 73; Devon, some more, 194; 
Neasden (St. Catherine) 64, 260 

Cinema decoration, 269 

City, iboys' garden, Woodford Bridue, 
Essex, 449 

Club, Union Jack (London, S.E.), 396 

College: Brasenose, Oxford, the 
Camera from, 292; CHrdift' uni- 
versity, library facade, 449; uni- 
versity, of South Wales and Mon- 
mouthshire, Cardiff, 109 

Colleges, St. John's, Cambridge 43 

Column form tie, 285 

Ooncrete .iind reinforced concrete. 

Convalescent home, Deganwy North 
Wales, 3-27 

Cottage at Longfield. Kent, 109 

Country house in Wiltshire, 489 

County council offices, LeicestersBire 


Supplement to the 
Build IN (i Nfws. July 11, 1917. 


Jaouary lo June, 1917. 

DEACONS' uluilr, ^-otti.^li oak fiirn-i- 
ture TttJiTdeen), 46 

Decoration: Boston public library, 
4(J9; <oiUng (SieiKi ^^tthetlral), 75; 
cinenia, 209; IPiccoloniiai <8iena), 
471; wall (Avena chapel, Padua), 74 

IX-ganwy, N. Wiales, convalcsctnt 
home, 327 

Detail: municipal buildings, St«pncy, 
109; of No. 232-233, High liolborn, 
109; Qufen'.s house, Kingsway, 292 

Pctailfl: chimnty-piece, Royal Ex- 
change. Edinburgh, 3C9; library 
close, \\Vll3 cathedral, 64; Stock- 
port graiiiiriar school, 389 

I>evon churches, some, 194 

jlispensary (Mussooric), 172 

Koorwiiy, i-hurell of ftt. <iiu,sf« (Xlltli 
century), 73 

Drawings, pencil, Oxford, 292 

DrcssuMikers' balcony (Venice). luS 

Dwellings, .small, problem of, 419, 456, 
IW. .')II0, 51(., 019 

EAST window, Trestbury church. 

Cheshire, 238 
Kdinburgh: cathedral church (St. 

(iiles), 549; Morningside library, 

128; public washhouse.s. 172, 194; 

Koyal Kxchange chimney-piece, .309: 

sjiorts pavilion, Laughtan park, CI 
Kducation offices, Sydney, 200 
Kmbellishmcnts, overdoor, and panels. 

Kntrance hall witli furniture. 128 
Uselushani church, Wrexham (new 

reredos), 51C 
Essex, Woodford, Jioys' garden city, 

Htrhing. royal academy of graphic 

art. 238 
Hxhibiton, arts, O.H.Q. troops, 80, 


FARMHOUSE, poultry, Longfteld 

Kent. Ifi .^ ^ 

iMirni ; -uii|«jrts, spc<'iial, provide stor- 
age within building, 510; -tie 
column, 285 

" Foxbury," Haslemere, Surrey, 449 

France: private house, interior, 327; 
sketches in G.H.Q. troops, exhibi- 
tion grand prize diploma, 128 

Free library, Stafford. 327 

Furniture: entrance hall, 128; Scot- 
tish oak, deacons' ohairs, Aberdeen 
46; suite of painted, at Windsor 
castle, 64 

GARDEN : city, Woodford bridge, 

Kssix, 49; hou.-e, "Foxbury, 

C'hisiehurst, 449 „ . , , 

Catcs, wrought-iron, St. Peters, Ix.n. 

don dock, 160 
(!at«w.ay of the (Maniaoes, Sicily, 3i.n 
(llass, stained, 203, 210 
Clouccatershire: row of almshouses. 

Marshlields, 109; Stowell park, :»t> 
Oovernment: offices, new. Strand (for 

the Dominion of New Zealand), 10 
firammar school, Stockport, 194, 200. 

Orange great barn, Alciston, Sussex. 


HALL furniture. 128 , 

llaniijshire, Lord Wandsworth's insti- 
tution, 390, 429 

Harrogate, church of St. Wilfrid, 4.^0 

Haslemere, Surrey, Iledeotc, 449 

Henri Paul NiSnot, royal gold medal- 
list. 181 ^ „„„ 

Hindcrton, Cheshire, house at, 282 
(garden front, 349) 

Home, convalescent, Dcganwy, North 
Wales, 327 

Hospital, St. George's, Hydo park 
corner, W., 509 

Hot*l: <le la cie Genernlc Tr.ansat- 
lantlf|ue, Paris, 292; Meurice, and 
lianquo Dreyfus, Paris. 200 

House: abbot'.s (Mucbelney aWicy, 
Somcrsct-shlre, 282; architect's, 128; 
at Hinderton (Cheshire) 282 (garden 
front) 349; Blacktrlars. now in 
course of erection near the site of 
Hridcwcll nalace, Blaekfrlars, E.G., 
45; country (Wiltshire). 489; for 
tiovs, I/)ng Sutton, ITtints. 390. 429; 
garden, "Foxbury," Chislehurst. 
octagonal, at Caldy (Cheshire). 80: 
private, interior, France, 327; 

Queen's, Kingsway. 292; 

" Keader's," at Ludlow, staircase 
of, 2.'i8 
Hyde park corner, W., St. Gc-orge',s 
hosjiital, 509 

INDlAi modern architecture in, 172 
Institution, Lord Wandsworth, Hamp- 
shire, 390, 429 
Interior of iirivate house. Prance, 327 
Italian architecture and decoration, 
examples of, 80 

JAMES SMITH memorial, Wallasey, 

Cllc^lllre. 1IJ9 

Jersey, Trinity manor, 390 

KENT: Longfleld, cottage at, 109; 

poultry farmhouse, Longfleld, 48 
Kingsway, new business premises, 

l.".n. 292 

LEICESTER, Pnuhntial buildings, 

Leicestershire county council offices, 

Library: and chapel (Weils cathedral, 
Somerset) 04 ; Boston public, de- 
coration of, 409; facade (Cardiff 
university college) 449 : .Morningside 
(K<linhurgh) 128; iMteolomini, Siena, 
decoration of, 471 ; Stafford public 
free, 327 

lattleeourt, Farthingstoke, Northaniji- 
tonshire, 510 

Longflehl, Kent, cottage at. 109 

Lord Wandsworth institution, Hamp- 
shire, 890 

Lowe-stoft, beaeli .s(H1kx>1. Chri.^t ehureli, 
square, 10 

Luckley, Wokingham. Berkshire, 429 

Ludlow, "(Reader's" house, 
of the, 238 

MANCHESTER cathedral, bi,-hops 

new throne, 349 
Maniaces castle, Sicily, gateway of. 

Manor. Trinity (.Ieri*jj, 390; Tpton 

Grey, Winchfield, Hants, 450 
Manresit, Spain, the bridge. 172 
Marshfleld, Gloucestershire, row of 

almshouses, 109 
Memorial: James Smith, Wallasey, 
Cheshire, 109 ; national war (pro- 
posed), 130; war. All Hallow's, Tot- 
tenham, 429 
Miteham, Surrey, St. Barnabas 

church, 489 
^todern window, example of a, 204 
Morningside library, Edinburgh. 128 
Muchelney abbey. Somersetshire 

(tiihhot's house), 282 
Municipal buildings. Arbour square. 
Stepney. E., detail of elevation for 
the, 109 
Jluseum, Victoria and Albert. South 
Kensington, scul|itiired panels in the 
arehivult. main entrance. tAO 

NATIONAL war memorial (proposed). 

Nca-sden, church of St, Catherne, 04, 

Nenot. Henri Paul, royal gold medal- 
list, 181 

Neston. house at Hinderton, 282 (gar- 
den front, 349) 

New: business premises. King.sway, 
1.50; iiremiscs, Messr.s. John Keeks, 
Ltd.. Guildford. 40 

Newcastle, King Edward VIL school 
of art. 509 

North Wales, Dcganwy. convalescent 
home, 327 

Northamptonshire. Littlecourt, Far. 
thingstone, 516 

OAK furniture. iScottisill, deaeon^ 

chairs. .Vherdeen. 40 
Octagonal house at Caldy, Cheshire. 

Offices: education (New South Wales), 

200; Le'cestershire county council, 

489; national assurance, Paris. 292; 

new Government, Strand (for the 

Dominion of New Zealand). 16 
OvoriUvir embellishments and panel, 

Oxford : Bra.seno«ie college, camera 

from, '292; studies, 292 

PAINTING; in apse (Cant.rburv 

cathedral), 47U; mural, 409 
Panels: overdoor embellishments and. 
429; sculptured, in the arcliivolt. 
main entrance, Victoria and Albert 
museum. South Ken.-^ington, 549 
Paris: Banque Dreyfus and hall of 
taie Hotel [Meurice. -Mi; Hotel de 
la cie Gfin^rale Transatlantique 
and La Nationale assurance ofhce, 
292; interior for the new Sorbonne, 
210, 309; Messrs. Maple and Co. 
Park, Stowell, Gloucestershire, 389 
lAa-vilion, sport*^, J..aughton park, 

K<linburgh. 04 
Piccolomini library, Siena (decoration 

of), 471 
Plans : abbot*.'* fliouse, Muchelney 
abbey, 282; All Hallows Barking, 
16; Ashcroft manor B.C., 282; bis- 
hop's throne, Manchester cathedral. 
;t49 : hoys' garden city, Woodford 
Bridge. 449; premises, 
Kingsway^ 160; church, St. Catherine 
(Neasden), 260; cottage at Longfleld, 
109; county council offices, 200; 
(lA'icester.shire) 489; deacons' chair 
(Aberdeen), 40; dispensary (Mus- 
soorie), 172; grammar school (Stock- 
port), 194; house at Caldy, 80: 
house at Hinderton, 282; institu- 
tion. Lord Wandsworth's, 429; 
library and chapel (Wells cathe- 
dral). '04; .Morningside library. 128; 
poultry farmhouse (Longfield), 40: 
public washhouses (Edinburgh), 172, 
194 : residence (Yardlev Wood). 2:1S ; 
small dwellings. 449, 450, 489, 509, 
510, 619; .Sorbonne (Paris), 210; 
sports pavilion, 64; war memorial, 
proposed national, 1.36 
I'onte S. Angelo and Casrtello, Rome, 

I'otter's Bar, [Mi<l<llesex, church of S*t. 

Mary and All Saints. .•S09 
Poultry farmhouSe, Longfleld, Kent, 

Premises: husiness, new, Kingsway, 
150 ; new, High Holborn) 109 (Me.s.srti. 
John Reeks, Ltd., Guildford) 40 
President's lodge. Queens' college, 

Cambridge (restoration oO, 429 
Prestburv church, new east window, 

Private house. France, interior, 327 
Problem of the small dwelling. 119, 

4.50, 489, 609. 610. .W9 
Prudential buiUling. Ijeicest«r, 4,^0 
Public: free libr.ary, Stafford, 3'?7: 
washhouses, Edinburgh, 172, 104 

QUEENS' college, Oamhs., restoration 

of the president's lodge, 429 
Queen's house, Kingsway, 292 

" READER'S " house at Ludlow . 

stairca>c of. 2.'i8 

Itedcotc. Haslemere. Surrey, 449 

Reinforced concrete, and concrete. 

Reredos, Esclusliam church, Wrex 
ham, 618 

Reservoir wall, flxing a scour valve 
in a, 220 

Residence, Yardley Wood, Birmin;- 
ham, 238 

Restoration: and additions, AW Hal- 
lows Barking, E.C. 10; president's 
lodge. Queens' college, ('ainbs., 429 
Rome, Castello and Ponto S, An- 
gelo, .349 

Kouen, Rue Damiette. 327 

Ruined cathedral of St. Martin, 
Vpres, 238 

SAFES. John Tann's, 89 

Saint: Barnalxia (Miteham) 489; 
Catherine (Neasden) 04 ; George's 
hotiliital, Hyde iwrk eorner, W,, 609; 
GernKiin d'.\uxerpois nnd IVtiit 
Neuf (Paris) 389; John's college 
(Cambridge) 45; Pettr's church 
(Barnsley) 51 ; Wilfrid's clniroh 
(Harrogate) 450 

Scheme, ballroom, 40 • 

School; art. King Edward VII., New. 
caste, 509; gr.ammar, Stockport, 
194. 200. .389 

Schools, beach, Christ church square, 
Lowestoft, 10 

Scour valve, flxinc in a reservoir 
wall. -220 

Sculptured jwnek, arcliivolt, ' main 
entrance, Victoria and Albert 
museum, 649 
.Sections: abbot's (lionse, iMuchelnev. 
282; All Hallows Barking 10- Ash-' 
croft manor, B.C., 282;' bishojrs 
throne, Manchester cathedrqi ;w^'- 
cottage, Ix)ngfleld, Kent. ' no- 
library and chapel. Wells catht- 
dral, 04; new premises, Kingsway. 
150; octagonal house, Caldv, 
Cheshire, w, ; poultrv farmhouse, 
Ix)ngfleld, Kent, 46; premises. High 
Holborn, 110 Queen's house. Kings- 
way. 292; Uniui Jack club, London. 
S.E., 390; washlxmses, public. Edin- 
burgh, 172, 194 
Sicily, gateway of tVe Maniaces castle, 

Sketches, architccturtj, 86; in 
France, 128 

Small dwellings, problem of, 440 456 
489, 509. 516, 549 

Somer.set«liire, abljot's licuse. ^lu- 
chelney abbey, Somersetshii". 282 

Sorbonne. Paris, the ne^, 31^, ;-•<) 

South Kensington, Victoria and \\. 
bert museum, sculptured panel.~ in 
the archivolt, main entrance, 549 
.SlKiin, bridge. Manresfl, 172 

,Sij>optfi .pavilion, Larijshton park. I'diii- 
liurgh, 64 

Stafford free lib.rary, 327 

Stained glass. 203, 210 of tHie " Jleader's " Ik.ik . 
Ludlow, 238 

Stepney, E., detiiil of elevation for 
the municipal buildings, Arhoui 
square, 109 

Stockport, new grammar .school, P.M. 
260, 389 

Stowell park, Gloucestershire, SR9 

Strand, new Government offices (for 
tilie Dominion of New Zealand), 11 

Studies. Oxford, 292 

Supports, special form, provide stor- 
age within building, 516 

Sussex, Grange great barn, Alciston. 

Sydney, education offices, for New 
"South Wales, 260 

THRONE, bishop's, new, Manchester 

cathedral," 349 
Tie, column form, 285 
Trinity manor, Jersey, 396 

UNION JACKelub. london. S.E., KO 
riiiversity: Cardiff, libraiy facade. 

449 ; college of .South Wales and 

Monmouthshire, Cardiff, 109 
Ujiholstered chairs and pair of ohl 

walnut cabinets, 238 
I'pton Greo manor. Winchfleld, Hants. 


VALVE, scour, flxing in a reservoir 

wall, 220 
Venice, dre.smrtkers' balcony, l.'>0 
Victoria nnd Albert museum, South 
Kensington, sculptured panels in 
the archivolt, main entrance, 849 

WALL decoration, Aveno chapel. 

Padua, 74 
Walnut cabinets, pair of old. nnd up- 
holstered chairs, 238 
Wandsworth institution. I<nl. 

Hampshire. .190. 4'29 
War: memorial (pro|>osed national) 

136 (Tottenham. All Hallows) 429 
Washhouses, public, Edinburgh, 17S. 

104 , , 

Wells cathedral, library and chapel, 

Winchfleld, Hants, Tpton Gr.> 

Manor, 456 , , „., 

Window: modern, example of a. 204; 

new, cast. Prcstbury church. ■J:t8 
Windows, stained glass, 203 
'iViltshire. countrv house. 489 
Wokingham. Berkshire (Luc'kley). 429 
Wrexham, R-dusham church (new 

reredos). 510 
Wrought-iron gates, St. Peter's, wn. 

don docks. I.W 

sidence at, 2.'W 

Vpres. ruined cathedral of M iMar- 
tin, 238 

Printed by ST. Clements Press, Ltd., Newspaper Buiiainsa, Portuga! Street, London, W.C.2. 

January 3, 1917. 

Volume CXII.-No. 3235. 



Effing-ham House, 


Strand, W.C. 

1 Durability or Stucco and Plaster Construction . . IS 

I BuUding Intelligence 19, 

3 Vitty Thousand Building Trade Workers Wanted 19 

Legal Intelligence 19 1 

n Our Office Table 20 ' 

To Arms; 20 1 

17 , Tenders x. I 

17 I Competitions Open x. I 

I'rade Note 17 , List of Tenders Open x. I 

Open Air (School Rooms ..18 Latest Prices xii. | 

Currcnte Calamo 

The Fundamental Principles of Reinl'orc*vd Con- 
crete Design 

South African Branch of the Society of Archi- 

Making Roofing and Wallpaper from Waste Tan- 
bark • 



Xew Government Offices, Stranri. for the Dominion of 
New Zealand, Messrs. Crickmay and Sons,. 

Church of All Hallows Barking by the Tower. E.C.- 
Restoration and add;tion.s. Plans, elevatioiis and 
sections. The late John L. Pearfon. R.A., 

Beech School. Christ Church S<iu,xre, Lowestoft. 
Elevation and plan. Messrs. Basil Oliver and 
Henry J. Chetwood. A.A.R.I.B.A., .Architects. 

(luxxtntt Calamo. 

Mr. Basil Peto got little more than was 
to be expected out of the Government in 
reply to his question just before the acl- 
journment, on which we commented on 
this page in our issue of December 20. He 
asked the Prime Minister whether he was 
aware that the question of hardship aris- 
ing out of the state of war in connection 
with building contracts entered into before 
the war had been brought to the notice of 
the late Prime Minister and a draft Bill 
submitted, and .that consid'cration had 
been promised ; and whether he would 
undertake that this matter, in view of 
its importance to one of the largest indus- 
tries of the country, should not be over- 
looked, and, considering its daily increas- 
ing urgency, would receive consideration 
at an early date. Sir G. Cave, who re- 
plied, said the answer to the first part of 
the question was in the affirmative, and 
the matter would receive consideration at 
an early date. So far we are in much the 
same predicament as before. Mr. Lloyd 
George, at any rate, must know, or ought 
to know better than Mr. Asquith did, the 
effects of the unfair finance of which he 
■was the author, and that an impression 
preva.ils that lie hindered the redress which 
was promised in 1915. We got then " early 
consideration," the sole fruit of which as 
yet has been that the builder, while bear- 
ing his full share of every burden his 
fellow-citizens have sustained, has been 
subjected to an additional heavy tax im- 
posed on nobody else, and has been for- 
bidden even to finish work contracted for 
before the war broke out. 

Five or six of the galleries at the Royal 
Ai ademy are being prepared for the winter 
exhibition of graphic art, which will be 
opened, according to present intention, 
about the middle of this month. It has 
been found impracticable to organise 
during the war the customary winter ex- 
hibition of old masters at the Academy, 
and experiments made in former yeai-s of 
holding a winter exhibition of modern 
paintings have taught the council that it 
is bad policy to attempt to hold two exhi- 
bitions of contemporary paintings in the 
same year. So the council have resolved 
to confine the exhibition for this year to a 
collection of works tending to encourage 

the graphic arts. Xo paintings in oil'or 
water-colour will be admitted, but designs 
in colour may be offered. The exhibition 
is in charge of a committee representing 
the Royal Academy and of the London 
societies which exist for the furtherance of 
etching, engraving, and sculpture. Works 
previously exhibited will be admitted. 
Members of the various societies repre- 
sented will be permitted to exhibit as many 
as eight pictures each. Non-members 
resident in any part will be invited to offer 
pictures, but must submit to the judgment 
of the committee in regard to acceptance. 

The fogs of last Tuesday and Wednesday 
week were as bad as any of the last century. 
But our forebears then were not impeded by 
the autlidrities in their attempts to make 
the most of their comparatively feeble illu- 
minants. Presumably the Home Office 
officials were holiday-making last week, or 
prompt permits would have been published 
to keep the blinds up later than 5 p.m. 
Here and there flares were placed, but they 
were mostly useless. There was one in the 
front of the Gladstone statue in the 
Strand, a bowshot from this office, but no 
one standing on the narrow pavement at 
the western gates of St. Clement's Church 
could see it. A timely warning was visible 
enough at some of the Tube stations, in 
regard to possible panics likely to arise 
from overcrowding, or accidents to the 
lifts. One comparatively narrow spiral 
staircase is, in our opinion, quite in ade- 
quate to meet none too unlikely emergen- 
cies. We. struggled up one on Wednesday 
night, and the slight jam-up of passengers 
consequent on the taking of tickets — at a 
very unwisely selected spot, by the way — 
was a little too suggestive of the squeeze 
that might follow a panic-scared uprush 
from below, possibly with all lights out. 
and with too slowly emerging passengers 
yards higher up blocking speedy egress. 
An alarmed crowd anywhere on a foggy 
night is very dangerous companionship ; in 
confined areas, with limited possibilities of 
individual initiative, and then only at the 
peril of others, it is a too-possible death- 

If Mr. Neville Chamberlain, the Direc- 
tor of National Service — a Lord High 
Interferer, as some of the journals call 
him, which are already apparently tiring 
of the new Ministry of all the Talents- 

has a free hand, we hope he will insist on 
the accomplishment of the linking up and 
generally improving our derelict canals. 
He is the chairman of a movement about 
which we have had a good deal to say in 
past issues, which wants so to restore our 
canals as to enable them to carry 100-ton 
barges from the coast to the Midlands. It 
will take some doing, for the railway com- 
panies have done their best to render the 
canals useless during the past thirty years 
instead of developing them as feeders, or 
falling back on them under stress of the 
results of their own shortcomings. But 
had it been promptly set about when Mr. 
Neville Chamberlain first moved in the 
matter, many millions of tons of heavy 
goods for which conveyances have been 
despairingly wanted during the past eigh- 
teen months . would have been delivered, 
and the railway stations would not have 
been blocked for months with stuck-up 

Although the law relating to lind and 
buildings is the oldest part of our legal 
system, and was shaped for centuries by 
our courts and judges, it is still full of 
little surprises, even for the lawyers. One 
general point to note is that, legally, a 
furnished house or apartment is dealt with 
differently from an unfurnished house or 
room. While in the letting of an empty 
house or rooms there is generally no war- 
ranty by the landlord that it or they are 
fit for habitation, yet if the same place be 
let furnished there is such a warranty ; 
and should it not be fit to live in, either 
by reason of drains or even of bugs, the 
tenant cannot be held to his bargain. The 
curious and startling case of " Humphreys 
V. Miller and Others" show-s that in the 
letting of furnished lodgings there may be 
yet another surprise. The defendants had 
brought in a leper to the plaintiff's fur- 
nished rooms without disclosing his 
disease. After this lodger's death there, 
from leprosy it was discovered, the plain- 
tiff had to destroy some furniture, and 
suffered other damage, for which the jury 
had awarded £250; but the judge, on the 
law, found for the defendants. Now the 
plaintiff came to the Court of Appeal, argu- 
ing that the defendants should have dis- 
closed the fact when taking these lodgings 
that the lodger was suffering from leprosy, 
an infectious disease. But the doctor de- 
nied this infection, and, on the point of 


J.\x. 3, 1917. 

law that, in taking furnished rooms, either 
for or by a lodger, there was no implied 
warranty of his fitness to occupy, the Court 
of Appeal confirmed the judge's ruling that 
there was no ground of action. While 
medical views vary and leprosy is not 
legally an infectious or notifiable disease, 
this ruling holds, and so the plaintiff loses 
his damages. But the amazing thing is 
that, in regard to furnished houses or lo<lg- 
ings, the law turns out to be on the side of 
the tenant or lodger instead of on that of 
the landlord, as is far more usual in our 
general legal system. 

Mr. Joseph Clark.son, hon. secretary, 
writes in the course of a letter from Prest- 
wich Park: — The New Cities movement 
was inaugurated at a meeting I addressed 
in Birmingham in 0<>t«ber last, and a 
representative committee of 17 membei-s 
has been formed in that city to assist in 
carrying it out. I also addressed a meet- 
ing in Leeds on the 18th ult., and com- 
mittees are now being formed there and in 
Manchester. We have already thirteen 
freehold estates offered in Southern, Miil- 
land, and Eastern Counties, from 2.500 
to 14,000 acres, all in cultivation and pro- 
ducing g<«d corn and other crops, and all 
except one within two to four and a-half 
miles of a railway station. The object is 
to secui-e a suitable estate for a sample 
city, build business premises, houses for 
the workers, each house with a good garden, 
and only put as many people on the estate 
as it would fwd. The workpeople would 
••eceive trade union wages, but would also 
be partners, and after paying all expenses 
of management the profits would be de- 
voted to suitable provision for old age and 
any other purpos*' which would benefit the 
community. The whole estate and e^-ery 
business, including food growing, would l)e 
under one co-operative ownership. There 
would be no shares; the capital would W 
raised by donations and loans, and the 
security would be not only the rates, as in 
present cities, but the land, buildings, and 
every business. We are anxious to be 
ready fi)r building by the time the civilian 
army is disbanded, and thus provide em- 
ployment for a considerable number. I 
shall be pleased to hear from all who will 

A.iother new yeai- finds us much as we 
were when its immediate predecessor 
elicited the same dominant wishes. Now, 
as then, all our customary felicitatioris 
give place to the one aspirat"ion. We nee<l 
hardly repeat it. But, liowever sincei-e 
oui prayer that 1917 may see peace re- 
stored, it is foolish to dream that it c/ni 
come by the intervention of neutral 
nations, or that any such peace could be 
more than the most delusive truce. Fools 
and traitoi-s alone will welcome peace on 
German conditions, or try to persuade us 
that German treacherj^ will oliserve any 
paper guarantiees against a repetition of 
the German tactics of the fifty year<. 
Till the Hozenliolleriis and the Hapsburi>s 
and their contemptible co-bandits are ren- 
dered incapable of another such truculent 
set-back of civilisation, the nations in 
arms against the disturliers of the world's 
peace must kivp the field, and their chil- 
dren and grandcliiUlren after them, it 
needs be, till the long night of terror ends, 

and the awful burden which has pro- 
strated Europe since Prussia, flushed with 
victory over the smallest of her victims, 
crushed Denmark, and then, wolf-like, 
turneil to rend its share of the prey fro'ri 
her .Vustrian fellow-barbarian, is lifted 
from the shoulders of the nations of the 
Gill World. Our fathers bore the strain 
unflinchingly against greater odds, l^ike 
us, they were precipitated into struggles 
for which they were equally unready. As 
with us, the blood of their paid 
the price of the halting statesmanship 
and culpable blindness of their rulei-s. 
Like them, we will listen to no talk of 
peace till our slain are avenged, till fullest 
restitution is exacted for the victims of 
Cierman greed and savagery, and till the 
instigators and instruments of the perpe- 
tration of the horrors of war on a scale 
an<l to a degree surpassing the hide<jus 
cruelties of Attila or Alva are punished 
to the fullest extent of their deserts. 

I/et us, meanwhile, see to it that, when 
peace is made, there shall be no shrinking 
from this resolution. Some already are 
mouthing reminders that we have "hated " 
other f<H-s Ijefore and made good friends 
of them when the fight was finished. Of 
course we did. The wai-s between France 
w<'re freipient, but they were fought 
honnurably and chivalrously by each 
nation, and with the c<miing of peace all 
personal hatred ceased. The one toe 
whom Several generations hated was Spain, 
remembering Philip the Second's treacher- 
ous attempt to invade us, and his vile 
cruelty and that of his agents in the 
Netherlands, only surpassed by the Kaiser 
in Belgium. No more than our forebears 
would have accepted a Spanish peace, or 
failed to warn their children to guard 
themselves well against the l^ower that 
had .sought to plant the Inquisition l.-rc, 
and rob us of the mastery of the seas, 
must we fail to keep vividly In'fore those 
that are to come after us the' terrible tunes 
we are passing through and the culpability 
and bad faith of those wjio brought them 
alx)ut. We want to see .some general 
manifestation of to do this. It 
should dominate all the arts. It sliould 
spur alike trader and manufacturer and 
ciinsuiner. It should inspire the pix-t and 
the historian, lend colour to the painter 
and awaken to the fullest extent the genius 
of the Mistress Art. Our eimtemporaiy 
The Enijincer declares, it is true with tlie 
somewhat ungracious proviso that " if 
we could but count with safety upon 
British artistic sense," no finer subject 
for the architect could be imagined than 
the design of a mus<'um to contain the 
relics and history of the (ireat War. A 
building of the largest proportions, and 
infused with the dignity which is insepar- 
abli- from war, but at the same time 
arranged upon a plan that made it suit- 
able for the exhibition of a great variety 
of objects. Would be nei'ded. Jt should, 
moi-eover, emlwHly not <mly a library for 
A vast literature, but a picture gallery, 
and a theatre in which lectures would be 
delivered, and in which cinemat< graphic 
films would ho shown. It is further sug- 
gested that the exhibits would consist not 
only of actual relics from the battlefield, 
not only of uniforms and equipment, of 
transport arrangements, of and 
veterinary accessories, and of all the 
material of war, but of examples of the 
machines and methods emi)loye<l in the 
manulacture of munitions. iloi-eover, 
raised mtxlels of the principal battlefields 
would be exhibited in sp«'cial rooms, and 
exampK'S of trenches and dug-outs would 
Ix^ shown by full-size portions, and by 
reproductions on a smaller scale. The 
Xavy would require a large portion of the 
building. Models of all our own ships of 

the period, models of our Allies' ships, 
and of the enemy's ships would prove an 
important feature, but not less important 
(M)uld be actual examples of guns and 
aniinunition. The ■ Third Arm " would 
also demand much space, as actual aero- 
l^lanes and seaplane*, with models of air- 
ships, woul<l have to be exjjosed. Th« 
iibrary would be one of the most important 
(ooms in the building. In it space would 
tx? found not only for the contemporary 
history of the war, but for the literature 
of all nations that will issue from tho 
press for many long years to come. More- 
over, drawings of ships and guns, of shot 
and shell and fuses, of torpedoes and 
mines, of aeroplanes, poison gas appara- 
tus and flame projectors, of motor wagons 
and ■■ tanks,'' and the thousand and one 
things that are made for the purpose of 
killing the enemy, oi destroying his pos- 
sessions, should there be preserved 

Snch a building, we quite agree with 
our contemporary, must be conceivwl on 
the grand scale. That France will have 
ker Musee de la Guerre, and Germany het. 
Kriegsmuseum. ' an hardly be doubted. 
That their buildings will he finely prn 
portioned and mai'iiificently situated can- 
not be questioned. The ennobling effect 
of fine architecture cannot be over-rat«?d, 
but when the art is exercised upon a sub- 
ject at once grand and awe-inspiring in 
itself, .1-s is the abstract conception of war, 
"hen the art is ihde-xl raised to a position 
above all others. Such a Museum of Wai 
might, indeed, prove the finest Palace of 

But more is wanted than this. Such a 
building will, after all, only keep the 
memories alive we want to see perpetu- 
ated, in Limdon, wheie, we suppose, it 
would be eivcted. We want something m 
every town — if possible in every village — 
in the Three Kingiloms and throughout 
the Empire. In the villages, to some ex- 
tent, the war-shrines will serve, that is, if 
they are mon- or less of worthy character 
architix^turally, like that we illustrated 
last week. In every school we want the 
recor<l of the struggle and the warning 
against its too probable renewal. Every 
parish hall should enshrine a similar i-e- 
miniler. In the towns special buildings 
shoulil be raise*! subservient to various 
useful purpos<'S, but all bearing the stjimp 
of national thanksgiving for victory, and 
the appeal to the patriotism of <uir chil- 
dren nev»'r again to risk its achievement 
over so treacherous a foe at disadvantages 
such as th(jse under which we lx>gan the 
fight, or so blindly to neglect the repeate<l 
warnings of true patriots like IjOrd 
Roberts. Wherever our readers have 
direct or indirect influence let them at 
once set alxjut the ixlucation of their 
fellow-citizens with this object in view. 
It is none too early to bi'gin the prejiara- 
tion of suitable designs, and we should 
gladly illustrate any really well-conwived 
schemes. The requirements for such might 
well be iiK-luded in the prize competitions 
of the ardiitiH-tural ami kindred sixieties 
at the earliest possible date. Wherever 
possible the kindrol arts shoulil lie asso- ^ 
ciated with all undertakings of the kind. 
and let all strive to make if manifest that 
the nation may "count with safety upon 
British artistic sense" to render every 
sentiment of the sreat remembranc»> as 
vivid as it should prove lasting. 

The dcith i.s announced on Dccembor 27 af 
Chiswiok, of Honoria (Nora), only daughter 
of Marv and the late John Tavenor Pen-j-. 

Rridlinirton Town Council hn.s decided th.nt 
in fiitiiro all garascs must be built of iiiconi- 
bustiblo materials, and Cliat plan.-* of raragw . 
proposed to bo built of other niatx-riaJs wilt/ 
not Ik-, passed. The architects m the Ixvrou^h 
and tho Bridlinprton SU^ior Builders A.^ociii- 
tioii have been informed acoordin<rly. 

Jan. 3, 1917. 



By Mr. K ilcCxjLLOTJGH. 

Reinforced concrete is a combination .oi 
concrete and metal, preferably steel, with iJie 
two materials so disposed as regards position 
and amounts that each resists the stresses it 
is he^t fitted to resist.. In piers, posts, and 
columns the concrete takes compression 
assisted by the steel, .and the vertical steel 
takes tension if any .bending occurs. In 
beams three act; namely, coni]jres- 
..•sion, .tension, and sheaj-. The concrete takes 
all compression and a limited amount of shear. 
The steel is computed as taking all the direct 
tension, and assists the concrete to carry shear. 

Let .us consider a reinforced concrete column 
8 X 8. ins. outside dimensions. The steel will 
be in the fonii of four bars each 5 in. square. 
The bars are set ih the corners, as shown in 
Fig. 1, and Ij in. in from the sides of the 
column- This is specified for fire protection. 
The concrete outside of the steel (used for fire 
protection) assists in carrjing the load until 
the fire comes, but after a severe fire it ishould 
not be depended on, so we neglect it entirely 
in our computations. The actual area of 
the columns is therefore 5 x 5 = 25 square 
inches. Four ^ in. square bars have an area of 
1 square inch. The ratio of steel to concrete is 
1 .=- 25 = .D.04. The steel ratio multiplied by 
lO'J is the per cent, of steel reinforcement. Our 
folumn. tlierefore, contains 4 per cent, of steel, 
the ma.\imum for a column of this type. Some 
building ordinances limit it to 3 per cent., 
following the lead of Chicago. 

When a load is applied to the top of a 
column and the steel bars get their share they 

i-^ '<>'• '*7y'7l 


re I" fore S'/tS/^T''' 

bend because the slenderness ratio (the ratio 
of length to thickness) is large. It is neces- 
sai-y to put ties around the uf right bars, and 
these ties are spaced at intervals not exceed- 
ing twelve times the thickness of the vertical 
bars. Therefore, in the column under con- 
sideration, the ties will be spaced 6 ins. apart 
because the bars are only 5 in. square. Tlie 
ties are held in place by No. 18 black stove 
wire, and the ends are turned in far enough to 
be gripped by the concrete so tliey cannot be 
pulled out when .stressed. Ties are usually 
made of heavy wire or ^ or |-in. round steel 

Having arranged the bars and the ties, how 
much will our colupin carry? 

Let us assume a 1:2:4 concrete with an 
allowable fibre stress in compression of 400 lbs. 
pel- square inch. The area of the concrete is 
25 square inches less 1 square inch of steel = 
24 square inches, which at 400 lbs. gives 25 x 
400 = 9.600 lbs. To determine the strength 
added by the .steel we must be govenied by 
the ratio of deformation between the steel and 
concrete. This, for the concrete we are using, 
is 15, as determined by experiments. 

Assume a piece of steel fastened in a vertical 
position and a load placed on top. Assume a 
piece of concrete of the same size similarly 
placed and loaded with an equal load. Careful 
measurements will show that both materials 
shorten under the applied loads, but the de- in the length of the steel is 1-15 that 
of the concrete. To produce equal shortening 
(deformation) under equal loads the cross-ser- 
tional area of the concrete be fifteen 
times the cro's sectional area of the steel. 
Thus each square inch of steel is equal to 
15 square inches of concrete. 

Now apply this to the column in question. 
The area of the concrete is 24 square inches. 
The area of the steel is 1 square inch, the 
equivalent of 15 sauare inches of concrete. 
Consider the area of concrete to be increased, 
making it 24 + 15 = 39 square inches. The 

* From the Contract Record. 

load-carrying capacity of the column is now 
2>9 X 400 = 15.600 lbs. The average stress is 
15.600/25 = 624 lbs. per square inch, an in- 
crease of 56 per cent. The unit stress on the 
steel is 15 X 400 = 6,000 lbs. per square inch. 

A safe compressive stress for the steel alone 
would be 12,000 lbs. per square inch, which 
.shows that it is not economical to use steel 
in compression in reinforced concrete, except 
in columns. 

We cannot use a steel stress exceeding the 
concrete stress multiplied by the ratio of de- 
formation or the concrete will be stripped 
from the steel and the column will fail. The 
two materials must act together and shorten 
equally, each carrying a proportion of the load. 
The ratio of deformation is, therefore, a stress 
ratio for columns or for members acting wholly 
in compre.ssion. 

The following formulas are used for the 
design of columns in w-hich the unsu]; ported 
length does not exceed fifteen times the effec- 
tive diameter or thickness; that is. the thick- 
ness of the column after deducing the protec- 
tive covering of the steel. 

Let / = average unit stress per sq. in. of 
efiective area. 

/■,, = allowable unit stress per sq. in. on 
plain concrete. 

p — ratio of steel to concrete. 

A,. = area of concrete in sq. in. 

As = area of steel in sq. in. 

A = total efiective area = -A,. + A.. 

n = ratio of deformation. 

P = total load, 
then P = A /^ = /", (Ac -f kA^.) 
or f = /c [(1 - p) + n p] . 


Make a cylinder of thin paper and fill it 
with sand. 'The paper is barely strong enough 
to ilold the sand, and if a load is put on top, 
the paper will burst and the sand will flow. 
Use a tin cylinder, and the pressure required 
to burst it will be very great. Instead of sand 
use cement mortar or concrete and the metal 
casing can be made very thin, so thin, in fact, 
that a wire wound spirally around the concrete 
cylinder will furnish the necessary strength 
provided the amount' 01 metal in the wire is 
equal to the amount found to be necessary in 
the .solid thin shell. Poorly made concrete 
needs more reinforcement than first-class con- 

Tlie hooped column consists of a concrete 
core reinforced with vertical steel and having 
a steel spiral around the core. There should 
not be less than eight vertical rods not ex- 
ceeding 6 per cent, of the area. The spiral 
hooping should not be less than one-half of 
1 per cent, and not to exceed I5 per cent, 
of the area. More than tliis amount is waste- 
ful, for it adds little strength. The spiral 
does not act until the concrete begins to fail, 
and as it postpones the total failure the effect 
.fs the same as increasing the strength of the 
concrete in compression so we can use 20 
to 25 per cent, higher unit stress, depending 
upon the building ordinance followed. 
Steel in the form of a spiral, provided it 
has a pit<;h not exceeding one-.sixth of the 
diameter, is 2.4 times as effective as the same 
amount placed vertically. The vertical 
equivalent of spiral steel is found as fol- 
lows : — 

Let r = circumference of the core in inches. 
X = pitch of spiral in inches. 
a = cross sectional area of steel used for 

A = area of core in sq. in. 

Then the equivalent ratio of spiral per foot 
of length 

= 1.1 ^ 
A X 

The strength of the hooped column is 
P = /„ (Ac + « A, + 2.4 n A,,) 
in which .\i, = area of spiral steel,- in terms of 
vertical steel, or 

/ = P/A = /c [(1 - 17) + tip + 2.4 n p'] . 
in which // = ratio spiral steel expressed 
as equivalent vertical steel. 

In Fig. 2 is shown a beam bending under 
load, in the middle of the span is shown 
a vertical line A c an extension of a radial 
line. On one side of this line is a radial in- 
tercept A'h. and on the other side a radial 
intercept A"d. 

Provided the material is homogeneous, that 
is, unifonn in quality and strength, and is 
not stressed beyond the elastic limit, a ver- 
tical section plane before the beam bends is 
plane after it bends. That is, A c is straight 

before the load is applied, and the lines A '6 
and A"d are also straight although the 
horizontal separation h c is greater than A A', 
and r d is greater than A A". In Fig. 3 the 
line A'ft is assumed to be moved across A c 
so the space A A' = h'c. This is equivalent 
to I'evolving the line A c until it becomes A' 
'/", parallel to A'b. 

In Fig. 4 this is again shown to illustrate 
the two force triangles, the upper one re))re- 
senting compression and the lower one ten- 
sion. The material being homogeneous the 

neutral axis x x' is midway between 

the top and bottom edges. The force tri- 
angles are therefore equal, the stress being 
zero at the neutral axis and a maximum at 
the edges. The maximum unit stress (skin 
stress some men call it) is designated by the 
letter f. The average stress is f;2. 
The area of each force triangle is 
/ h Jh. 

2 2 4 

We have been considering a thin slice of 1 
beam, and as a beam has breadth we will 



f f^* 




use the letter 6 (breadth) to designate this. 
Our force triangles now^ become wedges, each 
with a volume = f h b/4. 

Forces act through the centre of gravity 
of bodies and the centre of gravity of a 
triangle is /i/3 from the base. The distance 
between the centre of gravity of the two 
force triangles is 2 /( '3, as shown in Fig. 4. 

The total compressive force is equal to the 
total tensile force exerted to resist bending, 
and each force wedge acts with a moment 
ai'm = 2 /i 15. so we obtain the moment of 
resistance by multiplication, thus 

'2h fbh 2fbh- fbh- 

3 4 12 6 

for a rectangular beam of homogeneous mate- 
rial ; that is, one in which (below the elastic 
limit) the tensile strength equals the compres- 
sive strength. 

In Fig. 5 is shown a beam made of two 
pieces with a hinged joint. In the top of the 
joint is a block of rubber and at the bottom is 
a coiled spring. When a load is placed on 


j/> ^upporf 

C — CofJed spring 

/y^ S Support^ 

the top the beam will, of course, bend at the 
hinged joint. It requires no effort of 
imagination to prove that in the top of the 
open joint the tendency to close is opposed 
by the rubber, and in the bottom the ten- 


J AX. 3, 1917 

dency to open is opposed by the spring. 
Actually the hinge midway is not required. 
It merely locates definitely the position of 
the neutral axis, and to consider the hinge as 
a necessary feature is likely to confuse one 
as to the action of resisting forces in a beam. 
The neutral axis is the pomt where the cha- 
racter of stress changes from tension to com- 
pression, or from conipresiion to tension. In 
a beam of homogeneous material, that is, one 
in which the tensile and compressive strengths 
are equal, with symmetrical cross-section, the 
iieutr<al axis will be midway between the top 
and bottom surface, or skin. At the skin 
the stress is a maximum. .\t the neutral axis 
it is zero. A diagram illustrating this is 
triangular and is termed a force triangle. 

In Fig 6 [a] the compressive triangle has 
vertical lines and the tensile triangle has 
horizontal lines. Each triangle overlaps the 
other and the heavily shaded diamond centre 
indicates a cancellation of one force by 
another. The remaining effective stresses are 
shown in Fig. (6). The neutral axis is there- 
fore the point where the tensile and com- 
pressive stresses are definitely separated. In 
a beam with a finite breadth, for wo have 
been considering only a thin vertical slice : 
the neutral axis becomes the neutral plane. 
The use of the word neutral implies a point, 
place or plane where there is a definite 
neutralisation of opposite forces, or stresses. 
The force acting along the neutral plane is 
therefore horizontal shear, for the forces act- 
ing on either side are opposite in character 
and equal in magnitude. 

The principle of the lever is evident. Tlie 
length of the lever arm is the distance be- 
tween centres of gravity of the opposite forces, 
and the fulcrum is situated in the neutral 

In a reinforced concrete beam steel is placed 
near the lower edge to take all the tension, 
for, roughly speaking, concrete is ten times 
stronger in compression than in tension. In 
» plain concrete beam the neutral plane will 

The vertical tension cracks in beams are 
shown in Fig. 7. 

The ratio of deformation plays an im- 
portant part in determining the location of 
the neutral axis in concrete beams. In the 
Chicago Building Code the following values 
are used as a result of experiments : — 

Ratio of 

Ultimate compressive 

strength per 
sq. in. 

The allowable safe unit stress per square 
inch is thirty-five hundredths of the ultimate 
strength in compression. 

In reinforced concrete we have two mate- 
rials with widely differing unit stresses. The 




fig 6 

be very high because the tensile and com- 
pressive forces must be equal. The tensile 
stress will be low and the compressive stress 
will be high, but the lever arm is a constant. 
The relative volumes of the two force wedges 
will bo approximately as 10 is to 1. 

When steel reinforcement is used the area 
requiriHl is computed on the assumption that 
it will cari7 all the tension, and the value of 
the concrete in tension below the neutral axis 
is nei;k-cte<l. The tensile stress, therefore, 
does not vary from zero at the neutral axis 
to a maximum, but the compressive stress 
above the neutral axis does so vary. 

The ratio of deformation between concrete 
and steel prevents the consideration of the 
value of concrete in tension. Kxperiments 
have shown that when steel embedded in con- 
crete is stressed in tension to an amount 
practically equal to the tensile strength of 
an area of concrete equal to the steel area, 
multiplied by the ratio of deformation, the 
concrete cnicks. The tensile strength per 
square inch in the concrete at the level of 
the steel = ',/», in «hich f, = unit tensile 

These cracks are vertical and fairly uni- 
formly spaced. They probably extend as far 
into the beam ns the neutral axis when the 
beam is on the point of failure. If the beam 
is well made and the bond of the concrete to 
the steel is good the cracks are so small, 
because numerous, that there is no danger of 
the entrance of moisture in large enough 
amounts to cause rusting of the st<>el. It is 
therefore possible to use steel with a very 
high stress, for the ratio of deformation is not 
a stress ratio as in the case of columns carry- 
ini; direct compressive stress. In a column a 
high compressive stress on the concrete mav 
strip it from the steel. In beams a high 
tensile stress in tlie concrete merelv cracks 
it and the concrete between the cracks clings 
to the steel and protects it from corrosion. 

letter f is used to denote the unit stress per 
square inch, usually termed the " Fibre 
Stress." The unit steel stress is /s and the 
unit concrete stress is /c. The stress ratio 
ft fr is denoted by the letter m (meaning 
" measure "). The ratio of deformation is 
denoted by the letter n (meaning " num- 
ber "), for it is an arbitrary number which is 
approximately correct. 

Fig. 8 is a graphical representation of the 
effect n and m have on the location of the 
neutral plane in a reinforced concrete beam. 
On a piece of quadrille ruled paper plot the 
depth from the top of the beam to the centre 
of gravity of the steel by setting off ten 
divisions." .Set off on the same scale the ratio 
of stresses (m) and the ratio of deformation 
(;i) as shown. The depth to the neutral axis, 
I-, may then be scraled. The exact value is 

k = " 
n + m 

Example. What is the value of I- when 
f, = 16,000 lbs. per sf.uare inch and /,■ = C50 
lbs. per squ ro inch. 

« = 15 

w = = 24.62 

)i 15 

1: = = = 0.378 d 

n + m 15-1-24.62 
Fig. 9 shows the force triangle of the con- 
crete in compression and the steel in tension. 
To find the ratio of steel, proceed as follows : — 
The total amount of compressive force is 
found by obtaining the area of the force 
triangle. The height is led, and the average 
stress is fdZ. The compression - I; d {,12. 
We use kd for the depth, d has a definite 

Ntutrtl Axis 

C = T. which is the case for a beam with " bal- 
anced " reinforcement. 

Assigning values, 650/2 x 0.378 = 16.000 /.. 

325 X .378 

p = = 0.00767 

7) X 100 = per cent, of steel = 0.767 (0.77%). 

By formula, p = kl2 m. 
Assume a beam 6 ins. wide, with depth t. 
the centre of the steel = 9 ins. What is tlu- 
resisting moment? 

C = 325 X 0.378 x 0.874 x 6 x 9= 
= 52,242 inch-pounds. 
What area of steel will be required? 
A-bdp =6x9x0.0077=0.42 square inches. 
Check the steel : 

T = f,kjd = 16,000 X 0.42 x 0.874 x 9 
= 52,859 inch-pounds. 

The greater resisting moment in tension is 
due to having used 0.42 square inch of steel, 
the exaet area being 0.4158 squaie inch. The 
area of steel used is governed by the com- 
mercial sizes of bars and rods, or the expanded 
metal or wire fabric used. The actual steel 
area used will usually be greater than the 
theoretical area necessary. 

P^very reinforced concrete beam has two 
moments of resistance — one determined by 
the concrete, the other by the steel. The 
lesser of the two is the resisting moment which 
determines the actual strength. In design- 
ing slabs, a width of 1 ft. is taken, for a slab 
is merely a wide and shallow beam assumed 
to be made up of a number of beams each 
12 ins. wide. 

R is a moment factor. For the concrete 
R = fe kjl2. for the steel R ^ f,pj. Then 
the ben ding m oment M = R 6 rf- ; b = M/R </ 
d = V M/R b. 

To design a beam, select stresses for the 
steel and concrete and find R. The value of 
\I is the bending moment, which is equal to. 
or is less than, the resisting moment. Assnme 
a breadth and solve for the depth, or assume 
a depth and solve for the bre.idth. T beams 
are beams in which the floor slab is considered 
to be a part of the beam and carries the com 
pression. The breadth, b, is the width in the 
floor slab, and the stem below the slab must 
be wide enough to contain the reinforcement. 
The width necessary must include space 
between the bars, and" on each side to furnish 
bond and shearing strength. 

Below the steel there must be a covering of 
concrete not less than the thickness of the 
steel, with a minimum thickness of ^ in., this 

fig 3 

d. The 
a length 

value, and i is a percentage of 
moment arm, the lever, has 
= rf - * (f/3 or jd {j = 1- il-/3). The total 
compressive force in a thin slice, C = /r/2 
X kdjd = fci 2 X kj d'. 

The tensile force. T = f» k J d, in which 
A = area of steel in square inches. The steel 
ratio = A/t d = p, so it is necessary to intro- 
duce the breadth, 6, into the expression. 

We have now C = /c/2 x k j b <f- and 

T = fipj b d^ then fc fc/2 = fa p. provided ' that section. 

being for bond and fire protection. In all 
building ordinances minimum coverings of 
concrete are specified, as, for example, i in. 
for sUabs and 1^ in. for beams, girders, and 


Fig. 10 shows a beam with typical shear 
cracks. A beam may fail by crushing of the 
concrete in the top, by the stretching or slip- 
ping of the steel, or by shear, which is mani- 
fested by the appearance of shearing cracks. 
These cracks are an indication of tension in 
the concrete, and stirrups are used to prevent 
shearing (diagonal tension) failures. 

Fig. 11 (n) shows a uniformly loaded beam 
resting freely on two supports. At (6) is 
shown the shear diagram. The vertical shear 
at either end is equal to one-half the load. 
and is zero at the point of maximum bending 
moment. The vertical depth, measured in 
pounds, of the shear diagram at any point is 
a sum-curve of the loading to that point. 

The liending moment at any point is the 
area of the diagram between that point 
and the support. The vertical dimension i^^ 
in pounds. The horizontal dimension is in 
feet when the result is foot-nounds, and in 
inches when the result is inch-pounds. The 
bending moment at any section, such as 
y . . . y, \a the sum-curve of the shear at 

Jan. 3, 1917. 


Tlie shear being tension increases from the 
top and 'bottom skin to a maximum at the 
neutral axis, where the bending stress changes 
from tension to compression, and from com- 
pression to tension. In a beam of homoge- 
neous material with a uniform cross-section 
the shear is the same above and below the 
neutral plane at equal distances from this 
plane. This distribution of horizontal shear 
is found in a reinforced concrete beam above 
the neutral plane. Below the neutral plane 
the shear is constant, for all the tension is 
carried by the steel. The unit value of the 



shear at all depths from the neutral axis to 
the centre of gravity of the steel is deter- 
mined by the expression v = \}j b d, in which 
<l = depth from top of beam to centre of 
gravity of the steel. 

In Fig. 12 is given an illustration of hori- 
zontal sheur. Several planks, laid loosely oii 
end supports, bend under load, and the slip- 
ping of one plank past the adjoining plank is 
a horizontal movement. This is shown in 
Fig. 12, a. Spike, or bolt, the planks together, 
as shown in Fig. 12. b, and the sUpping cannot 
occur. The spikes or bolts represent with 
fair accuracy the stirrups used in reinforced 
concrete beams. The shear being a maximum 
at the ends where the bending moment is a 
minimimi, the fastenings are closer together 
than nearer the middle of the span, where 
the shear is a minimum, and the bending 
moment is a maximum. 

By reference to Fig. 116 it is seen that 
vertical shear exists at all points on a beam. 
We have seen that horizontal shear also exists 
at all points on a beam. Along the neutral 



plane it is equal to the maximum end vertical 
shear. Very thin horizontal slices, like the 
planks in Fig. 12, are assumed for the pur- 
poses of computation. 

The resultant, according to the parallelo- 
gram of forces, is a diagonal tension, which 
causes the cracks shown in Fig. 10. 

In designing reinforced slabs, beams, and 
girders, the resisting moment must be equal 
to or greater than the bending moment. 
When this is fixed the beam must be tested 
for shearing strength, and if it is found to be 
deficient in this particular, steel in the form 
of stirrups must be provided or the size of 
the beam be increased. The unit-shearing 
stress, V, should not exceed 40 lbs. per square 
inch for the concrete alone, nor exceed a total 
of 120 lbs. per square inch when stirrups are 


Experiments have shown that 70 lbs. per 
square inch is a safe allowance for bond in 
order that the steel and concrete may act to 
gether. The coefficient of expansion of the 
two materials is practically the same, so we 
need not fear a separation under extreme 
variations in temperature. 

Assuming the two materials to act together 
and the safe bond stress is 70 lbs. per square 
inch, what length of embedment is necessary 
for a bar 1 in. square, stressed 16,000 lbs. per 
square inch? 

The 1-in. square bar has 4 square inches of 
surface for each inch of length. 

16,000, (4x70) = 57.142 ins. embedment 

Four j-in. square bars have the same area 
as one 1-in. square bar, but the surface 
= 4 (4x4) = 8 square inches, and the length 
of embedment =16,000/ (8x7b) = 28.57 ins. 

\^^len a large bar having sufficient area to 
carry the tension is found to be deficient in 
bonding area, smaller bars may be used. The 
stress is the maximum tensile stress in the 
reinforcement at the point of maximum bend- 
ing moment, and the reinforcement each side 
of this point moist be long enough for bond. 


The bending moment decreases toward the 
supports, and when a number of bars are used 
they may gradually be decreased in number, 
always allowing not less than two to go the 
full length in the bottom. The other bars are 
turned up a short distance past the point 
where they are no longer needed for direct 
tension, being carried to within an inch of the 
top of the beam on an angle of 45° or less, 
and thence horizontally to the supports. Half 
the steel area may thus be bent up at 0.25 of 
the span from the support, one-half of the re- 
mainder at 0.15 of the span, and one-half the 
remainder at 0.10 of the span. These rules 
are closely approximate, and apply only to 
uniformly loaded beams. Exact rules are 
given in text-books. Bent-up steel assists in 
reinforcing the web or body of the beam, and 
thus strengthens the beam against failure by 


Stirrups should be fastened to the tension 
steel, not merely looped around it. They 
should extend far enough above the neutral 
axis to develop bond. The stress in the 
stirrups is tension, and it is equal to the ten- 
sion in the concrete multiplied by the ratio 
oi deformation at the instant the concrete 
cracks, when the whole stress is immediately 
taken by the steel. The stress used for 
stirrups should not exceed 75 per cent, of the 
.stress in the tension reinforcement. 

The stirrups sthould be equal in area, and the 
intervals should increase by increments of 50 
per cent, or logarithmically, the greatest in- 
terval being equal to d. The area of steel 
in the bent-up bars should be neglected when 
It is more than 0.15 L from the supports, for 
the maximum shear is at the edge of the sup- 
port at either end. When four stirrups are 
used at each end, the first wiU be i rf from the 
support, the second | d from the first, the 
third \d from the second, and the fourth d 
from the third. 


In a round tank the only stress is tension, 
being equal to w rf/2. in which u; = weight 
(pressure), !f = diameter. 

The tension is figured for strips 1 ft. wide, 
the weight used being the weight of the 
liquid at the depth of the strip. The weight 
of 1 cubic foot of water being 62.5 lbs. . w at 
the depth of 10 ft. is 625 lbs. At 15 ft. the 
weight is 937.5 lbs. 

The stress to be used in the steel cannot 
exceed f,/n. or large cracks will open. The 
concrete shell should be designed to carry all 
the stress with an assumed safe unit tensile 
stress. Steel should be used to carrj' all the 
tensile stress. This combination fixes the 
unit stress in the steel as equal to n^ until 
something causes the tank wall to crack, 
after which all the tension is carried by the 
steel with the assumecl fibre stress, f^. _ 

Owing to the difficulties encountered in con- 
struction, no tank w-all should have a thick- 
ness of less than six inches, regardless of the 
theoretical thickness found by computation 

Example: Give the proper thickness of 
wall and amount of steel required for a cir- 
cular tank 20 feet in diameter at a depth of 
14 feet, using a 1 : 2 : 3 concrete. 

wd 14 X 62.5 X 20 
T = = = 8.750 lbs. 

Use a tensile stress of 12,000 lbs. per square 
inch in the steel in order to care for possible 
mistakes in connecting ends of bars. Clamps 
should not be used. The best method is to 
have the ends of the bars overlap a length 
of not less than 40 times the thickness. The 
overlapping ends should not be in contact, 
but should be separated to leave a space of 
about twice the thickness of the bars so the 
concrete may surround the steel. 

As = 8750,/12,000 = 0.729 square inches 
(area of steel). 

Use three ^-inch square bars, giving an 
area of 0.75 sq. in. 

A safe tensile stress for well made 1:2:3 
concrete is 175 lbs. per square inch. Area of 
concrete = 8,750/175 = 50 square indies. 
The theoretical thickness of the wall is 50/12 
= 4.166 in., for the strip is 12 inches wide. 
The thickness, for reason given, should be 
not less thaji 6 inches, so the actual area will 
be 72 square inches. 

The area of the concrete is 72 square inches 
minus area of steel = 72 — 0.75 = 71.25 
sq. in. 

The ratio of deformation for 1:2:3 con- 
crete is 12, so the steel is equivalent to a 
concrete area of 12 x 0.75 = 9 sq. in. 

Adding : 71.25 4- 9 = 80.25 sq. in. 

The average stress Ls 8,750 -=- 72 = 121.53 
lbs. per sq. in. , and the stress on the concrete 
is 8,750 -=- 80.25 = 109.03 lb. per sq. in. 

The stress in the steel, when both materials 
are carrying tension is 12 X 109.03 = 1,308.36 
lb. per sq. in. 

If, for any reason, the concrete cracks the 
steel will carry aU the tension with a stress 
of 12,000 lbs. per square inch. Cracks may 
occur where an occasional poorly mixed batch 
of concrete was deposited ; where construc- 
tion joints are defective ; where forms were 
removed too roughly ; through ice pressure ; 
by reason of excessive temperature changes ; 
frequent and sudden changes in pressure due 
to quick filling or emptying of water ; through 
defective foundations. When the steel stress 
is not permitted to exceed 12,000 lbs. per 
square inch the only effect of cracking wiU be 
to throw the entire tension on the steel Jind 
the cracks will not he large enough to cause 
corrosion or leakage. 


Owing to the dustmen having enlisted or 
g:one on war work, tJie Willesden Council 
dust removal contractor is advertising for 
women to do the work. 

The death is announced, on Wednesday, 
December 27, after a .short illness, of Mr. John 
Collins Francis, the eldest son of the late John 
Francis, of the Athenccum, aged seventy-eight. 
The interment took place at Norwood Ceme- 
tery yesterday. 

ilr. John Chisholm Towner, one of the 
oldest auctioneers and estate agents in Sussex, 
has resigned his position as an Alderman of 
the Eastbourne Town Council. For more 
than half a century he has held a prominent 
position in the public life of the borough. 

Mr. Kingsley Wood, of the London County 
Council, speaking at the Great Arthur Street 
Institute, Moreland Street, last Sunday, said 
that a case had recently been brought to his 
notice of the wife of a munition worker who 
had six children, and fifty-two landlords in 
London had refused to let her a house, a flat, 
or rooms on account of her family. 

A petition has been presented to the Chan- 
cellor of the Diocese of London by the rector, 
the Bev. P. Clementi-Smith, and the church- 
wardens of the united i>arishes of St. Andrew* 
by the Wardrobe and St. Ann, Blackfriars. 
for a. faculty to authorise the erection of a 
war shrine in the churchyard of St Andrew 
by the Wardrobe, the church of the united 
parishes, in Queen Victoria Street. The de- 
sign for the shrine has been submitted to the 
Chancellor for his approval. 

At Chester last Thursday William Henry 
Lancaster, forty-three, until lately land a^ent 
to the Cheshire County Council small holdings, 
was charged with making a false entry in a 
cash-book in December, 1915. He pleaded not 
guilty. The County Accountant (Mr. V. Wil- 
liams) said that so far as it was possible to 
ascertain, up to the present there was a total 
deficiency of nearly £1,800. The investiga- 
tions were not yet completed. The accused 
was remanded for eight days. Bail was al- 
lowed, Lancaster himself in £2,000 and two 
sureties of £1.000 each. 





































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ii n 
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Jan. 3, 1917. 

'ur Hfllnstrations. 


This perspective drawing, to whicli we have 
devoted a double-page plate today, was 
.shown at the Royal Academy Exliibition the 
1916 season. The building was opened a few 
months ago. On December 15 last year we 
gave a detail drawing of tlie fa<;ade and the 
two principal plans of the building. The 
architects are Messrs. Crickmay and Sons, of 
Westminster, and the builders were Messrs. 
John Greenwood, Limited. The clerk of the 
works was .Mr. B. T. Price. The asphalte 
ivas provide<l by Claridge Asphalte Co., 
Limited, The lift was erected by Messrs. 
Waygoixl-Otis, Limited. The " first-floor 
rooms arc used by the High Commissioner, 
and the secretary's department is on the 
iie.xt floor. The facade is in Portland stone, 
and from roof is covered witli green Westmor- 
land .■ 


The accompanying scale illustrations were 
reproduced from the set of contract draw- 
ings prepared by the late John L. Pearson, 
R.A., when this famous church was restored, 
and also extended by the erection of the great 
porch with school over. Messrs. Cornish 
and (Jeynier. of North Walsham, Norfolk, 
were the builders. The sculpture and carv- 
ings were carried out by Mr. Nathaniel 
Hitch. We are indebted to Mr. Frank L. 
Pearson, F.R.I.B.A., for the loan of these 
elevations, sections and plans, which we bor- 
rowed as supplementary illustrations to the 
double-page view of the interior from the 
Ro}-al Academy Exhibition, lent us by Mr. 
John Eyre and given in our issue of Sep- 
tember 27 last, when two photographs of the 
church were contributed by the Rev. Dr. C. 
R. Davey Biggs, of Oxford. A descriptive 
article appeared in the same number, furnish- 
ing many particulars about the building and 
its history. Some of tlie parts of Mr. Pear- 
son's scheme were left to stand over, and, 
for one thing, Grinling Gibbons' font has 
not been shifted to the west end as shown 
by the plan. It remains in the south aisle 
in a line with the pulpit, which position is, 
of course, unusual. The Cromwellian tower 
of brickwork is left as it was without the 
additions of the new parapet and terminal 
lialls at the four corners as shown by the 
elevations. In our judgment, it is prefer- 
able to let this Protectorate belfry stand un- 
touched as a representative of its date and 
style, for very few instances of church work 
of this period remain as built. The par 
closes proposed by Mr. Pearson to screen the 
ohoir .md sanctuary from the aisles or side 
chapels will be adde<l some day after the 
war is over, when, no doubt, the south 
chapel will be furnished as drawn on the 

plan >and sections. Our previous descrip- 
tion is elucidated by the accompanying de- 
tails, and the deviation on plan from the 
otherwise rectiline,ir lay-out of the church 
will be seen to occur at the western end of 
the nave next Seething Lane, where the 
tower stands wedged in next the shallow 
warehouse facing Great Tower Street, ihe 
smaller plan, attached to the bigger one, 
gives an idea of the Sunday schoolroom 
above the groined new porch facing Byward 
Street. This extension occupies the site of 
what wfli* called the " glebcland cottage," 
pulled down to m.%ke room for the entrance 
and to o[>en up Barking .Mley. Little re- 
mains to say about the history of the church, 
because we recapitulated most of the lead- 
ing facts known about it. The Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects was presented 
lately with a collection of autograph and 
other original drawings by William Burges, 
A.R.A,. and there is a sheet, among the 
series given by Mrs, J. Wcntworth Watson, 
of the fine Evyngar memorial brass worked 
out from a rubbing from the slab itself, which 
we somewhat fully described in our article 
of September 27. It is situate in the central 

aisle of All Hallows, Barking. Burgee was, 
of course, pre-eminently an authority on all 
such matters, and by making this study he 
marked his keen appreciation of so excep- 
tional an example in this country of old 
Flemish metal chasing fixed in a parish 


This school is illustrated from the drawing 
exhibited at the last Royal Academv by the 
architects, Messrs. Basil Oliver and Henry J. 
Ohetvvood. A.A.R.I.B.A., of Southampton 
.Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. The plan is given 
in the corner of the water colour. The 
builder was Mr. Charles Roper, of Water- 
works Street, Ipswich. The elevation shown 
faces east, (ihe girls' and infants' entrance 
being to the right hand of this front, which 
overlooks the girls' and infants' playground. 
The boys' door is on the west front of tho 
building, where the assembly halls occur on 
the plan of both floors. 



The report of the Council of the Society of 
Arohitects for the year ended October 31, 
1916, to be presented to the annual general 
nieeting on Tliursday, January 11, states 
that the society has held forty-five meetings 
during the year, of which thirty-six were 
council and committee meetings and the re- 
mainder ordinary and extraordinary meet- 
ings. The only paper read before the 
society during the yea.' was the one by Mr. 
H. Freyberg, F.S.I., on the " Conveision of 
Mansions and Maisonnettes." 

The articles of association have been re- 
vised and amejided in certain directions. 
The chief alterations are some new dis- 
ciplinary clauses and the reconstitution of the 
council, giving London and country members 
definite proportionate representation thereon 
with more continuity of service, and ensuring 
an annual influx of new councillors. 

Thirteen candidates have been admitted to 
membership, one to graduateehip, and two 
to the register of students. After allowing 
for deatlis, resignations, lapses, removals and 
transfers to other classes, Uie total member- 
ship on October 31 was 1,171, made np as 
follows. Laet year's figures are given for 
the purpose of comparison : — 

1916. 1915. 

Members 96J 1,003 

Hon. Members 27 ... 30 

Retired Members 31 25 

Ora nates 9 178 

Students 141 148 

Upwards of 25 per cent, of the membere (in 
every class) are serving with H.M. Forces, 
and many " ineligible " members are engaged 
in otJier forms of national service. 

The council regret that the society has sus- 
taine<l the loss by death of the following : — 
Members: .1. D. Amderson, Dnrlvm ; A. E. 
Anthony, Brighton ; C. R. H. Asliby, Farn- 
ham ; Harrv Cooper, London; B. J. Emery,* 
Birmingham; T. C. Hope. Ilkley ; T. M. 
Houghton, Ijonilon ; David MacBean. Glas- 
gow ; Chas. F. Mitchell, London ; Kershaw 
Peters,* Grimsby ; W. Dymock Pratt, Not- 
tingham ; H. E. Rider, London ; A. W. 
Saville, London ; Alfred E. Smith, London : 
Benjamin Turner, Barnsley ; G. W. Watson, 
Melliourne ; Arthur Winch,* Leeds._ Hon. 
members : Harry Hems, Exeter ; Sir James 
D. Linton, Jjondon. Students : A. C. 
Baxter.* Leeds ; David Evans,* Welshpool : 
W. J. Hill.* Redruth. 

Financial Position. — In the last annual 
report it was iutimcted that in addition to 
tlie economies effected during that year, cer- 
tain others were in hand which would be re- 
flected in the accounts for this year. That 
forecast has been justified. The principal 
economies are in general household expenses, 
postage, printing and stationery, and legal 
oharges, in which there is a total reduction 

' Killed in aotion. 

on last year of £209. A saving of £130 ha.s 
been effected on the Journal in printing and 
postages. The ejcamination expenses are also 
considerably less. The maintenairce charges 
and sitlary list remain practically normal, and 
the only increase on the debit side is in de- 
preciation of investments. The net result 
for the year is a total reduction in expendi- 
ture of £450 and a surplus of £579, as 
against one of £326 last year. On the credit 
side there is a decrease of £90 in subscriptions 
and of £90 in the revenue from the Journal 
and Year Book. The latter is more than 
compensated for by the reduction in printing, 
and these publications have only cost the 
society £95, or £38 less than last year. 
There is a drop in examination fees, as 
was anticipated. A new source of revenue 
has been the letting of the society's rooms 
for arbitration meetings. Laet year's bank 
overdraft of £300 has been converted into a 
cash balance of £100, and the total surplus 
of assets over liabilities has been increased 
from £3,291 to £3,309. The oiitsfanding 
subscriptions are considerably in excess of 
last year, owing to concessions made to mem- 
bers, particularly to those serving with H.M. 
Forces, but as the whole of the surplus has 
been carried to reserve there is ample margin 
for these and other contingencies. The 
society's securities are free from any bank or 
other charges. This means that in seven 
years the society has paid out of revenue the 
whole of the expenses incurred in adapting 
and equipping its pemianejit premises, some- 
thing like £3,300 without encroaching per- 
manently on its .securities. The net financial 
result of the year is that by carefully nursing 
the society's resources and a cutting down of 
expenses the society has been able to provide 
against an inevitable heavy loss in revenue 
due to unpaid subscriptions and otlier causes, 
and to deal liberally witli thosie of its mem- 
bers temporarily unable to keep up their 
subscriptions, to increase its surplus, write 
off its doubtful debts, and make a good 
reserve against possibly worse conditions 
during the coming year. 

The graduatesliip and membersliip examina- 
tions have l>een held in London, Liverpool, 
Cardiff, York. Dublin, and Toronto. Nine 
candidates were admitted to the examina- 
tions, of whom only three satisfied tJie ex- 
aminers. Owing to the temporary decrease 
in the number of candidates, the council 
decided for the present to hold the examina- annually instead of bi-annually as here- 

The use of the society's premises and the 
services of the society's staff have been again 
placed by the council at the disposal of the 
Beaux ArLs Committee and of the Profes- 
sional Employment Committee of the Archi- 
tects' War Committee. The society has no 
financial responsibility in connection with 
either of these bodies. The Beaux Arts Com- 
mittee is continuing its important educational 
work at the Atelier during the war under 
somewhat modified conditions, and the Pro- 
fessional Employment Committee has been 
the means of giving a helping hand to a num- 
ber of architects at the psychological moment 
when paid employment, and not charity, was 
needed to tide them over a difficult interval. 

The council has long felt that, if possible, op- 
portunity ought to l>e made during the war 
for a conference with the R.LB.A. on some 
points at issue hitherto between the par- 
ties, so that the friendly relations existing at 
present between them might become perma- 
nent and the need for raising similar con- 
tentious questions after the war become 
non-existent. A letter was therefore ad- 
dr<»sed to the Council of the R.I.B.A. sug- 
gesting a conference of representatives on 
registration and other matters. In doing 
so the society pointed out that both lx)dies 
were to a large extont agreed upon the prin- 
ciple of registration, but divided ujxm the 
method of carrving it into effect, the result 
being that when either party made a move 

Jan. 3, 1917. 



a deadlock ensued. The society also sug- 
gested that even on less contentious matters 
there was unnecessary overlapping and dupli- 
cation of effort, and that there was I'oom 
for co-operative action on economic lines in 
the direction of the standardisation Rf 
forms of contract and othei- professional 
documents and in other ways. The reply 
of the Council of the R.I.B.A. was to the 
effect that as the subjects suggested for con- 
sideration at the proposed conference were 
of a ct'Utroversial character, the council were 
precluded from discussing them during the 
war by pledges given to their members. The 
council of the society received this informa- 
tion with regret. The council of the society 
win now have to consider whether under 
these circumstances it shall proceed indepen- 
dently in formulating its registration pro- 
framme, issuing its form of contract, and 
eveloping its other reform proposals in 
readiness for propaganda work after the 

In response to an invitation from the Re- 
search Committee of the Board of Education 
to the society to co-operate with them by 
indicating specific problems which in the 
opinion of the society require investigation 
in the industries with which the society is 
most intimately concerned, tlie council made a 
number of suggestions. On these being 
submitted to the Research Committee, the 
society was invited to elaborate its proposal 
for an investigation into the question of find- 
ing reliable but cheaper materials for use in 
building work. It was proposed by the 
Research Committee that the society should 
discuss the mattei- with one of their mem- 
bers, and a sub-committee was formed and 
a number of meetings held, at which the 
Research Committee's representative was 
present. The sub-committee is awaiting the 
I'eport of a scientific expert as to the lines 
on which such an investigation might best be 
conducted. If his report is favourable in 
principle the sub-committee wiU further con- 
sider the possibilities of the society under- 
taking to conduct research e.xpenments in 
the direction of converting local products into 
suitable biulding materials, and to disburse 
any grants which the Research Committee 
may make for this pui-pose. 

The report and statement of accounts cf 
tlie society's branch at Johannesburg show 
that, like the parent society, the branch 
is in a sound position numeiically 
and financially. The branch has taken its 
share in supporting patriotic objects both 
in South Africa and at home, and during the 
vear it sent a contribution of £10 10s. to 
the funds of the Professional EmplojTnent 
Committee of the Architects' War Commit- 

Generally, the aim of the council during the 
year has been so to administer the society's 
affairs and finances as to enable it to assist 
those members in temporary difficulties owing 
to the war to retain their membership, to 
carry on the necessary work of the society 
efficiently, and to support, those professional 
bodies formed for the relief of distress or 
for the purpose of national service in any 
form. By adopting this policy the council 
has retained the confidence and support of 
the members of the society, as sliown by the 
practically undiminished membership, 

strengthened its financial position, provided 
for contingencies, and enabled the society as 
a body to be of some senice through the 
organisations it has supported, both to the 
profession and the communitv. 


In the absence of the President. Mr. S. C. 
Dowsett, on active service in East Africa, the 
Acting President, Mr. D. Ivor Lowis, ])re- 
sented the tenth annual report of the branch 
at a meeting held in .Johannesburg on Octo- 
ber 10, 1916. 

The total membership is fifty-five — a de- 
crease of four. The death of Mr. J. D. 
Anderson, of Durban, was a great loss to the 
profession, the branch, and the society. Some 
30 per cent, of the members are on active 
service, including the retiring President. 

The financial position is sound, there being 
a credit balance in the bank of £130. 

Owing to the war, the architectural clas.«es 
at the S.A. School of Mining and Techno- 
logy were poorly attended, and the branch 
prizes were not allocated in full, but a book 
prize of the value of £4 10s. was awarded to 
Mr. W. B. T. Newham, who attained a first- 
class pass with distinction and first place in 
the examination. The branch has renewed 
its offer of prizes to the value of £9 10s. for 
the forthcoming session. 

The Union of South Africa Registration 
Bill is not being pressed by the branch at 
present, but at a more opportune mome;it 
the branch will resume its active propaganda 
in conjunction with the other architectural 

The report was adopted, as was the foUow- 
ing financial statement to September .MJ. 
1916 :— 

1915. £ s. a. 

October 1.— To Balance 106 15 9 

Moiety of Members' Fees from London 42 i lo 

£-149 7 

„ „ £ s. d. 

By Rent of Boardroom 5 5 

"Prizes 4 10 

„ Legal Expenses 5 13 li 

„ Postages and Sundries ,3 1 4 

„ Balance at Xationa! Bank of S..\ 130 10 4 

the fact that the roofing mills of the United 
States have a total estimated aimual produc- 
tion of 237,000 tons of finished roofing of all 
kinds, equal to about 11.300,000 " squares." 
By a square of roofing is meant 100 square 
feet. The utilisation of the waste bark in 
this industry should, it is said, enable the 
mills to reduce their manufacturing costs 

In addition to the use of bark in roofing, 
papers made by the Forest Products Labora- 
tory on the basis of 80 per cent, of waste tan- 
bark have been successfully printed on a com- 
mercial twelve-colour wallpaper printing 
machine, and give promise of being entirely 
satisfactory. Other paper of the same make- 
up has been made into fibre conduits by a 
commercial manufacturer. 

Other possible uses of waste bark which 
suggest themselves, say the Forest .Service 
paper experts, are the use of bark mixed 
with ground wood for the production of wall 
board, or with sulphite screenings in the 
manufacture of car liners. Studies already 
made at the Forest Products Laboratorj' in- 
dicate that it may be possible to use waste 
hemlock and oak tanbark in making a large 
variety of pulp products. 

£149 7 

Examined and found correct. 

D. Ivor Lewis. 
Acting President, D. M. BcRTON. 
Honorary Treasurer, E. H. W.^CGH. 

Clause 4 of the branch rules was altered to 
provide for three vice-presidents instead of 
one, subject to approval bv the Home 
Council, which has since been given. 

The following officers were elected for 
1917 :— President, D. M. Burton; Vice-Pre- 
sidents, W. J. McWilUams, H. G. Veal"; 
Hon. Secretary, M. .1. Harris: Hon! 
Ireasnirer, D. M. Sinclair; Council— S C 
Dowsett, E. H. Waugh, D. Ivor Lewis ,T 
F. Beardwood; Auditor, .J. S. Donaldson. 

The meeting approved, subject to confirm.a- 
tion by the Home CouncO, which has since 
been obtained, the following resolutions 
agreed by the branch representatives at a 
joint conference of architectural bodies held 
at Johannesburg on June 28, 1916 :— " That 
this meeting expresses its confidence in the 
Registration Committee recently appointed by 
the Association of Architects, and 
considers that the Registration Committee 
appointed by the various centres constitutes 
the proper body to act on behalf of the 
united profession in South Africa." "That 
this meeting affirms its sympathy with the 
proposal to preserve the identfty of the 
existing Soutn African architectural sccieti-'s 
for local purjroses, but to affiliate the said 
societies with a new organisation — namely, 
the South African Institute of Architects — 
to deal with broader questions." 

The meeting closed with votes of thanks 
to the retiring officials and members of 


A method of using waste hemlock tanbark 
to replace partially expensive rag stock in the 
manufacture of felt roofing has been 
developed at the United States Forest Pro- 
ducts Laboratory, and is now being used com- 
mercially by co-operating mills, according to 
an announcement made by the Forest Ser- 
vice. It is stated that in these mills from 20 
to 30 per cent, of the rags is being replaced 
by waste bark, and that the quality of the 
finished product is equal to that manufac- 
tured solely from rags. Members of the 
Forest Service who have been conducting the 
experiments say that the utilisation of the 
bark will make it possible to effect a con- 
siderable saving in the manufacture of felt 

According to the census of 1909, over 
698,000 tons of hemlock bark were produced 
each year in the United States. After the 
tannin is extracted this bark is used for fuel 
purposes, for which it is said to have a value 
of 50 cents per ton. 

The extent of the savings rendered pos- 
sible by the new methods is pointed out by 

ilr. Anderson Hague, a well-known artist, 
died at his residence at Deganwy, Conway, 
0:1 Sunday week, aged sixty-six. Bom at 
Manchester, he studied at the ilanchester 
School of Art, and soon gained a recognised 
position as a landscape painter. He ex- 
ihibited regularly for many years at the Royal 
Academy and was a member of the Royal 
Institute of Painters in Water Colours, and 
vice-president and one of the founders of the 
Royal Cambrian Academy at Conway. His 
art was essentially English. 

Mr. Charles Henry Talbot passed away at 
his residence, Lacock Abbey, on Tuesday. 
week, in his seventy-fifth year. The de- 
ceased gentleman was the son of Wm. Henry 
Fox Talbot, who was bom in 1800 and died 
in 1877, and who shared with Daguerre the 
credit of inventing photography and the sole 
distinction of its application to photo-engrav- 
ing. With Mr. C. H. Talbot, who was a 
bachelor, the male line again comes to an 
end. Mr. Talbot, whose death we now re- 
cord, loved the old abbey where he lived 
all his life. He welcomed the Wiltshire 
Archseological Society to it on several occa- 
sions, and in the early eighties the British 
.\rchseological Association, at its meeting in 
Devizes, included it in a week's itinerary. 
It was, of course, greatly altered from its 
conventual character by WilUam Sharington 
when he converted it into the house of a 
Tudor gentleman. It remained substantially 
as he left it throughout the seventeenth and 
part of the eighteenth century, but consider- 
able modifications of Sharington's work were 
made bv John Ivery Talbot and W. H. Kox 
Talbot. ' 'There remain, however, a pleasing 
cloister court, in which is the gravestone of 
the foundress of the abbey and several of the 
domestic buildings of different dates. The 
work of restoration, which was both conser- 
vative and careful, was continued by Mr. 
Talbot, who reserved one-half of the income 
of the estate for the purpose, and the pic- 
turesque houses in the villages are memori-ils 
of his architectural zeal. The parish church, 
of which the Talbots were lay rectors, was 
particularly the object of Mr. Talbot's study 
and care, and he restored the chancel in 
memory of his father. 

^ >—•••—< 

Boyle's latest patent " Air-Pump " ventila- 
tors, supplied by Messrs. Robert Boyle and 
Son. ventilating engineers. 64. Holbom Via- 
duct, E.G., have been employed at the City of 
London Guardians' Institution, Bow Road, E. 

The death is announced of Mr. Thomas 
Lowe, J.P. . of Tamworth. who was mavor of 
the borough in 1908 and 1909. He had" been 
in practice in Tamworth as an auctioneer and 
valuer for over forty years. On the formation 
of the Tamworth Public Cattle Sales Com- 
pany, Limited, ho was appointed manager, 
and jointly with his partners held the position 
until the time of his death. Mr. Lowe was 
72 years of age. 



Jan. 3, 19 i 7. 


At the Xovemiber meeting of the Peiiii- 
sylvania C'haiJtiT of the American Society 
of Heating and Ventilating Engineers the 
topic of the evening was " Open-Aix School 
Rooms," and a paper wa.s presented on this 
subject by Dr. Walter Roach, of the Phil- 
adelphia Bureau of Health. 

After outlining the necessity for o])en air 
sdhool rooms and tlie advantages to be de- 
rived from tlieir use, Ur. Roach illustj-atel 
the work being done in Philadelpliia along 
these lines by jiieans of motion j)ictures. The 
.iddress by Ur. Roach was as follows : — 

" There are in the public schools of the 
United States to-day u]>ward of 22.000.000 
jjupils, and careful jihysical e.\amination.s by 
school physicians of about 8,000.000 of 
children in the larger communities ha.« dis- 
closed tlie faut that two or more million aie 
\inder-nounisli?d — ana>mic, and pretaibercular. 
If the same jiroportion obtains (and it pi'ob- 
ably does) we have .soattei'i'd generally 
t hu-ougihout the schools of tlie lanl nearly 
5.000.000 ciluildiren who should be in open 
air scli«ol rooms. 

" Since the original experiment at the 
Forest Schools of (^harlotteburg taken up by 
pif^gressive scIio.tI men in England a-nd 
started in this country at Providence. R. I.. 
as late as 1898, tli-e idea has been gra<liially 
spreading tlrrough the United State.-; until 
to-day we have no less than eight hundred 
open-air schools, and nearly five thousand 
open-window class-rooms .harbouring twenty 
thousand children from Maine to California. 
The reports gathered from the teachers in 
these class-rooms and the school medical in- 
spectors, under whose care the experiments 
have been made, show with uniform con- 
stancy, regardless of climate, longitude and 
latitude, that the improvement in these chil- 
dren is most marke<l. 

" This can be more clearly illustrated by 
an individual e.\periment conducted during 
the fall and winter and spring at the .Alex- 
ander Dallas Bates School, Philadelphia. 
where an opportunity was aff<irded to study 
the effects of a fresh air at low temperature 
on the physical and mental processes of chil- 
dren. Two groups of normal third-grade 
pupils were available for the One 
group occupied a room heated and venti- 
lated in the usual maiuier, and the other 
group (with the consent <if their parents) 
were taught all through the winter in a class 
rf>om with the windows wide open. Desk- 
chairs were provided for routine work in this 
room. These could easily be moved b- the 
pupils to clear the floor space for physical 
exercises. Sw'eaters, toques and knitted 
gloves were provided for use in exception- 
ally cold weather and soft woollen blankets to 
protect the children's lower extremities from 
the cold floor. In all respects the room was 
e(iuii)|)ed like the ordinary class-room except 
that it wa,« cut off from the regular heating 
plant of the building and the windows ke)it 
wide open. The regular .school programme 
was followed during the term, the pupils were 
not fed at the school, none was tubercular. 
The two cliisses were as equally balanced as 
])ossible, assigned to two teachers of ecjual 
merit, each te.icher receiving an eqiuil num- 
ber of the "Ijrighti. the near-bright, and the 
retarded pupils of the grade, as the promotion 
tests had determined them at the close of the 
preceding term, before any thought was en- 
tertained of this experiment. The 
tiualifications of each child were well known. 
There was no other selection, the children 
coming from the same kind of homes, so that 
the test was reasonably fair. 

" Each week we weighed these children 
(forty-four in each classroom), watched their 
study and their play, and otherwise compared 

" In the open-window room the average 
gain per child was 2 1-5 lbs. in each three 
months, while the same number in the wnrm- 
:\'<r room for the same periods averaged but 
iifteen-sixteenths of a pound gain. This gain 
was remarkably miitorm, boys and girls alike, 
norm.ll and subnormal alike, and was pretty 
evenly distributed throughout each class. 
The open-air pupils were better behaved. 
• were more alert, ouicker to learn, requiring 
less review work, and very little discipline : 

they were almost entirely free from day- 
dreaming, were happy at' school, and very 
regular in attendance. To determine the 
effect of mental stimulation of the fresh, cool 
air as compared with study-work in the warm- 
air room the school priucij)al conducted fre- 
<pient tests in memory work, spelling, and 
arithmetic, calculated as Jar as possible to 
eliminate the question of the merit of the 
teaching. I'hese tests were applied at un- 
expected times on dilfcrent days, covering a 
period of "many weeks, with the temperatures 
ranging in the open-window room fi-om 48 to 
50 degs. F. , and in the warm rocmi from 
68 to 72 degs. of temperature. The per- 
centages were calculated for the groups, and 
in every particular the fresh-air groups we.'e 
I'ound to have the decided advantage. As 
an ev'idenoe of interest shown by parents in 
this method of vitalising their children, many 
letters were received by the princijial of this 
school after the mid-winter promotion because 
some of the open-air children in this graded 
school were to be promoted into upper-grade 
classes in warm rooms, requesting that such 
children be restored to open-window class- 
rooms, with the result that the district super- 
intendent found himself required to organise 
additional open-wijidow rooms in that school. 

" .-Vn experiment of this sort can easily tie 
tried in the schools of any town or city. Jt 
is not designed, it should be noted", f.jr 
tubercular or physically deficient children, 
but for normal, healthy children, in order to 
maintain their health and steady growth and 
quicken their powers of study. 

"The inilucnce of cold is to create a desire 
for active exercise, a natural physiological 
demand for increased circulation. To meet 
this need a series of short physical exercises 
are required at frequent intervals in cold 
weather between lesson pej'iods. Such exe'-- 
cises .should be designed to produce thoracic 
elasticity and promote normal chest ix- 
pnnsion and deep breathing. The children 
should be impressed with the necessity 
of thoroughly ventilating the lungs, .Vs 
well as the room. In no case should 
exercise be prolonged to the point of 
fatigue, nor allowed to b^.come sufficiently 
active to produce perspiration. To properly 
carry out such exercises ample unobstructed 
Hoor-space is essential, and can easily le 
secured in the most practical way by equip- 
ping the room v^'ith movable school furniture, 
which the children can themselves ea.sily move 
aside without noise or confusion and back In 
position when the exercises are completed." 


By R. J. Wk;, J. C. Pk.vrson, and W. E, 


Owing largely to its general attractiveness 
the so-called " stucco house " has become very 
jiopular in recent years, especially in the 
suburban districts of large cities. In fact, 
the iiurease in the use of stucco for residence 
construct :oii has been .so r.ipid that there has 
been little iipportunity to observe whether the 
methods and materials commonly employed in 
this class of construction will stand the 
of time and insure satisfactory service and 
durability. In consequence, many inquiries 
are received by the Bureau on this subject, 
a considerable number of them being 
jirimipted by the knowledge of failures or of 
cases in which stucco has not proved satis- 

Five years ago (in 1911) the Bureau, in co- 
operation with the Associated Metal Lath 
Manufacturers tindertook to carry out some 
exposure tests of metal lath plastered with 
various ]dastering materials for the purpose 
of determining the durability of different 
types of lath and the best methods of construc- 
tion to insure the protection of the metal 
from corrosion. These tests (which are still 
in progress) have demonstrated that painted 
or preferably galvanised lath well embedded 
in a dense, water-resistant stucco should 
preserve the metal indefinitely under norma! 
conditions of exposure. 

Not all of the plastering materials used in 
these tests were .satiffactorv. and it was the 

' Abstract o( Technologii! Paper No. 70 ol the U.S 
Bureau of Standard Notes. 

desire of certain niHiuifacturers to have the 
tests repeated or extended with certain modi- 
fications in the mixtures and methods of 
application. In the meanwhile, information 
was accumulating which indicated that cor- 
rosion of the metal lath was not by any 
means the only fault to be overcome in stucco 
construction, and suggested that an investiga- 
tion of the entire subject would be of value 
to architects and contractors as well as to 
prospective house owners. 

The natural interest of the manufacturers of 
cement, lime, gypsum, metal lath, hollow tile 
and many proprietary mattrial.s in tliis subject 
suggested the desirability of calling a con- 
ference and |il;uining further work in co- 
operation witli an advisory committeei com- 
posed of members of the industrial organisa- 
tions concerned, together with representatives 
of the Bureau. This committee was organised 
in 1914 and its membership now includes 
re))resentatives from the Supervising Archi- 
tect's Office of the Treasury Department, the 
American Concrete Institute, and three con- 
tracting plasterers of wide 'experienoe from as 
many large cities, as well as representatives 
from the industries. 

This committee by frequent conference and 
correspondence drew up a programme for a 
comprehensive in\estigatiou of stucco con- 
struction, to be followecl later by an investiga- 
tion of interior plaster construction. In 1915 
the plans of the committee materialised in 
the erection of a test structure on the Bureau 
grounds containing 56 ex|jerimental stucco 
panels, each aj)proximatelv 15 ft. long and 
10 ft. high. The building itself i.s 200 ft. 
long, 26 ft. wide, and 24 ft. high, the in- 
terior being available for the erection if 
plaster walls and jiartitions of various types. 
The stucco panels, which were completed in 
November, 1915, represent practically all the 
common types of stucco construction, a 
variety of mixtures being used on metal lath, 
wockI lath, hollow tile, brick, concrete block, 
plaster board, gypsum block and concrete 

Ill .\pril. 1916. a careful inspection of the 
condition of the panels was made and a pro- 
gress re|x>rt drawn up for publication, together 
with a full description of the test structure. 

This report shows that only two of the 
56 panels were entirely free from cracks 
six months after the panels were erected, and 
a number of them were in very poor condi- 
tion. On the other hand, about 40 per cent, 
of the panels were rated as satisf.ictory, the 
remainder being in various stages of deteriora- 
tion. While tiie condition of the test panels 
as a whole is rather discouraging, it should 
be mentioned that the smooth type of finish 
emploved, cominen ially known as sandfloal 
finish," is well adajjted to bringing out the 
small defects, such as cracks, blotches, un- 
even texture, etc., and since it must be as- 
sumed that commercial stuccos are subject to defects in even larger measure than the 
carefully constructed test panels, the advis- 
ability of using the rougher finishes is appa- 

I'p to the present time the investigation 
has shown the necessity for further experi- 
mental work, and no attempt will be made to 
draw up even tentative sj-vecifications until 
the results of this work can be compared and 
combined with the results of an extensive field 
investigation. In the latter an endeavour will 
be made to subject the condition of stucco 
houses or buildings which have been standing 
preferably five years or longer, in order that 
reliable data may be obtained on the 
durability of different types of stucco on dif 
ferent bases in different parts of the country. 

The present progress report does not, there 
fore, include definite recommendations fai 
stucco construction, in accordance with the 
decision of the advisory committee that the 
tests have not gone far enough to warrant 
general conclusions. Nevertheless, a study of 
the foi-ms of construction and the present con- 
dition of the (lanels, which are fully described 
in the report, will yield much suggestive in- 
I'ormafiou to those" who are especially into 
rested in the subject. 

The war shrine at St. Buinabas Church. Eal- 
ing, is to take the form <if :i Ivc'lv/^it-' in tho 
church grounds. 

Jan. 3, 1917. 



— I » I 

Coventry.— There is to be no formal 
ceremony of o]>eiiiiig the fine pile of buildings 
which are now the Council House of Coventry 
—but several department.s of the corpora- 
tion are now taking possession of the quarters 
appropriated to their use. and as the 
furnishing proceeds the whole of the offices 
will be occupied. The street frontages aj-e 
carried out in Runcorn stone, with roofs of 
Cotswold stone, in the style considered 
to harmonise with the surroundings and the 
ancient traditions of the city. The frontage 
to .St. Mary's Hall is in brick and stone, in 
the designing of which the foregoing con- 
siderations hav« been taken into account. In 
the half-basement accommodation is provided 
for the weights and measures department, 
together with storerooms, etc., and there is 
also ip,:luded a recreation room for the police. 
On iihe ground floor are the city treasurer's, 
rates, electricity, and gas departments. The 
town clerk (Mr. G. Sutton) has rooms on the 
first floor, and the city engineer is on the 
same floor. Disconnected from these is the 
council suite of rooms, overlooking St. Mary's 
Hall. This consists of council chamber, which 
is 60ft. by 33ft., with ante and committee 
rooms and Mayor's parlour. Approached by 
a separate staircase is a small public gallery. 
The second floor is occupied bv the educa- 
tion department and the medical ofiicer of 
health. The building has a frontage to Earl 
Street of 275ft., to St. Mai-y's Street 116ft., 
to Hay Lane 53ft., facing St. Mary's Hall is 
a frontage of 270ft. The cost of tlie building 
work has been about £60,000, and the ex- 
penses of furnishing have to be added to 
this sum. 

Sw.iNSEA. — The Hotel Cameron, Swansea, 
lias been erected on the site formerly occupied 
by "Ye Olde Cameron Arms Hotel." one of 
the oldest and most famous posting-houses 
in South Wales. The principal facade is 
carried out in red Wilderness stone to the 
second-floor level, and in red pressed bricks 
with stone dressings above that levei. The 
■ground floor contains, in addition to the large 
banqueting hall, grill-room, lounge bar. 
luncheon bar, and billiard-room premises, 
besides ample cloak-room and servery facilities. 
The basement premises contain the kitchen 
offices. The first floor contains residents' 
billiard-room, ladies' drawing-room, coffee- 
room, and a fine commercial room about 
40 ft. square. Some 100 bedrooms are pro- 
vided in the various other floors. The total 
cost of the premises, including the works 
carried out in the first isntance, was about 
£45,000. The completion of the premises was 
carried out to designs prepared by and under 
the .«uperintendenee of Mr. Charles T. 
Ruthen, M.S. A. We illustrated the building 
in our issue of April 2, 1915. 

* »j»» « 




A detailed scheme of ways and means for 
providing building trade workers has been 
formulated by representatives of the Building 
■Trade Unions and submitted to the Muni- 
tions Labour Supply Committee. 

In the near future the Building Trade 
Unions have been informed that there will 
be required 3,065 carpenters and joiners, 160 
painters, 47 plasterers. 512 brick-setters, 265 
plumbers, 10.300 labourers, and that subse- 
quently 50,000 men of all trades wOl be re- 

In order to meet this impending demand, 
the following proposals have been put for- 
ward on behalf of the Trade Unions in- 
volved : — 

To release men now employed in the build- 
ing trades on private works and on non- 
urgent nndertakings. 

To endeavour, by offering good rates of 
■wages, to attract workmen from non-urgent 
work to building employment who left that 
work for other trades. 

To adopt the scale of allowances as stated 
on page 18 of tbe " Handbook on Controlled 

To check the military enlistment of work- 
men now employed in the building trades. 

To arrange to bring over from Ireland to 
this country bodies of Irish workmen suit- 
able for employment in the building trades. 

'To arrange joint efforts between the 
Labour Exchanges and Building Trade 
Unions for securing men for building trades 
work who are suitable for such work, but 
who are now employed on private work. 

To t-onsider the question of forming a 
representative joint committee to give effect 
to this and other means of securing the men 

As to wages, the Trade Unions suggest : — 
" That lOd. per hour shall be the rate of 
wages for all Jabourers sent to munition 
factory work, and that the London rate of 
wages shall apply to all craftsmen sent to 
munition factory work." 

Meantime, all building trade worker?, not 
engaged on munition work, have been ad- 
vised to enrol as munition volunteers. 

> mo^ < 


Alleged Conspikacy to DEFE.iro.— An 
alleged attempt to defraud the inhabitants of 
Sheringham came before the magistrates at 
Cromer Petty Sessions last week, when James 
\\iUiam Weston, a builder, of the Nest, South 
Street. Sheringham, and Kate S. Westgate, 
widow, now of Bournemouth, but formerly of 
Cromer and Sheringham, were charged by the 
Erpingharn Union Assessment Committee with 
conspiring to defraud the inhabitants of 
bhermgham with respect to rates levied on a 
boarding-house at that parish known as South- 
lands. Mrs. Westgato was further charged 
with wilfully giving false evidence before the 
Assessment Committee, and Mr. Weston was 
also charged with "counselling and procur- 
ing" the commission of that offence. Accord- 
\".S to the statement for the prosecution, Mr 
V\eston having built the boarding-house bv 
"°o,??' ^^^^' '' ^'** assessed by the overseers 
at £120, but they were told bv Mr. Weston 
that he had let it to Mrs. Westgate at £100 a 
year with the option of purchase, and thereon 
the house was assessed at £100 gross and rate- 
i'.ble ±,50. The Assessment Committee thought 
this too low and altered it to £150 gross Mrs 
NVestgate appealed and produced a lease let- 
nl.'f, *^\ property to her 'oy Mr. Weston at 
tlOO, whereon the Assessment Committee re- 
duced the assessment to £100 gross. Mrs. We-t- 
gate became bankrupt later, and at her public 
e'^'J'nination on November 21 last said that, 
although she had hired the house at £150 a 
year, she had taken a legal document repre- 
senting the rent at £100. Afterwards, she 
stated, she became somewhat nervous about it 
and consulted her solicitor, with the result 
that she and Weston went to London and 
jointly instructed a solicitor to prepare a new 
lease. That was on April 14, 1913. and was 
signed by both. It provided that this same 
property was let, notwithstanding that there 
was already a lease for ten years at £150 a 
.vcar for ten years, and in this there was the 
option of purchase at £2.500. It was sug- 
gested that there was some serious ulterior 
motive in leaving out the sum of £2,500 from 
the first lease and then nutting it in the second. 
That was so far as Mrs. Westgate was con- 
cerned, and seemed to be a clear attempt to 
perpetration of fraud upon the Assessment 
Committee and upon the ratepayers of Sher- 
ingham. For the defence, it was contended 
that at the time of the first letting of the house 
at £100 Mr. Weston did not know what the 
building would cost ; lit was at the time 
honestly thought by 'Mr. Weston that £100 
would b? a proper rental, and accordingly a 
lease for ten years at that annual rental was 
drawn up. It turned out that it wis neces- 
"arv to have another lease. Ibocause he found 
he had spent so much on the building that he 
could not afford to let it at £100. Scx>n after 
a new lease for £150 was executed. How was 
Mr. Weston responsible for what Mrs. West- 
eate did before ''he Assessment Committee? 
How could he defend; himself? Not a single 
word of what happened at the bankruptcy pro- 
cpcdings was evidence against Mr. Weston. 
They knew what the relations were between 
the parties, and it niis-ht be that Mrs. West- 
gate, when she had to file her ipetition in b-ank- 
runtcy, was not very friendly disclosed to Mr. 
Weston, and let her tongue run aw.av with h^-r 
in making accusations against a. man 'who in 
fact cnused her bankruptcy, in h.iving had to 
nress for h'f^ rent. It was a polluted source 
from wihich 'her evidence ca-me, and. also, they 
had been told' that such evidence must not be 
used against Mr. Weston. He contended thnt 
no jury could convict Mr. Weston on such 

evidence. What was there to prove that he 
had defrauded the ratepayers and hoodwinked 
the Assessment Committee ? At any time the 
Assessment Committee might have found out 
there was a new lease, for. so far as he was 
concerned, everything was put right in 1915, 
and it iiad taken the Assessment Committee 
three years to some to the conclusion ttiat it 
had been hoodwinked. A point had: been made 
with regard to the inclusion in one of the 
leases of the purchase price. It was easily 
answered, because when the first lease was pre- 
pared it was not known what the building 
would coet, and it was impossible to fix a pur- 
chase price. Mrs. Westgate used the first lease 
before the Assessment Committee for her own 
purpose ; it was of no benefit to Mr. Weston. 
The Chairman : Oh, what about Schedule A, 
land taxes, and so on? Mr. Dodson : For in- 
come-tax purposes I agree he might benefit, 
but if it is suggested he is guilty of an offence 
under the Revenue Act, there has been no 
charge issued against him. Mr. Reeve : There 
may be. The magistrates decided that a prima 
facie case had been made out, and both defen- 
dants, who in answer to the charge pleaded 
not guilty, were committed for trial at the 
Assizes. Each defendant was allowed bait in 
their own surety of £20. 

Party W.u,l Tbespass. — An action was 
heard at Greenwich County Court on December 
22. before his Honour Judge Grainger, when 
Mr. George Martin. 19, Eltham Road. Lee. 
sought an injunction to restrain Mr. Robert 
Findlay, his next-door neighbour, from commit- 
ting acts of alleged traspass by making unau- 
thorised additions to a party wall, and by ex- 
tending the roof of a structure in such a manner 
that the drip would fall within plaintiff's pro- 
perty. At the same time he claimed £50 as 
compensation for damage done by damp to his 
house as a result of defendant's action. Coun- 
sel were engaged on both sides, Mr. Champion 
being for plaintiff, and Mr. Moore for de- 
fendant. His Honour, by consent, gave judg- 
ment for plaintiff, with £20 damages, and costs. 
1 ■•» r 

A memorial tablet to the late Dr. E. G. 
.\rcher has been erected on the north wall of 
St. Mary's Church. Feltwell. The tablet is 
of brass, mounted on a light granite founda- 

Mr. Will Dyson, the caricaturist, has been 
appointed the official war artist to the Aus- 
tralian force. He is an Australian, born at 
Ballarat in 1833, and recently visited the 
British front, where he made his first essays 
in war drawings. 

Since the failure of the boring for under- 
ground water supplies the Rochdale Water- 
works Committee have been on the look-out for 
fresh sources of supply, and we hear that the 
ne*v works sub-committee are now in negotia- 
tion with the Bacup Corporation. 

Colonel George Frederick Allender. of The 
Cottage, Vyner Road. Bidston, Cheshire, archi- 
tect, who was at the outbreak of war appointed 
Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General. 
Western Command, who died on September 29, 
has left estate ralued at £22.396 gross. 

Mr. William Dickson, a West Lothian min- 
ing expert and contractor, and a shaftsman 
named Templeton, were buried on Monday in 
last week at the Harthill Colliery under a fall 
of debris. They were enlarging an air case at 
the time. Dickson was killed and Templeton 
was severely injured. 

In a sale of furniture and objects of art at 
" Wonham." Devon, conducted by Messrs. 
Osborn and Mercer, of London, a pair of 
Louis XVI. settees realised 4.350 guineas, a 
commode of the same period 1.250 guineas, a 
small table 105 guineas, two L.ouis XV. arm- 
chairs 175 guineas each, and two small pieces 
of tapestry 720 guineas. 

The death of Mme. Helen Baron, vee Sti- 
gand, has taken place at Saltwood. Kent. She 
was well known some years ago as a clever 
landscape artist. She exhibited in the Royal 
Academy, the Dudley Gallery, the Society of 
British Artists, and the Paris Salon. The 
Government acquired her full-sized copy of 
Turner's " Dido Building Carthage." hung in 
the Beaux Arts. Her work was also known 
at most of the colonial and foreign exhibitions. 
The Halifax Corporation have considered 
a proposal to construct a sewefr for tlie 
drainasre of Mixendon at an estimated cost 
■if £5.000. An agreement is proposed with 
Mr. I. A. Bulnier. Mixendon Mills, to treat 
the effluent from these mills, subject to Mr. 
Bulnier paying £500 towards the cost of th<» 
sewer, and £3 per million gallons additional 
eflSuent treated, guaranteeing that the pay- 
ment for the next five years shall be net less 
than £50 per annum. 



Jan. 3. 1917. 

(Bm (B&ct Wabit, 

Since the outbreak of the war house- 
building has been jiractically stopped in 
Scotland. The to Glasgow and other 
munition producing districts has created a 
liouse famine in some localities, and there 
is a good deal of over-crowding. The rapid 
growth of the number of naval workers at 
l{osyth has resulted in a house famine at 
Dunfermline and in some quarters of Edin- 
burgh in which the workers are settling 
•lown. In the Dairy district of Edinburgh, 
fur instance, there is hardly a vacant house 
under £20 rent. The Scottish -Xational 
Housing (,'ompany, formed to erect new at Kosyth, has stated that instead 
of the 900 houses whidi they promised the 
l!overnment to have ready * at Rosyth by 
March, 1918, they hope to have 1,600' houses 
leady by the end of 1917. By a new agree- 
ment with the Treasury the company are 
cMabled to make contracts for the erection 
of the new houses at the war prices now 
ruling. In addition, it has been arranged 
that if the rents received for the houses 
built in war time are insufficient to pay all 
charges, including a 5 per cent, dividend, 
the Treasury will make good the difference 
to the company. 

Under the joint auspices of the New York 
.State Conunission on Ventilation, tiie Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, and the 
-American .Museum of Safety, an investigation 
of three of the best methods of determining 
tlie amomit of dust in air has been carried 
out by Messrs. G. T. Palmer, L. V. Coleman, 
and H. C. Wiird, and the aesults obtained are 
K ven in Vol. VI. of the Atnerican Journal 
<if I'lMic Health. In the first of the 
methods investigated the dust-laden air 
is forced against a surface .smeared with 
glycerine, and the number of dust 
particles caught by the glycerine on 
.selected areas of the surface counted under 
the microscope. In the secon-d method the 
air is drawn through .eyru]), which is after- 
wards diluted with water, a drop of which 
is placed in a shallow cell under the micro- 
scope, and a count made in the same way. 
In the third method the air is drawn through 
a spray or curtain of water, which is then 
examined under the microscope as iit the 
s'cond method. In the second and third 
niethotla a rough determination may be made 
by a comparison of the turbidity of the waU>r 
with that of a series of prepared samples. 
The authors conclude that the watei-spray 
method is the best and most convenient to 
use under normal conditions, and they give 
a numl)or of directions as to the best way 
of caiTying out the observations. 

The church at Great Ponton is dedicated to 
tile Holy Cross. It is a fine building, erected, 
a.cording to Leland. i.i the year 1519, at the 
expense of Anthony EUys, merchant of the 
staple, wlio lies interred in the chancel, and 
whose arms are re|)rese.nted on the <lifferent 
partes of tJie steeple with the motto : " Thvnke, 
and thanke God of all." It is admireil for 
its proportion, and is 78 feet high. Mr. 
Ellys, tlie builder, is reported to have sent his 
wife a inscribed " Calais .sand/' without 
liny furt.her mention of its contents. On his 
relnrn to Ponton be .laked what she had done 
with it, and found she had put it in the cellar. 
He then acquainted her that it contained the 
bulk of his riches, with which, l)eing issueless, 
tliey mutually agreed to build a church in 
thanksgiving to God for having prospered 
them ill trade. 

/.tilbiltlrr, the illustrated supplement to 
the lifilincr TagrUnlt . publishes the photo- 
graph of the Manger at Bethlehem sculptured 
in the white chalk rocks of the Cham- 
pagne by a .soldier of the Land.sturm. The 
purpose of the article which accompanies the 
picture is to reveal " the inherent tenderness 
and religiosity of Germans and the softness 
..f heart which marks even the war-worn sol- 
diers of the West .it the time of the great 
Christian festival of peace and good will." 
In this picture the Babe is shown in His crib 
with Joseph and Mary on either side in 
adoring attitudes. A Prussian soldier stands 
at attention at the Babe's head, with pickel- I 

haube and rifle, and two other soldiers with 
bared heads stand to right and left. Tliree 
sheep are there in accordance with the utual 
Manger tradition, but what are we to say to 
the introduction of a pig nosing about in the 
foreground ? 



The Ncwca«tle-on-Tyne Education Connnit- 
tee have agreed to make application to the 
Bo«rd of Education for their recognition of a 
section of the .\tkinson Road Higher Elemen- 
tarj* School as a Junior Day Teehiiical School 
of engineering type for the instruction of 240 
boys. The cost of the provision of laboratory, 
workshops, oflioes, etc., is £2,200. 

The Hotel Victoria has been taken over by 
the Mini.stry of Munitions, and the whole of 
Ncrtliumberland Avenue is now practically in 
th,.' hands of the Government. The Ifotel 
Metropole. the Grand, the Constitutional Club, 
and the National Liberal Club have all been 
commandeered. The Hotel A'ictoria was built 
in 1889, a couple of years after the Hotel Metro- 

Three tablets in memory of Earl Kitchener, 
Lieutenant lIumiJux.-y Matthews, R.N., and 
Fb'ght-Licutcnant Stuart Garn<?tt were un- 
vcil«Hl last week in the chapel oi the Hei'itage 
Craft Schools. Chailey, Sussex. At the same 
time a window containing fra.gments of 
stained glass from Ypres Cathedral was un- 
veiled in honour of Canadians who fell at 

Owing to the restrictions on the use of 
copper St. Pancras Borough Council last w^eok 
decided that for the present no application? 
for electric current, other than those for war 
purposes, be accepted. The Islington Borough 
Council has raised its charges for current 
another 10 per cent., dating from January 
1, making altogether an increase of 25 per 
cent, on pre-war rates. 

ArchiEology is the poorer for the deatli of 
the Rev. R. M. Serjeantson, rector of St. 
Peter's, Northampton, and eldest son of the 
Rev. W. Serjeantson, the vicar of Acton Bur- 
nc'. Mr. Serjeantson's knowledge of his 
adopted county was shown in a variety of 
b(X)Ks and papers on the archipology of North- 
amptonshire, and ho was editor of the two 
volumes of the Victoria County History of tliat 
county. His death, at tlie comparatively early 
age of fifty-five, is a great loss to his fann'ly 
and his parish, and his many friends. 

Temporary Major J. Wightman Douglas. 
K.K., who has been awardetl the D.S,0. for 
gallantry and devotion to duty in the field, 
is the second member of the So<'iety of Archi- 
tects sem-ing in that branch of the army to 
receive this distinction during the present 
war. Major J. Wightman Douglas supervised 
the wiring of the whole line inider heavy fire, 
and set a splendid example of courage and de- 
termination throughout. Major J. Svightman 
Douelas is an architect practising at Newcastlc- 

Mr. William Hunter, of 57, Moorgate 
Street, died on Sjiturday week, at the «go of 
eip:hty-two. Mr. Hunter was oricrinally a fur- 
niture dealer, but more recently carrier] on 
business as a timlber merchant. Mr. William 
Hunter was a Past Master of the Cloth- 
workere' Company, and one of the auditors of 
the jMpish of St. Stephen, Col.:>man Street. 
His father w-aa AUIertnan William Hunter, 
who represented the Wjird of Colenvan Street, 
■i'"l scm-ed the office of Lord Mayor in 1851- 

.\t the meeting of the Carlisle HeaWi Com- 
mittee last Saturday it was i-eported that the 
town clerk had laid before a special meeting 
the opinion of Mr. A. Macinorran, K.C., on 
the case he had submitted to liim with refer- 
ence to the claim of the Central Control Board 
(I^iquor Traflicl to be exempt fix>m compliance 
with the provisions of the different Acts and 
bylaws in force in the city with regard to 
new ibuildings, and thait. it had been resolved. 
in the circumstajices, that no further action be 

Durinir the temporary closing, from Monday 
Inst, of the Box Tunnel, the Great Western 
through services will be ninintnined by the 
diversion of the trains to the Bra<lford or Bad- 
minton routes, and local services will be run 
between Bath and Box and between Cliii>i>en- 
ham and Corsham. so as to suppiv Box and 
Corsham with the best possible services in sub- 
•stituflon of the through semice they ordinarily 
enjoy. There will he some .slight increases in 
the fares for single journevs. but spa.son tickets 
at pre.ient available via Box may be used on 
the alternative routes without extra charge, 
although no break of the journey will be 


Wa do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinioiM 
ol our corre£poDdeDte. All commuDicatiODj ihoald 
be dravn up ai brjeS; u possible, as there art 
mmnj claimantg upon the space allotted to 

It u parucularlj requested that all drawings and 
all communicatioDs respecting illustrations or literao 
matter, txKiks (or review, etc., should be addressed 
w> the Editor of the Bi'ildi.xg Neve, Efflngbam 
Uouse, 1, Arundel Street, Strand, W.C., and not to 
members of the staff by name. Delay is not intre- 
quently otherwise caused. All drawings and otber 
jommunicalioiis are sent at contriliutors* risks, and 
the Editor will Dot undertake to pay for. or be liabls 
for, unsought contributions. 

When favouring us w'*Jb drawings or ptaotOirs{iiia, 
arclutects are asked aindly to state how Iod« Uit 
building has been erected. It does neither them DOf 
us much good to illustrate buildings which have beea 
•ome time executed, ezcepi uiujer special circnm- 

*. 'Drawings of selected compttition designs, im- 
portant public and private buildings, details of old 
and new work, and good sketches always wel- 
come, and for such no charge is made for in.sertion. 
Of more commonplace subjects, smai'. churches, 
chapels, bouses, ete.— we have usually far u^ore sent 
than we can insert, but are glad to do so wbCL spaet 
permits, on mutually advantageous terms, ^bic^ 
may be ascertained on appHcation. 
Telephonet Gerrard 1C91. 
Telegrams: " Tlmeserver, Bstrand. London." 

Bound Copies of Vol. CX. are now ready, and 
should l)e ordered early (price 12s. each, by post 
13s. lod.), as only a limited number are done up. 
A few liound volumes of Vols. XXXIX., ILL, 

xcii.. xcin., xciv., xcv., xcvi., xcvii.. 
xcviii., xcix.. c, CI., cii., cm., civ.. cv.. 

CVI., evil., CVIIl.. and CIX. may still be ob- 
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volumes are out of print. 

Most of the back Issues are to be had alnfl;. 
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RKCEIVCD.— O. V. and Co.— K. F. and R.— J. E. UK) 
Son.— F. A. N. and Co.— H. H. and Co.— A. C. 

Co., LI<1. 
R.— Yes. 

D. F.— Th-inks no. 
T. J. W.— .\ll were returnwi. 
\V. II. H.— Praotio.illy yon ran do no'.hing. 

— I « I — 


Headquarters, Chester House. Eecleston Place, S.W. 



OFFICER FOR THE WEEK.— Platoon Commander 
J. O. Ohondle. 

NEXT FOR PITY.— P-it on Commander A. 

WEDNESDAY, Januarv 3,— Instructional Cl»s». 
(l.l,-i: Platoon Drill, No. 1 Platoon. 

THrRSDAY, January 4.— PJatoon Dri I. No. i 
Plntiy>n: Ambulance Class, 6, SO. 

FRIDAY. Januarv 5.— Technical for PIsi>v>n No. 
10, at Regencv Street ; and Platoon Drill for 
Platoon No, 9; Signa'ling Class; RivTuit^' Drill, 
6.25: Lecture on Telephone*, 7.30. 

SATURDAY. Januarv 6.— Offlcers 
Parade. 2.45, I'niform, for Drill in Il.itteraea Park. 

SUNDAY. January 7.— Entron. ! ing at Otford; 
Parade Victoria <S.E. and C. Railway Booking 
OfHre>, S.4.'i a.m. Vnifomi, ILiv rsacks and Water 
Rottli.'i. Midday Ration to be carried. Kallway 
\'oii<-tuTs provided. 

MISRKTRV.— For a'l Companies, sec Notice »' 

NOTE.— Fnles* otherwi.s<. indicated, all DrilK etc.. 
will take jilace at Headqu.irters. 
Bv order, 

December SO, 1910. 


Several women architects are now employed 
in German military service, 

Mr. Matthew Scott, of 38, St. Edmund's 
Road, Gatesheod, builder, who died on Novem- 
ber 3 last, left estate sworn at the pros.^ amount 
of £10,565 Is, Id,, wifch net personalty 
£735 9s. 4d. Testator left his estate in trust 
for his wife for life, with remainder to (his 
children equally. 

January 10, 1917. 

Volume CXII.-No. 3236. 



> EflRTigham House, 

Currente C'alaino 21 

Push On ! Keep Moving 22 

Mr. Berger S«es It Through 23 

The Ideal House 23 

Slab Deflection anj Subsidence of Column Su|>~ 
ports in a Floor Tejit of International Hall, 

Chicago, made September, 1913 24 

Our Illustrations 45 

Obituary 46 

Coloured Concrete 46 

Building Intelligence 47 

Holding Power of Nails 47 

Our Office Table 47 

To Correspondents 48 

Trade Notes xviii. 


To Arms ! 
Competitions Open 
List of Tenders Open 
Latest Prices 







" Blackfriars House," now in course of construction 
near the site of Bridewell Palace, New Bridge 
Street, Blackfriars. E.G., for Messrs. Spicer 
Brothers, Ltd. Mr. Francis W. Troup, F.E.I.B.A,. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. View along the Cam. 
Drawn by Mr. Maurice B. Adams, F.E.I.B.A. 

Strand, W.C. 

.\ Ball-room Sthemf, designed and drawn by Mr. H, 
Butler (from the Exhibition of the Royal Society 
of British Artists, Suffolk Street, Pall Mall. 

.\ntique Trade Deacons' Chairs, Scottish Oak Fur- 
niture at Trinity Hall, the Headquarters of the 
Incorporated Trades Society, Aberdeen. Measured 
.ind sketched by Messrs. J. B. Nicol and R. W. 
Gibbon, Architects. 

Poultry Farm House, Longfleld, Kent. Mr. Sidney 
K. Greenslade, A.R.I.B.A., Architect. 

New Premises for Messrs. John Reeks, Ltil., (Juild- 
ford. Mr. Leopold Martin, F.R.I. B. A., Archi- 

Unvvtntt Calama. 

If, as we all hope, activity in the build 
ing trades comes when peace is made, we 
ti-ust the Departmental inquiry, suspended 
when war began, which related to the erec- 
tion of new buildings and the construction 
of public thoroughfares, will be resumed 
as soon as possible. This investigation 
into the control at present exercised over 
such works by bye-laws and special regu- 
lations, and their effect upon building, 
should prove fruitful. At present the con- 
trol vested in local authorities differs 
widely in various districts, and there is a 
lack of co-ordination which acts advei'sely 
in many directions. So far the Committee 
has held about eight or nine meetings, 
under the chaii'manship of Mr. Herbert 
Lewis, M.P. (Parliamentary Secretary to 
the Board of Education), with whom ai^e 
associated Sir Randolph Baker, M.P., Mr. 
A E. Collins (city engineer to the Nor- 
wich Corporation), Mr. Eustace Fiennes, 
M.P., Mr. W. T. Jerred, C.B. (of the 
Local Government Board), Mr. Raymond 
T'nwin, and Mr. Heniy Vivian. There 
are now one or two vacancies on the Com- 
mittee, among them being the seat held by 
the late Mr. Pointer, M.P., and these, we 
suppose, will promptly be filled when 
necessity requires. Surely an architect of 
undoubted position and experience might 
be asked to sei-ve ? 

don and for the big firms of solicitors who 
do agency business for their lawyer clients 
all over the country. Provincial lawyers 
generally would welcome a change by 
which they could both begin and finisli 
their legal work for their own clients 
locally. But, of course, the present 
method of having an agent in London 
pays them lx)th very well, and the fact 
that the country suitor has to bear two 
sets of costs does not come to much as 
against the weight of legal vested interests. 
The whole of our county court system is a 
confused compromise between old and new 
methods. The smothering power of the 
High Court in competition with these 
courts is maintained by the Bench and 
the central Bar in London. With un- 
limited jurisdiction for the county courts 
we should have decentralisation in legal 
business, local Bars, and country lawyers 
acting directly for their clients. Results 
would soon be shown in a cutting down of 
costs and a reduction of delays both in 
.London and the country. 

wl'.ere at a uniform fare of thr^pence. 
The idea startled some, but not more so 
than Rowland Hill's penny postage 
scheme had shocked the reactionaries of a 
previous generation. There certainly was 
something in Brandon's contention that 
a passenger gave far less trouble to his 
carriers than a letter or parcel. 

The building trades know very well the 
great difficulties and serious delaj-s that 
beset the recovery of tlieir debts. These 
are due to the defects and the muddle of 
our county court system and to the anoma- 
lous position of these so-called inferior 
eoui-ts in their competition with high or 
superior coui-ts. The war's awakening 
seems at last to have reached the law. 
Our new Lord Chancellor at once set up a 
Committee to look into the county court 
circuits, arranged more than sixty years 
ago, regardless of railways and based upon 
medieval methods. The Judicature Com- 
mission of 1875 wanted to make all county 
courts branches of the one High Court of 
Justice, and so really courts of fii-st in- 
stance. The plan perished under the 
political, and other, influence of the Bench 
and the Bar, and we are still where we 
were forty years ago. Decentralisation 
would be bad for the central Bar in Lon- 

It is not surprising that the anomalies 
created by the increase of railway fares on 
journeys of over twelve miles have excited 
protests and a demand for revision. The 
passenger who travels thirteen miles to 
his work — and in London tens of 
thousands travel more— feels aggrieved 
that he has to pay 50 per cent, additional 
on the whole journey, while the man who 
lives only eleven miles from his work con- 
tinues to enjoy the old rate. Again, many 
whose hours of work are early and late, 
are prejudiced by the fact that they are 
unable to obtain workmen's tickets, and 
others by the extensive closing of stations. 
If the charges are to be permanent we fear 
it will in many places delay or stop build- 
ing, and help to crowd back the workers 
into the nearer suburbs and slums of Lon- 
don and the rest of the great towns. 

Whether the State is sooner or later to 
take over the railways and bring better 
organisation to bear on the problems con- 
nected with the enormous increase of 
traffic of late years would really seem to 
be one of the earliest matters for serious 
consideration. More than half a century 
since we commented in these pages on the 
somewhat startling proposal of Raphael 
Brandon, who convinced himself and 
many others that with proper manage- 
ment it would pay to cany anj-body any- 

More than "a quarter of a century later 
came Mr. R. A. Cooper's still more revo- 
lutionai'y demand for free railway travel 
everywhere and anywhere for everybody. 
His idea was to save the present enormous 
and wasteful cost of railway administra- 
tion by raising the cost of the railway 
system by rates and taxes, just as the 
London County Council did that of the 
Woolwich FeiTy. We discussed the matter 
several times with him, and were decidedly 
impressed witli his grasp of his subject, 
and the time and industry he had devoted 
to its consideration. Glancing once again 
through his pamphlet, which was pub- 
lished at sixpence by William ;Eeeves, 
then of 85, Fleet Street, we confess there 
seems much to be said to-day — more per- 
haps than tlien — for his idea. Certainly 
the railroads are to all intents and pur- 
poses the highways of the public. The 
latter have been freed from tolls and are 
constantly being extended and developed by 
the State or the municipalities, as circum- 
stances demand. Cooper proved that the 
great loss incurred by the railway com- 
panies was due to their waste of seat 
accommodation. He showed that in 1888 
the London and North-Western ran trains 
for 320 days with a seating capacity of 
630,040,320, which only carried 56!629,440 
passengei-s, every empty seat meaning loss, 
unless it could be recouped by charging 
those who travelled higher fares. The 
pamphlet is worth careful study, and oui' 
belief is that on the lines it indicates, 
under the control of a really able admini- 
strator, a State management of the rail- 
ways would prove one of the greatest aids 
to industrv and a boon to all of us. 

During the development of the great 
railway systems of the world there has 
been a marked increase in the length, and 
a relative decrease in the cost and time of 
construction, of the long tunnels which 
were necessary to carry the lines across the 
various Continental divides. The most 
important of these tunnels, at least in re 



Jan. 10. 1917. 

spect of their length, are to be found in 
Ei.rope, mor(- particularly in the Alpin<- 
regions. The first of these, the Mont 
Oenis, Ijuilt in 1857-1871, is 7.5 miles in 
length, and the rate of progress was 
7.75 ft. per day. Th.n came the St. 
Cothard, 1872 t<. 1881, 9.5 miles in length, 
ill which the rate of progress rose to 18 ft. 
per day. The Arlberg tunnel, 6.5 miles 
in length, built in 1880 t.. 1884, was put 
through at the rat<- of 27.25 ft. per day. 
The Simplon tunnel, 1893 to 1899, 12.25 
miles in length, was built at the rate of 
36 ft. per day : and the Loetschberg tunnel, 
1906 to 1911, 9 mill's in length, was built 
at the same rate of 36 ft. per day. It is 
now proposed by Brig.-General H. M. 
Chittenden, U.S.A. (retired), to drive a 
two-track tunnel through the Cascade 
Range of mountains, which will be 30 
miles in length and have a sufficient eleva- 
tion not much over 1,000 ft. above sea- 
level, the object of this great work being to 
give a short and easy cut to Puget Sound 
and the great seajjorts of the north-west, 
and avoid the serious interniptions and 
disastrous accidents, which have occurred 
of late years on the present high-level 
railroads across the mountains. General 
Chittenden bases his estimates on the ex- 
p.rience had with the double-track Rogere 
Pass Tunnel through the Selkirk Range 
on the Canadian l'acifi<' Railway, which 
is now Hearing completion. Progress has 
Ijeen at the rate of about 52 ft. per day, 
which is a striking advance on the rate 
in the Simplon and Loetschberg tunnels 
through the Alps. To expedite the work, 
four shafts, from 1,100 ft. to 2,320 ft. in 
depth, would be sunk along the line of the 
tunnel, and it is (^timated that with thes*- 
four shafts the 30 mili'S of tunnel could Ik> 
put through in live and a-half years at a 
total cost of $43,237,000. 

Lord Cowdray of Midhurst has been 
appointed Chairman uf the Air Board. 
In accepting this oflice Lord Cowdray 
stipulates that he does so without salary. 
Lord Cowdray, as Sir Weetman Pearson. 
sat in the House of Commons as T,ilieral 
iMiniber for Colchester from 1895 to 1910, 
when he was made a pe»>r. He is the head 
of the firm of Messrs. S. Pearson and 
Sons, Limited, contractors, Westminster, 
whose work is world-famous. We rather 
i-egret to see it stated that the new Depart- 
ment is not to have full powers for the 
supply of machines and material to the 
two air services, naval and military. 
.\pparently the supply of material will 
still Ik- mainly or largely in the hands of 
till' Ministry of Munitions. In that 
we hope Lord Cowdray will see that the 
arrangement works better and more 
(piickly for the supply of the two services. 
He will have to secure co-ordination and 
smooth working without exercising the full 
powers of a separate munitions de])art- 
ment, if one may put it so. To bring 
srp.irafe dejiartments together and co- 
ordinate their efforts is thankless work, 
just now, especially when Sir Douglas is 
emphasising the need for more and more 
aeroplanes. Meanwhile, as in one instance 
that came under our notice one maker 
is at a standstill because one depart- 
m-nt will not give him the work till he 

has got the machinery, which is waiting 
delivery, and another will not give him 
the permit for the machinery till he gets 
the contract ' 

An exhibition of 93 good photographs by 
members of the Camera Club is on view at 
the club's i)remises, 17, John Street. 
Adelphi, till January 31. Of principal 
interest to our readers are '" Avila Cathe- 
dral," by Mr. J. R. H. Weaver (63), the 
■ Shrine of Bishop Waynflete, at Winches- 
ter " (68), and a very satisfactory interior 
of " Segovia Cathedral " (66), both by 
the same. Mr. John Keane has a pictur- 
esque view of " Old Zurich " (72). "Ves- 
pers " (5), by Mr. Oscar Hardie, is attrac- 
tive, and so is " Edinburgh — Winter " (6), 
by Mr. W. Thomas. "Houses on the 
HilJ " (36) deserves mention, and so does 
" Kievaulx, Yorks " (46), by Mr. Clement 
Alliston. In vigorous modern contrast is 
a ■ Power Station— Chelsea " (44), bv Mr. 
R. Belfield. ' 

PUSH on: keep moving.* 

Two years ago — twelve months ago, on 
every battlefront, and here at home — we 
'hardly dared ericourage ourselves with 
that cure for the heartache. It was 
enough then to feel sure that we w'ere one 
and all pletlged to endurance till final vic- 
tury was certain. Equally certain, alas ! 
that, in the meantime, our bravest and 
best would pay the penalty of our culpable 
unreadiness, and that the rest of us, strive 
a.11 we might, could but take up our daily 
tasks and be thankful if their fultilmeiit 
was to be jiossible much longer. Poor en- 
couragement it seemed to some, but that it 
was enough to hearten us we have good 
reason to-day to be grateful for. The vic- 
toi-y is not won jet. The day's record is 
still too often a barren one, and only a 
spurious optimism would deny it. But 
the outlook is a far more cJieering one 
than it was this time last year. As the 
days lengthen, and the grey light in the 
cast earlier and earlier prophesies the 
dawn, we can all up and hail each day's 
increased daylight, cheeretl whether at the 
post of peril, or in the stubborn determina- 
tion to keep our end up in the struggle 
amid which our lot has been cast, to renew 
the "great push,'' never to be relaxed 
till the last stronghold of oiganise<l bar- 
barism is overthrown, and the only peace 
worth having is made by us, and on our 

Of that two things only can rob us. The 
traitorous cowardice of those who would 
persuade us to accept any other, and the 
faintheartedness of the scarcely less dis- 
loyal to every obligation of citizenship 
who would exaggerate their own sacrifices, 
or dissuade the rest of us from pushing on 
and keeping moving to our very uttermost 
in the pursuance or endurance of our 
heroic or humblest shai'e of the great 
contest. AVa know well that no such 
poltroonery is ]iossible with those for 
whom we are entitled more especi- 
ally to speak. Of all who have 
lH>en called to arms, to the work 
of sustaining our fighting men, or 
the surrender of their interruptetl 
means of livelihotxl few have iiesponded 
more loyally and effectively, or in greater 
numbers. From the leading ranks of the 
architectural profession to the least 
famous, but none the less indispensable, 
craftsmen of the many and varietl callings 
in the building trades, hundreds of thous- 
ands have died and suffered and endured. 
We who can personally count hundreds of 

» '• Pu»li on Movinc) K«ep MovinR." T. Morton's 
' A Cure (or tlie Heartache, " Act ii., 8c. 1. 

them among out most valued co-workers, 
know it too well, and none will hail mort- 
joyfully the renewal of their co-operatii^u 
when peace comes than oujselves and those 
who with us miss the generous contribii- 
ti<ins of theii- genius and experience to 
the common stock of knowledge we are 
enabled to garner week by week. That 
the time of the fruition of all the sacri- 
fices they have made is near we have the 
strongest conviction if only, one and all, 
we " push on and keej) moving.'' 

And. when jieace comes, assuredly we 
must keep up the great push, for in no 
other peaceful calling is there — 
thanks to no fault of ours — so 
much leeway Uj make up. From 
one end of the realm to the other comes 
the urgent cry daily for the thousands and 
thousands of houses for want of which our 
overcrowded workers are suffering in 
health. In every quarter works of varie<l 
nature and magnitude which have been 
suspeiidetl are awaiting the word that will 
give welcome work to the builders and re- 
munerative returns to the nation at large 
for years. In scores of great towns and 
hundreds of less crowded localities gjeat 
schemes of town-planning are awaiting 
execution. Nothing can hinder all this 
except the inertia of those whose first duty 
it is to push on, or the short-sighted folly 
of those who would stop work by in- 
dustrial squables. Pu-sh on and keep 
moving along the lines of wisely ordered 
effort and coinmonsense all who are amen- 
able to the call of legitimate self-interest 
wliith is always only to be obeyed if 
Coeval with the common gootl. 

Of that, beyond a doubt, the prosperity 
of the two great groups of industry — our 
own and the only greater one of Agricul- 
ture and all that pertains to it — is always 
at once the guarantee and the evidence. 
Fed well and housed well the British 
worker of all stations will work well, and 
every honest trade will share his pros- 
perity, and those who make money 
thereby will once again seek its best 
investment in the one security that 
survives all panics, and yields re- 
turns worth ensuring. We cannot 
but Ijelieve that any Government that may 
sway our destinies here presently will 
recognise this, and as speetlily as possible 
sweep away the unfair and isolated tribute 
exacted from the builder during the past 
seven years, in(lei>endently of all the bur- 
dens he has borne in common with the rest 
of the nation. We cannot doubt that those 
charged with municipal and other schemes 
of public benefit will spoil all, and alienate 
the support of those most interested, as 
has been the case at Birmingham in the 
instance we commented on last week. 
'Push on and keep moving ' against 
such aberrations of reason and infirmities 
of imrpose wherever they may manifest 
themselves, by all means, and put every 
ounce of effort into the push. 

We trust there is no nee<l to express 
our conviction that by all of us the great 
push will be all-British. The experience 
of the ]>ast two years has abundantly 
]>i-oved that there is neither need of nor 
room for the alien henceforth. In this 
connection we hope not one restriction the 
Government has enforced will be modi- 
fie<l. For the rest, it is well to recognise 
that it the home-worker is to he protected, 
as he should be. against the unfair coin- 
)>etition of the foreigner, he must abandon 
once and for all the shortsighted policy 
which has in some cases driven the em- 
ployee to avail himself of foreign help 
asainst his own inclination. There must 
be no more limitation of output, but there 
must be the hiuhest wage for ability where- 
ever it is found. There must be no protec- 
tion of the unfit or the shirker, but there 
must be everv tHcilitv given to the worker 

J.AX. 10, 1917 



to qualify himself and to claim the prefer- 
ence due' to fitness. As Mr. J. R. Rich- 
mond told the Glasgow University En- 
gineering Society the otlier day: "The 
wages of the skilled workman, when he is 
exercising his skUl, should be on a higher 
level, and in every department, as the 
direct result of greater production, an 
equivalent higher rate of earnings should 
prevail, a more definite and logical system 
of grading labour and determining its pro- 
ductive value should be adopted. The in- 
dustries of the country are no longer re- 
garded as the property and possession of 
private individuals or corporations. They 
are regarded as public trusts whose ex- 
istence in private hands is tolerated for 
certain benefits they confea' on the com- 
munity, and they must be compelled as 
the price of their existence to contribute 
anore and more to the common good." 

As far as our own observation es;tends 
there is every gmund for hopefulness in 
most directions. "We are heartily thankful 
to all who have enabled us once again, in 
spite of the many limitations yet imposed 
on us, to make this issue not unworthy of 
many before the war when opportunity 
favoured the generosity of our always will- 
ing contributors. We have not sought 
unduly to extend its limits, or to crowd 
into it extraneous matter for which few 
would thank us. Nor have we pressed 
advertisers to extend their announcements 
iDeyond their inclination. We should like 
to add that they, too, are "all-British," 
and will remain" so, and that they have a 
very strong claim therefore on all to re- 
member it, and also to hear in mind that 
in many cases they have "kept moving ' 
and kept our readers aware of it at some 
self-sacrifice which well demands recogni- 
tion. An advertiser who has kept his 
flag flying during the past two years and 
a-half"has indeed given solid proof of the 
stability which is the first guarantee for 
good execution , of work, naturally de- 
manded by any who specify his material, 
or trust him to understand and fulfil their 
requirements. Such are well represented 
in our pages to-day and we ask all to note 

> »»» < 


"I'll see it through," says the Briton, 
when he takes a job iii hand ; and the world 
accepts the phrase as guaranteeing a finished 
piece of work. To his credit the world is 
not often disappointed. It is in this sense 
that Messrs. Lewis Berger and Sons, Ltd., 
wish their friends to read the statement on 
our back-page this week. It expresses, m 
.an easily-remembered plu-ase, the dcpendabh- 
ne.<s of' their products — but it means more 
than that. It means that they do not rest 
at selling goods, but that their best service 
goes with them— the .service which tries to 
improve business conditions ; which aids the 
customer to get trade and to hold it ; which 
•" stands by " with help and counsel, if such 
be needed to secure proper results — and 
which proffers the wisdom of a century-and- 
a-half 's experience. 

Mr. Berger "sees it through" by placing 
his reputation in the package with the goods 
— a, bold thing to do when the goods which 
safeguard the reputation are in daily use all 
over the world, and one which demands 
qualitv-maintenance as a first principle. 

" Mr. Berger " is typified in the alle- 
gorical 1760 figure on our back page, and 
though young in the company of Immortals 
which he now joins, he is older and wiser 
in colour lore than any. 

Certainly no firm could more appropriately 
he represented in the colour schemes which 
are illustrated on our cover — which, by the 
■way. has in its production gone through the 
press no fewer than five times. The opportu- 
nity given us by Messrs. Lewis Berger and 
Sons, Ltd., of producing such an issue in 
war time is chr,— icteristic of the enterprising 
•pohcy of the firm, and deserves every en- 



(From a Correspondent.) 
The servant problem is always with us, and 
just now it is more acute than ever with so 
many openings for the young women who 
usually go out as domestic servants over and 
above those in evei-yday life. The question 
arises, therefore, cannot we do without 
them altogether, and in the following the 
writer has outlined arrangements by which 
he believes it would be perfectly practicable. 
He has iii mind the house of eight or ten 
rooms with a family of four or five (two 
parents and two or three children), but the 
arrangements could be adapted to houses of 
almost any size. Li very large houses, with 
a very few members in the family it will be 
remembered that a good deal of the work of 
the servants is rendered necessary by their 
own presence in the house. If there were no 
servants, even in a large house the work 
would be verj- much less. Nearly all the 
apparatus described is already on the market, 
a great deal of it being in use in hotels, 
restaurants, etc.", while the remainder is prin- 
cipally the adaptation of other ap))aratus 
actually in use for other purposes. 


The work to be done may be set out as 
follows : — 

Warming the house in winter, cooling it in 
summer, and ventilating it all the year romid. 

Cooking tne food for the family, preparing 
it for cooking, and washing up after meals. 

Chambermaid's work: All that is done in 
the bedrooms "by the chambermaid in hotels, 
including the cleaning of all the rooms, pas- 
sages, etc. 

The nursery : All that a nursemaid or staff 
of nursemaids would do where there are 
babies or very young children. 

Answering "the door, attending to trades- 
men, etc. 


The amount of heating required in winter, 
and the amount of cooling in summer, would 
be very much reduced if the whole of the 
walls, Soors, and ceiling were treated as cold 
stores are, and lined with thermal insulators. 
Existing houses could be lined with com- 
pressed cork and other substances, the inside 
surfaces being finished off ornamentally as at 
present. If the windows also were doubled, 
had two sets of sashes, as in cold countries, 
the heat required during the winter would be 
reduced even more than by insulating the 
walls, etc. ; while during summer the green- 
house effect that windows produce would be 
practically eliminated, and the two sets of 
sashes would lend themselves very conveni- 
entlv to ventilation. Heating would be by 
gas" or electricity; preferably the latter, 
where it can be obtained at id. a unit, be- 
cause each stove could be turned on from 
any part of the house, and electric stoves 
could be placed in positions where they would 
warm the incoming cold air. Passages and 
corridors would be warmed as in America, 
and electric tans would circulate warm air in 
winter and cool air in summer. 


Cooking" would be done by gas or elec- 
tricitv, preferably the latter, the tempera- 
tures'being controlled by electric thermostats. 
As there would be no servants, and electric 
cooking is very clean, the cooking would be 
done in the dining-room, so that dishes and 
plates would require very little handling, 
.loints. poultrv, and fish would come to the 
house readv t"o go into the oven or the pot. 
Potatoes and other vegetables would be pre- 
pared by one of the machines already on the 
market "that are used in hotels, restaurants, 
hospitals, etc. The potatoes are put into a 
machine, a handle turned— it could be run 
bv a small electric motor— and they come out 
ready for the pot. Other vegetables are 
cleaned and cut up and prepared for the pot 
bv somewhat similar machines. Washing up 
is" the great bugbear: it would be done by 
one of the dish-washing machines already in 
use in hotels and restaurants, made small 
I enough for private houses. A runway, like 

those in butchers' shops, but ornamental in 
form, would carry a wire basket, into which 
the dirty plates and dishes would be placed, 
from the dining-table to the scullery, where 
the dish-washing apparatus would be fixed. 
There are many forms on the market. In a 
typical one there are two tanks holding 
water. A small jet of steam from a small 
boiler, heated by gas or electricity, is forced 
into one of them, the water also being agi- 
tated by the aid of an electric motor. The 
basket of plates, etc., would be lowered into 
this tank, where it would remain for a few 
minutes, all the grease, etc., being removed 
by the steam and the agitation of the water. 
It would then be hoisted out of that tank 
and lowered into the other one, which would 
contain scalding-hot water. On being lifted 
out of the second tank the plates would be 
quite clean and dry. This description is 
taken from actual practice. 


Each bedroom would have its own lavatory 
basin, with a supply of hot and cold water, 
the water laeing heated by gas or electricity, 
at any convenient part of the house. There 
would also be a trapped slop sink inside a 
cupboard under the lavatory basin. Clean- 
ing and dusting would be done by a vacuum 
cleaner, worked by an electric motor, so that 
the different nozzles of the apparatus would 
merely have to be directed to the spots 
desired. Scrubbing could be done when re- 
quired by an electrically driven brush carried 
at the end of a long handle, which would 
also carry a supply of water. Soiled linen 
would be sent to the laundry, and could be 
thrown down a shoot, opening on the bed- 
room floor, into a basket on the ground floor. 

The cradle would be rocked by an electric 
motor, the switch controlling it being at any 
convenient point ; and the baby's food could 
be warmed by an electric heater, or kept in 
a thermos flask. The nursery would be kept 
at a comfortable temperature by the means 
already described, and a telephone fixed 
there would tell the mother all that was going 
on in the nursery, wherever she happened 
to be. 


This is, perhaps, one of the most trouble- 
some matters of all. The house should have 
a porch, carefully protected from the 
weather.' In the porch a telephone would be 
fixed, if necessary, inside a small cupboard. 
There would be a telephone in each room, 
and callers could speak to the mistress of the 
house, or any of the family, even when they 
were in bed. The door would be unlocked 
by an electro magnet, operated by a push 
iri each room, when required to admit 
visitors, and would close behind them by one 
of the well-known door-closers. The tele- 
phone cupboard could be kept locked, and 
unlocked in the same way, when someone 
rang. For tradesmen there would be a slid- 
ing panel by the side of the door, unlocked 
by pressing a push, the pai-cels being placed 
on a slab inside the door, the panel then 
returning to its place. If desired, a simple 
belt conveyor could carrj- each parcel to the 
storeroom " or the living-room. Mdk would 
be the most troublesome commodity. It 
could be poured down a tube into a re- 
ceptacle provided for it inside the door, the 
mouthpiece being kept closed, and unlocked 
bv pressing a pusli, when the milkman 

There are a number of little matters that 
it is impossible to deal with in the space 
allowed ; but if builders took the matter up 
seriously they would be found to straighten 
themselves out by developing on the lines 
sketched above. ' Meanwhile, if a famUy 
keeping two servants were able to dispense 
with both, they should save from £80 to £90 
oer annum, and this means, at id. per elec- 
trical unit. 100 units per day. One unit will 
run a 20-candle-power lamp for fifty hours, 
and it does not require very many units to 
cook a dinner. Probably half of the money 
would be saved after paying for the elec- 
tricity or the gas : and it will be remembered 
that £40 a year is the interest on £800 at 
5 per cent., so that it should be economical 
in all wavs. 


THE BUILDl^^G NEWS: No. 3236. 

Jan. 10. 1917. 

BER, 1913.* 

By Hk.nry T. Eddy, C.E., Ph.D., LL.D., 
University of Minnesota. 

Reinforced concrete floor skbs are some- 
vvhat imperfectly elastic, and in testing 
Uiem an aJlowaiice is commonly made for 
this fact by the requirement that in case of 
any e.xce.ssive deflection at 80 per cent 
of It shall disappear within a week after the 
removal of the load which produced the de- 
flection. This requirement recognises the 
imperfetlion of the elastic properties of the 
slab in two ways, since, first, it does not 
forbid some residual pemianent deflection, 
and, further, it docs not require immediate 
recovery— neitlier of which concessions could 
be made in case of a perfectly elastic struc- 

Few materials of constraction are so per- 
fectly elastic as actually ito make an imme- 
diate and comjilete recovery, but a much 
larger margin is allowed to" reinforced con- 
crete than to most other materials. It 
should be noticed that on account of its being 
a composite structure, composed partly of 
steel and partly of con<irete. of which' the 
steel is more nearly perfectly ela.stic than 
the concrete, a floor slab wit'h steel massed 
111 the column heads will have a more prompt 






2 .235 


S iz 



3 .Oi2 






and complete recovery than one with so- 
called drop heads of roncrete in place of the 
lieavy reinforcement in the column heads. 

But in the retardation or time lag of slab 
recovery a phenomenon is e.\hibited wliich is 
not found to any perceptible extent in other 
kinds of materials of construction in. ordinary Since recovery from sla4> deflection is 
gradual and may never lie coniple(<>, and 
since a corrc.iponding gradual increase of 
deflection must occur under a load, it has 
'been argued by some that final stability 
under a load is impossible. The perma'- 
iience. however, of ancient concrete struc- 
tures seems to show that there must be a 
hniil lo the defoi-mations and deflections that 
will take place under loads, just as there is 
to the recovery after removal, and it must 
be admitted that concrete is not r&illy 
plastic, although the property of concrete 
to which attention has just "been directed 
bears some of the marks of plasticity. Were 
concrelc really plastic under 'oHiiiary 
•stresses that fact would spell the ultimate 
destruction of buildiuKs and bridges made of 
that m.xterial. But concrete is a kind of 
■artificial rock, and evidently reaches, in time. 
a pei-manent and invariabie state, in wihich 
pro>;ressive changes lu. longer tflke place, 
although, in course of hardening, phenomena 
may occur which, if not ultimately checked 
would involve final collapse. 

Now the theory of the flexure of slalis 
diffei-s from that of continuous brams in im- 
porlant i.articulars, one of which is that the 
applied moments and the observed resistinc 
moments ai-e not equal to each other, a fact 
the reasons for whicli are discusse<l else- 
where. Rut to this fact it is due that the 
economical and safe depths or thickness of 
.sla-bs for any given span is small compiired 
with that of beams, a fact whicb partially 
^bviates one of the drawbacks th.i't 

exist to the use of continuous beams — viz., 
the large stresses introduced by any acci- 
dental subsidence of supports. 

As just stated, one of the most serious 
practical objections to the employment of con- 
tinuous beams lies in the very large stresses 
induced by settlementof supports, because this 
will iisually entirely disarrange the stresses for 
wihich the structure was designed. This 
hazard has operated very largely to prevent 
the construction of continuous bridges con- 
sisting of several successive spans. But a 
subsidence of a magnitude Which might pro- 
duce dangerous stresses in a structural steel 
building may be taken up in course of con- 
struction in a reinforced concrete building 
without requiring special attention, since 
the relatively large flexibility of these slabs 
is such as to make the effects of moderate 
subsidences inconsiderable compared with 
the effects of suibsidences of the same abso- 
lute amount in bridges and deep girders. 

The structural ntility of continuous panels 
is so gre,it as to outweigh their risks and 
practically to necessitate their adoption. The 
fact previously stated that the applied 
moments and resisting moments in slabs are 
unequal does not, however, prevent us from 
applying the theory of flexure to slabs as 
well as to beams, although it does pre- 
vent us from calculating the moment of in- 
ertia of the resisting materials in slabs in 
the same manner as in beams. But those 
deduictions from the theory of flexure which 
are independent of the magnitude of the 
moment inertia are valid equally for beams 
and for slabs. Such, for exanxple, are the 
relative deflections and vertical displacements 
of different points in the span. This it is 
which has made it possible to treat with suc- 
cess an important question wliich arose in the 
discussion of the test of the floor of Inter- 
national Hall. 

In this floor slab the foundations of the 
columns proved insufficient to carry the test 
loads without yielding by amounts large 
enough to have considerable effects upon tlie 
stresses and deflections of the four loaded 
panels, each of which was 18 by 18 feet square. 
The floor as tested was a deck slab with no 
columns on its upper side. It was three 
panels wide and nine panels long, and was 
built into the siuTounding walls of an old 
brick building by cutting into theni_^soraewhat 
for space to place steel and pour concrete, so 
that the edges of the slab were made integral 
so far as possible with the walls. The four 
panels which were tested formed a square near 
the middle of one side of the slab, two of 
them beiiiK in one tier of wall panels and the 
other two in the middle tier adj.-icent to them. 
In this floor, wi,tJi its two rows of supporting 
columns parallel to the long sides of the build- 
ing, certain vertical displacements were 
measured at the columns and at mid-span be- 
tween columns and walls, both before and a 
week aft<'r the removal of the final test load, 
and the question was to determine whether 
the recovery was as much as 80 per cent, of 
the maximiun deflection, and so whether there 
still remained as much as 20 per cent, of the 
ni.aximum. The solution of this problem im- 
plicitly requires the determination of the 
ni.agiiitude of the vertical displacements which 
would (X-cur in the slab by reason of the sub- 
sidences of the column supports only : for the 
actual vertical displacement at any point of 
the slab is the sum of two kinds of <lis)ilace- 
nient: first, that due to the bending by reason 
of subsidence of the points of support, and, 
-second, due to bendine by reason of the 
applied load. The fact that "the subsidence 
of columns w.xs itself also due to the applied 
load is imm.atcrial, since the effect would be 
the .same were the subsidence due to some 
other cause. 

When that part of the vertical displacement 
at any point which is due to the subsidence 
of .supports is subtracted from the actual 
vertical disniacement observe*! at that point, 
the remainder is the true deflection, and may 
be either that due to the effect i.f the load i"n 
beiidiuK the slab or to the residual bending 
effect after reniovinir the load, aocordinc ,i.s 
the load is still restin? upon the .slab or has 
b"eu removed. The ratio of the remainder 
after removal to the remainder before re- 

Let these foui- jianels be designated by «. 6, 
r, (/ respectively, as shown in Fig 1." with 
columns numbered from 1 to 6. Panel b is 
the centre of the entire floor. Let the rein- 
forced direct belts extending across the slab 
over the columns be regaj-ded .as continuous 
beams fixed horizontally at the wajls. The 
assumption that they are fixed at the w'alls i& 
probably not entirely correct, but more nearly 
so than the assumption of mere support at 
the walls. It is found that the latter 
assumption gives results which do not differ 
much from those obtained by assuming the 
ends to be fixed in direction "as well as posi- 
tion. If / be taken as the distance betw.een 
successive columns, these belts or beam strips 
which may be taken roughly as havinf; 
a width of 0.5 /, ai-e not of uniform 
moment of inertia throughout their lengths, 
but will, for the purpose of preliminary in- 
vestiga;tion, be assumed as uniform, and 
their irregularity of cross-section will be 
allowed for later. 

Given a uniform continuous beam of three 
equal spans, each of length L, as shown in 
Fig. 2, whose extremities are fixed hori- 
zontally on the same level, but Tvhose inter- 
medi.ate points of support a,t point* 1 and 2 
are depressed by the observed subsidence 
:, and c,, respectively, below the level of 
the extremities, to fi'nd the displacements 
=j:' =01 > ^231 a* the middle of the centre and 
end spans respectively, there being no 
stres-ses or displacements due to any other 
cause than the subsidences :, and :,. " 

Let M„ and M, 'be the moments at the 
extremities, and M, and M, at the inter- 
mediate supports, respectively. 

Then, by making use of tlie theorem of 
three moments, which aipplies in its general 
form to any two successive spans of a 

straight beam with supports at any arbitrary 
levels, we have the following foui- equations 
by taking four successive [airs of spans, as 
follows:— The first pair, Equation (1), con- 
sists of a span of zero length and a span 
extending from the wall at to the fii-st row 
of columns at 1. The effect of a span of 
zero length is to give the slab a fixed hori- 
zontal direction at the wall. The second 
pair of spans. Equation (2), extends fi-om the 
wall at to the fii-st row of columns, and 
from the first to the second row of columns 
at 2. The third )mir. Equation (3), extends 
from the first row of columns at 1. across 
the second row to tlie other wall at 3. and 
the fourth pair. Equation (4), from the 
second row of columns at 2 to the second 
wall .-it 3. and includes a span of zero leneth 
at that wall. 

Tlie notation may be ■ understood from 
Fig. 2, in which the tangents at the and 3 
are fixed in a horizontal position, and the 
vertical displacements or subsidences at the 
intermediate supports 1 and 2 are of known 
amounts. :, and :,. and the vertical di.splace- 
inents at mid-si)an are design.ated by c,„, c,,, 
•ind :., respectively, while the applied bend- 
ing moments are deiiote-1 bv the letter M. 
with correspondiiic sub.scrijyts, and the 
length of the equal spans between supports 
bv L. 

PraSirKuu^e."' the .nthor to the .7our„«, ot the moval will .show how much tJie recovery falls 

'short of beinj com 


6ETj, - (2Mo-f M,)L- (1) 

-6 E I (22, - ^j) = (Mo + 4 M, -f M,)L-'..(2) 

e EI(«, - 2^2) = (Ml -f 4M2 -f M,)L-..(3) 

6EIfj= (Mg -t- 2 M,,)L'' .' (4) 

Considering now the mid-disiilacement 
:,, of the middle span 12, it m,iv be ex- 
pre.«sed in terms of the two end moments and 
end displacements of that span as follows : — 

6 E I U, + .,, _ 2 7,j) = ? m, + MjlL^ ..(5) 
as appears from the fundamental equation 
of moments and shears used in establishing 
the equation of three moments. 

The solution of these five simTiltaneous equations by the metliod of inter- 
mediate multipliers or otherwise fives as a 

?i> = 5/8(^1 -)- ?j) (6) 

{Continued on page 45). 












"• /. 









































^ '''/ 



T r^M' 




Mr. Francis W. T 

ANUARY 10, 1917. 

F.R.LB.A., Architect. 






3, JANUARY 10, 1917 

'HE CAM.— Drawn by Mr. Maurice B. Adams, F.R.I. B.A. 

<^ 4- 

'fZ3 1 191,7 













X ^ 
-a < 

w - 

— -.n 

z 5 

z t: 








Jan. 10, 1917. 







{Continued from page 2i.) 

A similar consideration of the mid-dis- 
placement :_., of the end span 23 .shows 
that — 

6 E I 2i, = 1/8 (M2 -I- 5M.,)L- (7) 

The solution of tne first four simultaneous 
linear equations and (7) gives 

3.^ = (19 ^2 - 4 ~'i) /40 (8) 

and by symmetry 

201 = (19 .Ji - 4 2,) /10 (9) 


^01 + .^12 + z-a = «i + -'i (10) 

which is a fimdamental equation of displace- 
' ments in this case of no loads. 

In case the assumption were that the 
walls are simple supports and exert no re- 
straint, the values of the displacements at 
mid-span have been found to be 

212 = 23 (i-i + z-i) /40 ) 

2*, = (292.2-6z,)/40^ (11) 

.-01 = (29 2,-62..)/40) 
from which it appears that tliis would make 
the displacement at mid-span of the middle 
span a little less and at mid-span of the 
end spans a little greater than when the ends 
are fixed, and the same kind of effect, but 
of smaller amount, will be produced bv any 
relaxation of fixity at the walls. 
It will be noticed from (11) that 

212 = 201 + 223 

It is evident that the floor under considera- 
tion may be taken to consist of beam strips 

foregoing equations, that would take place in 
a uniform slab by reason of the displacements 
at the columns without applying any load to 
the slab except the reactions at the columns 
which are necessary to produce the displace- 
ments at the columns. 

Displacements at panel centres are also 
given. These last are computed both by 
taking beam strips crosswise and lengthwise 
of the floor midway between the beam strips 
already computed across the tops of the 
columns. Practically the same values at 
panel centres are obtained from the computa- 
tion by strips crosswise as lengthwise. This 
affords a satisfactory check on the work. 
Were the slab of uniform moment of inertia 
throughout, the displacements which have 
been computed at mid-spans and panel centres 
would express the position of the surface 
from which true deflections should be 
measured, or the .surface of zero deflection 
from which deflections due to the load or 
lack of recovery are to be measm-ed. That, 
however, is not entirely correct for a floor 
slab, by reason of the great relative stiffness 
and extent of the column heads, which must 
be allowed for. The side belts are weaker 
near mid-span than elsewhere. The kind of 
effect that this produces may be made evi- 
dent by considering what would be the effect 
of joints at mid-span of the beam strips 
across the floor. That would cause angles 
in the strips at each mid-span with com- 
paratively straight portions over the colmnns. 
At mid-span in the centre of the strip the 
displacement would evidently be increased by 
such joints or by any weakness of this kind. 
In the case of the test under consideration, 
it is estimated that the combination of a 
central conduit in each panel tier parallel 

Table of Vertical Displ.acements and Deflections in Inches. 









At centre 



for uni- 



25 per 






colunm 3 

column 2. 

column 4 

column 2. 

age of 



Panel A 











Span 2—5 

Panel B 




- 0.38 





not only crosswise from side wall to side 
wall, as has just been done, but also as made 
up of beam sErTps parallel to the side walls 
and extending lengthwise of the building, and 
that the agreement of the results of computa- 
tions by these two methods will tend to estab- 
lish their correctness. Suppose the beam strips 
to each have a width of ^L extending over 
the two rows of columns ^parallel to the long 
side walls, with a strip of the same width 
lying between these two. If the length of 
these strips be taken as 4L, they may be 
assumed to have their ends practically fi.xed 
horizontally, with certain obser\'ed vertical 
displacements at the three intervening 
columns. The problem in this case is this : 
Given the vertical displacements :,, -,, and 
Sj at points of support 1, 2, and 3 of a beam 
fixed horizontally at the ends and 4, to find 
the vertical displacements :,,,, o,„, z,,, and 
^3,, at mid-span bet-n-een each pair of sup- 
ports. The equations are like those already 
used in-the case of three spans, and the values 
arrived at in the same manner are : 

201 = (IOG21 - 2I22 + 62,)/224 

212 = (1422, -I- 13322 - 3O2.I/224 

223 = (14223 + 13322 - 302,)/224 

28, = (IO62., - 2I22 + 62,)/224 

It will be noticed that 'in this case 

-?01 + 2|2 + 22a + 231 = 2i + 22 + 23 (13) 

which is an equation of deflections for four 
spans similar to (10) for three spans. 

On Fig. 1, -which shows a plan of the panels 
of the test, are inscribed, at columns 1 to 6. 
th^ amounts of the vertical displacements ob- 
served under the final load in inches, and at 
mid-span between these columns the vertical 
displacements, computed according to the 


to the long side walls, with the lack of 
columns integral with the slab above it, added 
not less than 25 per cent, to the computed 
vertical displacements at the centres of panels 
A and B and midway between those points, 
these being the points of maximimi deflection 
at which the percentage of recovery is to be 

The accompanying table gives in column 1 
the computed vertical displacements at these 
points, and in column 2 these amounts in- 
creased by 25 per cent., to take account of 
the increased displacement by reason of lack 
of uniformity in the slab. Column 3 gives 
i the observed displacements under maximum 
load, and column 4 the observed displacement 
after removal of the load and recovery. 
Column 5 is the difference between column 3 
and column 2, or the deflection under the 
load. Column 6 is the difference between 
column 4 and column 2, or the deflection 
after removal of load and recovery. Column 
7 is the ratio of column 6 to column 5, or the 
percentage which the residual deflection is of 
the maximum. Column 8 is 1(X) per cent, less 
the per cent, in column 7. or the percentage 
of recovery, which has a mean value of 80.7. 
The apulication of a rule requiring a re- 
covery of 80 per cent, in this case, how-ever. 
discriminates against the floor structure and 
attempts to have it make good the shortcom- 
ings of the faulty foundations on which the 
columns rest. At the time of the maximum 
load, when subsidence of the columns took 
place, the columns were subjected to a very 
considerable bending moment by reason of the 
tippinor of the floor, which was integral with 
the column heads. This caused the founda- 
tion of each column not onlv to sink verticallv. 
but to tilt at the same time in an inelastic 

displacement. On removal of the load, any 

restoratioii of tlie foundation either to its 
original vertical position or level would have 
to be accomplished, not by any elastic effort 
of the foundation itself, but by an elastic 
effort coming from the flour itself. Not only 
was work required to displace the foundation 
at first, but additional work will be required 
alter the removal of the load to right the foun- 
dation, or else the foundation will itself tend 
to restrain the slab and hold it in its displaced 
position not merely by reason of its vertical 
displacement, but by rea.son of its tilted posi- 
tion in addiiion to that. Thus it is that the 
displaced foundations tend to prevent the re- 
covery of the slab in other ways than merely 
by tlie vertical displacements which have beeii. 
considered in the preceding computations. 

inr minstrations. 


This double page is reproduced from the 
architect's di-awing exhibited at the Royal 
Academy last summer, and the building 
which it illustrates is sitill in progi'ess for 
Messrs. Spicer Bros., Ltd. Mr. Francis W. 
Troup, F.R.I. B. A., is the architect. " Black 
friars House" stands near the site of the 
famous Tudor Palace of Bridewell, erected 
by Henry VIII. for the entertaiimient of 
Royal guests from abroad. The building, 
never really finished completely, was given 
by Edward VI. to the Corporation and citi- 
zens of London, to be used as a house of cor- 
rection and a workhouse. Dr. Levett, a 
great friend of Dr. Johnson, was laid to rest 
in the burial ground of the hospital hard by. 
in 1782. All the human remains fi'om this 
cemetery, south of St. Bride's, Fleet Street, 
were taken to Ilford in 1892. Since then the 
whole of this area has been much altered. 
This new building provides the maximum 
amount of lighting space for all its many 
floors, while the design preserves very cleverlv 
aii architectural character with boldly treated 
divisional piers, which give it dignity and 
satisfactory effect. The f-erro-concrete ' flooi-s 
and roof construction, as well as tlie stair- 
cases, and strong room, -were carried out bv 
Stuart's Granolithic Co,, Ltd. Mr. F. G. 
Minter, of Putney, is the builder. 

This drawing shows an interesting and 
unusual combination of collegiate buildings in 
varied styles and differing dates. Along the 
river Cam the older parts of St. John's stand 
on the east bank of the stream, and the con- 
fines of the College are bounded by the 
High Street, with Trinity College adjoining 
on the south. The foundation derived its 
name from the ancient Hospital of St. John, 
and the buildings cover the site of that his- 
toric institution. An excellent idea of the 
extent of the College as then intended is fur- 
nished by the celebrated isometric view 
known as " Loggin's print," which includes 
the three quadrangles set one behind the 
other, beyond them being the fish ponds and 
tennis courts over by the river to the west. 
The gardens lay on the north, leading to the 
open meadows past the bowling-green. 
Trinity and St. John's Colleges set side by 
side were originally so similar that they were 
attributed to the same architect. Both had 
tlie same foundress and visitor. St. John's 
was commenced early in 1510 and the Bishop 
of Rochester opened the first part, so far as 
then ready, in 1516, but the entire court could 
not have been completed till 1517. The 
Countess of Shrewsbury provided the second 
court during the mastership of Richard Clay- 
ton, which extended from 1595 to 1612. Tlie 
undertakers who had the job given them to 
do were a couple of builders named Ralph 
Syinons of Westminster, and Gilbert- Wigge 
of Cambridge. These tradesmen made tjfie 
plans, or " plotts," as well as the elevations 
or " uprights '^ upon which their contracts 
to erect the buildings were based. Wigge had 
to follow the character of the first court as 
his contract stipulates, but he introduced 
several innovations. A portrait of Gilbert 



Jan. 10, 1917. 

Wigge if to be seen at Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, inscribed by a title designating 
him a;; " the most skilful architect of his age. 
When he signed the plans which he made for 
St. John's College he did not, however, 
claim the name of architect. 

The buildings are of exceptional local archi- 
t"cturai interest, because the early Renais- 
.^ance style, to which they belong, is so 
meagrely represented in the University of 
Cambridge. Wigge and Symons undertook 
ti) finish their work by 1502, and the agreed 
ciiutract price stood at £3,400, with a proviso 
tliat the materials of the old buildings should 
be thrown in "to mend the bargain." )3j- 
-•^ides, there were additional buildings to be 
undertaken at a cost of £205. The north 
wing of the court, furnishing rooms for the 
college master, was done first, and that part 
w:is got ready bv 1599, but unexpected 
iniubles arose, and, Symons having died, 
W igge got into difficulties, and at last was put 
into prison. The college work designed by 
Wigge was disparaged, and his critics said it 
was " a slight crazy building, which can 
never live up to the age of the first court 
though that court be older by almost 100 
years." Lady Mai'garet, the foundress, grew 
-hack in her payments, being embarrassed and 
in an impecunious state, and the coUege was 
loft ti> find some way of meetinsr this deficit. 
The countess still continued in 1620 badly in 
arrears, and small hopes remained as to her 
ultimate ability to p.\v, owing to the disorder 
of her affairs. Robert Booth, the senior 
Bursar and Fellow of the college, rose to the 
occasion and enabled the authorities to cariv 
1)11 and complete that which she had begun. A 
fa( simile of the fa(;ade, or " upright," of thi."* 
building as intended for the centre-piece of 
till' qua<lrangle is given to a good scale duly 
<<'t out and signed by both Symons and 
^\ 'BS^.. in Willis and Clark's " Architectur.ii 
History of the University of Cambridge," 
vol. 2 (published in 1886). together with a full 
account, setting out in detail much relevant 
tis well as historic informatiun and building 
sizes. The court measures 137 ft. from n<uth 
to south, and 155 ft. from east to west. The 
hall is on the eastern side, and the remainder 
of the buildings, generally speaking, has been 
ananged for the purijoses of chambers. 

The ground floor rooms are 10 ft. high, and 
those on tile first floor measure 11 ft. The 
garrets or upper floors are from 8 to 9 ft. 
tall. In this quad the doorways and win- 
dows are more or less nearly copied from 
those of the first court, but a series of pic- 
turesque gables replace the intended em- 
battled panipel which was clearly delineated 
in Loggan's bird's-eye perspective. The 
library was subsequently turned into cham- 
bers, or, as de.scribed toy a contemporary 
note, "cantoned out into tenements," in 
1515. The builiing stone came from Baning- 
ton, and was used for the foundations, 
Orimball is recorded a* the freemason on the 
.job. The elaborate Ixiy window at the end 
of the library is dated 1624, and cm be seen 
in our illustration at the end of the buildings 
overlooking the Cam, to the right over the 
new bridge, at the rear side of the third 
iiuadrani:le, which was added about that 
time. The foundation-stone of the adjacent 
loemises figures in "The Commemoration 
Book " as Ijeing laid in 1559, their style 
being an excellent specimen of Sir Christo- 
lilier Wren's period, introduced, however, 
without the smallest pretence at harmony 
with the previous work, though auit<? suitable 
f..r the purpose and attractive in character. 
The William and Mary stone bridge and tall, 
handsome gate piers adioining were finished 
nbout 1712. Fi-om this Classic bridge the ac-. 
oompanying view w,as taken, and to the left 
of the picture, looking along the Cam. mav 
just be seen the new ibnildings of 1825-1830. 
which were carried out in " Perp^-ndicular 
Gothic ' bv Thomas Rickman. H. Hutchiii 
son was, however, the joint architect with 
T. Rickman for St. .Tohn's College, and he 
it was who personally designed the richly- 
treated bridge connecting their joint new 
" ork with the earlier collegiate buildings 
ilreadv described. The cost of and 
Hiitchin.son's "Court" worked out to 
upon £78,000. The erection of a new chai>ol 
seems to have been contemplated so far back 
a- 1687. whi'ii Robert Cnnnbold made a 

"ground plott model of ye old and new de- 
signed chapiwll," but not till 1861 was any 
decided step taken. Sir Gilbert Scott, 
R.A., was then employed, and his original 
scheme was estimated, according to his re- 
port, to cost from £4,500 to £5,000. Ulti- 
mately the job cost £57,955, and as Sir 
Gilbert enlarged the hall and made other 
incidental changes, the work's final total 
reached £85.870, including stained glass and 
fittings to the chapel, which was conse- 
crated on May 12, 1869, the old chapel 
having been pulled down to make rotim for 
that carried out by Sir Gilbert Scott, 

This dashingly executed water-colour re 
cently exhibited in the galleries of the Royal 
Society of British Artists in Suffolk Street. 
Pall Mall, by Mr. H. Butler, of Barnes, shows 
a new ball-room intended to be panelled in 
oak, with bold heavy projecting mouldings, 
the panels to be of slightly lighter colour than 
the wainscot framing in the walls. The 
Corinthian capitals and bases of the pilaste-s 
to have enriclied moulilings in character with 
the carved foliations and florid cornice, which 
is to be gilded. The same treatment will ap 
] ly to the Ionic columned gallery under which 
is the recessed fireplace. The ceiling under 
this gallery also will be gilt. The carved and 
modelled ])laster ceiling to the room is in- 
tended to have a painted finish of a warm 
yellow tone near the top of the panel 
ling, graded by lighter tintings towards the 
middle of the ceiling. Family portraits will 
occupy positions as shown. " The floor is 
planned to have deep-coloured rich oak par- 
quetry stained under the direction of the de 
signer, and wax polished. Antique Persian 
rugs, when the ball-room is used as a hall, 
will give colour to the interior with appro- 
priate furniture in scale with the decorations. 
The curtains to be of Italian damask in black 
and gold. 

We complete to day our series of this 17th 
century oak furniture belonging to the Incor- 
porated Trades' Society of Aberdeen. The 
previous sketches which we have been enabled 
to give by the courtesy of Messrs. .1. B. Nicoi 
and R. W. Gibbon, will be found in our issues 
for October 11 and 18 last. In the earlier 
number an extract from the old inventory was 
given, and several particulars appeared about 
the chairs and tables preserved in Trin'ty 
Hall under the care of the above-named body 
of citizens. In each of the four instances, 
illustrated by the accompanying double-page, 
full dimensions and detailed" sizes are figured. 


The two plans of this cottage clearlv show 
the compactness of its contrivance. " The 
staircase is situated near the side entrance, so 
that- on returning from work on the farm, 
on occasions, boots may be left and a wash- 
up obtained before entering the mahi part of 
the iliouse. The living room is a good, 
spacious apartment, and the central hall is 
roomy and conveniently arranged. There are 
four bedrooms, a capital b.athroom and linen 
closet. The section explains the heights and 
the elevations, the effect of tin? rough-casted 
walls and high-pitohed tiled roofs. The plan- 
ning of the chimneys is ingenious and gives 
balance iii, a simple wav. Mr, Sidiiev K 
Greenslade, A.R.LB.A.," of Gray's " Inn 
Square, is the architect. The cast "has been 
about £600. 


Building operations at the above have, for 
the time being, been stopped by the order 
of the Ministry of Munitions. " The new 
building is to take the place of a very 
ancient structure destroyed last year by fire. 
The buildings about to be erected comprise 
extensive showrooms on the ground lloor, 
with stock rooms in the basement and a 
dwelling house over. Externally, the build- 
in!.' will be of half-timbered work fixed in 
with brick nogging ; the various floors over- 
hang, and it is hoped that the building. 
when finished, will accord with the general 
appearance of the High Street. The oak 

half-timbered work is being cut out of the 
old oak beams which were saved from the 
fire, and will be left untouched from the 
tool. The brick nogging and chimney stacks 
will consist of 2-in. bricks, also saved from 
the ancient buildings. The roof will be 
covered with hand-made sand-faced tiles of 
varied tints, to accord with the rest of the 
work. But for the mifortunate order of the 
.Ministry of .Munitions, this building would 
have by this time been well on its way 
towards completion. The architect is Mr. 
Leonard Martin, F.R.I.B.A., of 17, Seymour, Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, S.W. 



Some very interesting tests of the holding 
power of nails have been made at the 
Government Arsenal at Watertown, Mass., 
and the results may be briefly summarised as 
follows-: — 

The tests were made in pine and spruce, 
with both cut and wire nails. The nails 
were of all sizes, from 1^ ins. to 6 ins. in 
length. In every case the cut nails showed 
superior holding strength by a large per- 

Ill spruce, in nine different sizes of nails, 
Ixjth standard and lightweight, the ratio of 
tenacity of cut to wire nails was about three 
to two. 

With the finishing nails the ratio was 3.5 
to 2. With box nails, li to 4 ins. long, the 
ratio was three to two. The mean superiority 
in spruce wood was 61 per cent. 

In white pine, cut nails, driven with taper 
along the grain, showed a superiority of 100 
per cent., and with taper across grain of 
135 per cent. Also, when the nails were 
driven in the end of the sticks along the 
grain, the superiority of cut nails was 100 
per cent., or the ratio of cut to wire nails 
was two to one. 

The total of the resultj; showed the ratio 
of tenacity to be 3.2 to 2 for the harder wood 
and about 2 to 1 for the softer. 

This gives a hint as to where we may use 
each kind of nail to advantage. For ex- 
ample, in laying a floor, where the travel 
over it naturally tends to loosen the boards, 
it will pay to use cut nail.s. Other instances 
might be cited, but this one will suffice. 


Paul Winter Morris, a sculptor of promin- 
ence, died :n New Y'ork City on November 19. 
Born in the SUite of Illinois, he early took 
up the study of architecture, commencing to 
practise in Tac<ima, Wiush. An cvrly pr<'- 
rilection for the art of sculpture caused him 
to come to New York, where, after a number 
of ycar>' work under some of America's best 
know-i sculptors, he finally became, in his 
chosen field, an artist of recognised ability. 

Second Lieutenant Ronald B.asil Howell, 
North StalTordshire Regiment, attached 
Northumberland FusUiers, who was n'ported 
missing after an engagement on the night of 
October 1-2, 1915. has now been officially 
posted as presuinwl killed on that date. Born 
jn 1895, he wjis the eldest son of Mr. W. 
Norman Howell, architect, of Reading, and 
brother of Second Lieutenant N. A. Howell, 
Shropshire L.I,, who fell on December 23 
last. Educated at Reading School and St. 
Lawrence's College, Ramsgate. he entered his 
father's office to follow the profession of an 
architect, but secured a commission in the 
North Staffordshire Regiment in November. 
1914. He went to the front in the following 
May. He took a prominent part in the Boy 
Scout movement in Rearling. 


.\ lartre model of a Y.M.C.A. munition 
workers' hut and canteen can be seen in the 
window of 168, Piccadilly. 

The borough survevor of Chorley. Mr. G. H. 
Hopkinson, has received instructions to report 
upon a profKised scheme of improvement of the 
oounoi! chamber. 

The Sussex County Council (Mr. F. .1. 
Wood, county surveyor) have accepted tJio offer 
of the Road Board to supply the necessary 
labour for the improvement of the Nowhaven- 
Seaford ro;ul. the work to be carried out by 
conscientious objectors to military service. 
The council are in some places employing 
women on the roads. 


J.^. 10, 1917. 



iSailtJirtg SntelligBitce. 

Ballymena. — The Irish Builder illustrates 
a well designed Presbyterian Church just 
erected at Ballymena. The building shows a 
free treatment of Gothic, features being made 
of the large tracei-y window and the tower. 
The architect has succeeded in combining 
economy in construction with ample accom- 
modation. The building contract, wliich in- 
cluded seating, was satisfactorily carried out 
bv Messrs. Courtney and Co., of BeWast. The 
architect was ill'. S. J. McFadden. C.E., of 
Coleraine and Ballymena. The building 

.seats 420. 

Belfast. — At the corner of HaUiday's Road 
and New Lodge Road there has beeir erected 
a picture-house called the Lyceum. The new- 
building adds to the arcliitectural features of 
the district, and the work was caiTied out by 
Mr. Issaac Copeland, Newington Street, from 
the designs of the architect, Mr. Cliaxles A. 
Aickin, 20, Rosemary .Street. The building 
is of brick, stone finished, roofed with as- 
bestos slates, and with a long louvre ventilator 
along the ridge. There is seating accom- 
jnodation for about 1,000. Marble columns 
set off effectively a gracefully designed 
^lircular entrance porch, the approach to which 
is by steps of black and white marble. In the 
porch the flom- is tiled with marble, and the 
■ceiling is dome-shaped. The doorways from 
the porch lead to a large hall with ceiling 
heavily panelled with oak beams. Off this hall 
is a lounge, carried out in old English style, 
for the accommodation of visitors as a waiting-- 

Norwich. — Dean Beeching appeals for sub- 
j5criptions to build a new chapel to Norwich 
Cathedral as a memorial to the Norfolk sol- 
diers and sailors who have perished in the 
war. The architect of the proposed chapel 
is Sir Charles Nicholson, F.R.I. B.A., of 2. 
New Square, Lincoln's Inn. There was such 
a trefoil chapel on the site when the Cathe- 
dral was built, but in the thirteenth century 
it was pulled down by Bishop Walter Suffield 
to make way for a Lady Chapel of twice the 
length. Of this later chapel, which fell 
<lowa in 1563, there remains only the double 
arch of the entrance ; but at present it is 
-walled up, and admits of no view into any 
chapel beyond. It is evident from these 
arches that the Lady Chapel must have bee.i 
beautiful in itself, but it must also have been 
incongruous with the rest of the building. 
and accordingly the Dean and Chapter pro- 
pose to go behind it for their pattern to its 
predecessor, the Founder's Chapel of St. 
■Saviour, which can be reproduced in its 
general features from the corresponding 
chapels on either side of the apse, which still 



For the production o^ coloured effects in 
concrete work the following proportions for 
a finishing coat are recommended : — 

Grey — Carbon black, i lb. to one bag of 

Brown — ^Ii"on o.xide, 6^ lbs. to one bag of 

Red — ^Iron oxide, 7^ lbs. to one bag of 

Bright Red — Pompeian red, 6j lbs. to one 
bag of cement. 

Buff or Yellow — Yellow ochre, 12 lbs. to 
17^ lbs. to one bag of cement. 

The colouring material should be mixed 
drj' with the cement, and all these ingre- 
dients, including water, must be measured 
exactly and mixed carefully, as the colour 
always changes to some extent. 

By mixing 5 lbs. of colouring matter with 
e,ich bag of cement in 1:2 mortar the follow- 
ing colours will result : — 

Brown — R.oasted iron oxide. 

Buff or Yellow- — Yellow ochre. 

Blue — TTltramarine. 

Grey to Dark Slate — Lampblack or carbon 

vs**— « 

The Wharfedale Rural District Council last 
Frid.iy a.prreed to the folbowintg increases in 
s.^laries of tJheir ofHoials : — Surveyor, £20, to 
£270; surveyor's clerk, £13. to £65; and siani- 
tar>- inspector, £20, to £90. 


Contract ok Estim.ite. — ^Messi-s. Rice and 
BuUer, builders' contractors, of College Plaice, 
College Green, brought an action at the Bris- 
tol Tolzey Court last Friday, before the Re- 
corder, Dr. Blake Odgers, K.C.. for the re- 
covery of £651 17s. lid. from Mr. W. S. Cox, 
blindmaker, Reddift, for w-ork and labour 
done for defendant at shop premises owned 
by ifr. T. J. Lennard, at 69, Queen's Road. 
Mr. F. E. Weatherly and Mr. Fred A. Wil- 
shire were for plaintiff (instructed by Messrs. 
G. T. Cooke and Sons), Mr. J. A. Foote, K.C., 
and Mr. E. H. C. Wethered (instructed by 
Messrs. D. Johnstone and Co.) repi'esented 
defendant. Mr. Weatherly, in opening, 
explained the action was for the re- 
covery of the balance of account ren- 
dered for work done for defendant. The 
first question was what was the arrange- 
ment under which plaintiff did tile work 
'he undoubtedly did do for Mr. Cox. The 
case turned ujxm tlie document of January 
25. 1915, in wihidh Messrs. Rice and BuUer 
estimated for alterations, extensions, and re- 
fitting to the premises at Queen's Road for 
£830 14s. This was an estimate, not a con- 
tract, for T. J. Leimard, and was addressed 
to Mr. Cox. Mr. Weatherly emphasised that 
the first words of this estimate were, " for 
T. J. Lennard," and that the work Mr. Bul- 
ler did — ^his partner, Mr. Rice, was now in 
the Ai-my — for Mr. Cox was not in any sense 
a sub-contract, but day work done by him as 
a servant. Tire names of Messrs. Rice and 
Biiller were even to be printed out of all the 
plant, added Mr. Weatherly, thus, he sub- 
mitted, supporting his contention that 'Mr. 
Buller was doing the work a? a day worker, 
not as a contractor. Mr. Buller supplied the 
estimate on the understanding that vacant 
possession wias to be obtained, and tJiat the 
work was to be begim in January or in Feb- 
luary at the latest. It did not begin until 
March. The bill ultimately sent in was for 
£1,472. the difference between that figure and 
the estimate being explained by £195 extras, 
the rise in the price of materials and the ab- 
sence of vacant possession. Even if it was 
held the estimate must lie regarded as a con- 
tr.-ict, he claimed it was broken by the delay 
and the absence of vacant possession. When 
the bill was presented defendant might have 
expressed surjirise at the amount, but he did 
not, until now, raise the point that the con- 
tract was for £830. After hearing the evi- 
dence of Mr. Buller and his cross-examiiiiatcon. 
his Honour decided he had heard enough evi- 
dence. Mr. Weatherly addressed the Court 
and reiterated that his clients were acting as 
servants to Mr. Cox. His Honour .held that 
£834 was the contract price and that the 
plaintiffs were bound to do the work for that 
sum. After a conference between coimsel. 
judgment ■>vas entered (by consent) for defen- 
dant, with costs, in settlement of all claims 
and counter-claims in the action. The Re- 
corder said he thought that was by far the 
lietter course, as it would avoid lengthy arbi- 

• > ^a^ < ■ 

-■V contingent of some sixty men recruited by 
Mr. J. A. Brodie. the city engineer, from his 
de,partment a.nd that of the Health Committee, 
has left Liver]XK)l to ioin the colours. 

At the Rodhdale Tribunal last Friday aai 
appellant siaid he had been seai-dhin^ for a 
house in Rochdale for six months. He has to 
come from Manchester to his work every mom- 
ine and retunn at night. 

Tile Atened Mortta.nes Art Gallery, San- 
taiider, was on .Sunday last totally destroyed by 
fire Among the treasures consumed bv the 
flt.ames were several valuable paintings by Velas- 
qi'ez. Vand.yck, Titian, Madrazo; Zurbaran, 
Mmiillo, Dia Vinci, laiid other artists, 

X proposal to extend the Royal Victoria In- 
firmary at Newcastle is under consideration. 
Powers are being sou.ght to obtain an addi- 
tional two acres of land, forming part of the 
Castle Leazes. situated at the north-east corner 
of the present buildings in order to provide 
additional wards. 

The Water and Sewers Committee of the 
•Swansea Corporation has decided that Second- 
Lieutenant George Rudd Collinson, B.Sc, 
.■\. M.Inst. C.E.. be appointed acting water- 
works engineer and manager for the time 
being as from .Januar.v 1, 1917. and that in 
addition to his present salary as deputy 
borough engineer a bonus be granted to him 
of £30 a quarter, payable monthly, in respect 
nf the additional work, and that Mr. Brian L. 
McMillan, B,Sc.. be appointed engineering 
a.ssistant at a salarv of £100 per annum as 
from January 1, 1917. 

(inr C^ffia f abk. 

The number of new dwelling-houses in Man- 
chester certified as fit for human habitation 
in the year ending October, 1916, is the lowest 
on record. It amounts to 119, as against 
410 in 1915. 782 in 1914, 563 in 1913. 615 in 
1912. 964 in 1911, 1,590 in 1910, and 2,344 in 
1909 In the ten preceding yeare the average 
was over 2,000. Last year's return showed 
that, divided inco districts, 54 new houses 
were built in Withington and Didsbury, 26 
in Cheetham. 22 in Rusholme, 10 in Levens- 
hulme, three in the centre, and one each in 
Crumpsall, Blackley, Openshaw, and Moss 
Side. In 11 districts of the city no new 
houses were built at all. There were 59 new 
houses built in Moston in 1915, but none last 
year. Moston. Rusholme, Blackley, and the 
Withington district have been the Ohief 
centres for house-building for the last few- 
years. Withington easily holding the lead 
witli 214 new houses in 1915, 366 in 1914. 
and 435 in 1915, There was an average oi' 
nearly 600 in the preceding' five years. The 
effects of ilr. Lloyd George's finance, absence 
of laJbour, high cost of building materials 
and the erection of special works are given 
as tlie reasons — outside the war — for the few- 
houses built. 

The National Society of Art [Masters, 
having decided to hold its annual meeting in 
provinoial centres, assembled last week at 
Niittiugham, the home of one of the earliest 
schools of art in the country. In his presi- 
dential address, Mr W. H. Milnes, head- 
master of Coventry School of Art. complained 
that the Universities had been notorious for 
their lack of provision of instruoticm or en- 
couragement of graphic arts, and most of the 
public schools and older secondary scSioois 
were stall slaves to the predominance of the 
literai-j- idea. It was surely time peojile weie 
taught to see through their eyes. The reason 
it had not been done long ago was largely 
due to the fact tlrat so many officials on the 
administrative side of education reflected the 
narrow Univers'ty training of w-hich he had 
spoken. To build up national life and pros- 
perity after the war two things stood out 
clear — education and organisation, and both 
implied co-operation. 

The clerk to the Warwicksiliire and 
Covenitry Joint Committee has addressed a 
communication to the various authorities in 
Warwickshire on the subject of shelter for 
consumptives. He states that the committee, 
after considering all the circumsta.nces, have 
arrived at the opinion that the present is not 
an opportune tame for the Joint Committee 
to launch into a comprehensive scheme of pro- 
viding shelters for the whole district, which 
it is thought, would probably involve^ the 
ai>i5ointment of officials for their supervision 
and management. The committee are of 
opinion that for the present the various 
borough councils and uribon and rural councils 
should be approached with a view to their 
providing all shelters that may be required 
for tuberculous patients in their respective 
districts, to erect them, or remove and re- 
erect them when required, and to house them 
when not in use, on terms to be arranged. 
The Coventry city authorities have agreed to 
accept 5s. per month for each shelter when in 
use. and Bulkington Council 6s. 6d. 

The Liverpool Autumn Exhibition has 
closed its doors, and the novelty of allowing 
the public to see it free of charge on Sunday 
afternoons for the last month has proved an 
miexpected attraction. On the fii-st Sunday 
there was an attendance of over a thousand, 
and on the last of more than 1,200 people. 
An increased interest has been shown in the 
Art Union. While in the selection of the 
prizes it is pleasant to notice that almost 
invariAlv the exhibits of local artists have 
been chosen, making a substantial uicrease on 
the ordinary sales, the latter, considering the 
war calls on all, have been quite encouraging. 

The formation of ice in water mains is 
dependent, according to Mr. William Whit- 
lock Brush, deputy chief engineer of the 
Department of Water Supply. New York 
City, on three things : the temperatui-e of 
water in the main, the velocity of the flow of 



Jan. 10, 1917. 

tlie water, and the pressure. The temperature 
is .seldom below 33° F., consequently tlie 
freezing will occur only when the temperature 
falls below the freezing point 32° F. When 
the temperature falls, even by less than a 
tenth of a degree, below thi.s minimum, ue 
will first form near the inside of the pijie, 
thuj serving as a sort of coating or tube of 
ice. This is due, of course, to the metal con- 
ducting the heat from the water nearest the 
])ipe more rai)idly than from that in the 
centre. As regards the flow, the slower the 
r.ite the faster the formation of ice. Frag- 
ments or needles of ice clog the pipes, the 
flow diminishes, and the water rapidly 
freezes inUj solid ice. Incre;using the velo- 
city of flow is therefore a good means of 
preventing freezing in mains. 

Mr. Louis C. (i. Clarke has presented to tlie 
department of Metal Work at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum a blue-and-white Chinese 
porcelain biberon, mounted in silver as a 
ewer, of the early part of the reign of the 
Kmperor Wan Ia (.\.d. 1573-1619), paintp<l in 
ths characteristic greyish blue of the period. 
The mounts include a curved handle engraved 
with arabesque foliage, domed lid, foot cast 
with ornament from a repeating stamp, and 
a straight spout ending in a wolf's head. The 
ewer is exhibited in the case devoted to re- 
cent acquisitions at present placed in Room 
21 Another gift is a group of Sheffield plate 
and two or three little pie<-es of silver from 
Mr. R. F. Norton, K.C. The Sheffield plate 
dates from the first twenty years or so of tiie 
nineteenth century. An oval epergnc, dating 
from about 1800, on four claw feet, witli 
curved branches and heavily tut and moulded 
glass dishes, forms an interesting link be- 
tween the earlier and later styles. A little 
sugar basket is balanced by a cruet-stand in 
)>ierced silver, of the year 1772. This group 
of objects is at present exhibited in Room 22. 

An artificial-stone material, patented by K. 
Ogawa, 29, Matsubaradori Nichome, Kobe, 
Tokyo, composed of incompletely burnt dolo- 
mite, mixed with magnesium chloride solu- 
tion, and cork or sawdust, with a .surface 
layer of -similar Jiiaterial in which the filler is 
asbestos or slagwool. Finelv powdered dolo- 
mite is heated to 700-800° C.'vvhen the magne- 
sium carbonate is reduced to oxide but the 
calcium carbonate is left unchanged. To 
make decorative tiles, 100 parts by weight of 
liurnt dolomite are mixed with 15-25 parts of 
cork or sawdust and 50 i)arts of magnesium 
chloride solution of 18° Re. This is monklcd 
and then ooate<l witli a layer consisting of 100 
parts by weight of burnt dolomite, a suitable 
(|Uantity of slagwool or asbestos, 5-10 parts 
of pigments, and 35 parts of magnesium chlo- 
ride solution of 18° Be. The composition may 
also be iised for making pavements or for 
lovering floors, walls, ceilings, etc. 

At the last meeting of the Birmingliajn City 
Council the Chairman of the Public Works 
Committee suggested that " it would be a 
good thing" to have control over the style of 
architecture adopted in our principal streets. 
" If his suggestion was carried out." writes 
Mr. Sam. N. Cooke to tlie fiirminr/fiom Ditily 
Pnst, " I feel sure it would have the hearty 
support of the Birmingham archite<ts. At 
the present time anyone can acquire a site in 
our most ijiijiortant streets and erect a build- 
ing which is an architectural monstrosity pro- 
vided it complies with the city by-law.s with 
regard to stability and sanitation. Such con- 
ditions should not, and I .submit a solu- 
tion of this problem is not difficult. Two or 
not more than tliree architects of reinite IX 
.suggest their names .should he submitted by 
the Birniiiigham Architectural Association! 
would advise the Public Works Committee of 
the architectural merits of any building to be 
erected in any of our important streets and 
liave the necessary powers to disapprove or 
amend any design that was not suitable to its 
surroundings or of sufficient architectural 
merit. If this suegestion w.i.s; carried out I 
feel sure it would be appreciated by the 
public generally, who at the present liriie are" 
proud of their city but not its architecture." 
.Commenting on this, a Birmingham arclvi- 
tect. who was interviewed by the jOni/.i/ Po-H. 
said: "The remark by the chairman of the 
Public Works Committee. I understand, had 
Telation to the Post Office exten.sion. The 

main building is sujiposed to be French in 
design, of the Second Empire period, and 
the extension is — well, there it is! This 
brings us to the old difficulty of architecture 
designed by a State Department — that is. 
buildings constructed usually with little re- 
gard to their front elevation, but always with 
an eye to the needs of the people who do 
business in them. In a le.sser degree you 
have the same thing in public 1 uildings de- 
signed by corporation officials for a part;;ii- 
lar purpose. On the top of all you have to 
face the fact that you can do nothing till 
leases fall in, so that in the absence of l^^ld 
schemes which cannot, of course, be enter- 
tained at present, the difficulties in the «ay 
of reform are many and great. Still, tome- 
tliing can be done. What do I suggest '.' 
Well, you want either an Act of Parliament 
or an alteration in the building by-laws to 
give the corporation the right to veto jilans 
submitted if they <lo not conform to a g, ifiral 
scheme to be worked to. I (juite admit a 
corporation committee would not be *;he best 
authority on architectural iestlieties, and so 
1 suggest they should have at their back an 
advisory body drawn from members of the 
Birmingham Architects' Association. This 
body would be concerned with the front ele- 
vation and the erection of building on lines 
that would with a general plan 
to be worked to. This would be a slow 
method, but eventually you would get uni- 
formity, and the buildings in thoroughfii.-es 
would possess distinctive features." 

The ])e|)artment of Prints and Drawings of 
the British Museum has received numerous 
additions to the collections during the past 
year. The acquisitions cover all branches and 
periods, and there are some very fine wood- 
cuts of the fourteenth centiu-y, including a 
very rare set, probably Dutch, showing a 
group of soldiers. In the same collection 
is a rare set of cuts depicting the lance of 
St. Maurice and other relics of the Roman 
Empire, formerly at Xuremburg, and now in 
the Schatzkammer, Vienna. There is a litho- 
graph proof, after Ijjiwrence, of Orevedon's 
" Duchess de Berry," <n-er two dozen works 
of the American artist, Bolton Brown, colour 
cait<M)ns on war subjects from the " Nieuwe 
Amsterdammer," and specimens from the 
studios of C. H. Shannon. A. S. Hartrick. 
Mrj Hartrick, and Anthony Barker, From 
the fcreign schools there is a sef '>f five rare 
etchings of the Seven Sages of Greece by 
De Gheyn. the younger, two by the Belgian 
artist Jules de Bruycker. entitled " Kultur " 
and the " Death Kiiell in Flanders." 

The death Is nnnoimced of Jlr. Joseph* V. 
O'Connor, who had been for many years town 
surveyor of Funis and a former assistnnt 
county surveyor. 

The Txiid Mayor will open on Monday, 
.lanuary ]5. tlio hostel established by tlie 
Young Men's Christian A.ssociation in the old 
lioadquarters of the Pearl Assurance Com- 
liany, London Bridge. 

Mr. Sidney Artluir ParnwelJ. Fellow of the 
Slurveyors' Institution, has been appointed 
sixretnry ai>d comptroller to the Great Ens- 
urn Railway, in succession to j\lr. P. Lonias. 
deceased. .Mr. Parnwell. who is well known 
ill the rating world, will continue to carry 
out the duties 'of land atront to the company. 

The annual meeting of the Bristol Ma.'ster 
Builders' .Association was held on Thursday 
last, when Mr. Frank N. (/"owlin was elected 
pri\<i(leiit. .4 cordial vote of thanks was passed 
to the retiring president. Mr. I''. A. R. VWuxl- 
ward. who had held the office for the recor<l 
period of three years in succession, during 
which he worked unceasingly to promote the 
general interests and well-being of the building 

As a result of blasting operations on Hal- 
kyu Mountiains la.4t Friday morning some 
three miles from Holywell, the water that fed 
the well of St. Winifred has l>een diverted 
and now courses alomr a fre.«h channel. Jeaviiiff 
the well dry. The flow, normally over 2. COO 
callons per minute, has continued for untold 
aores, and was one of the wonders of Wales, 
■^e well is covered .by n fine lOotliic build- 
ing, said to have been erected by Margaret 
"^oimtcss of Richmond, and mother of Henry 
Vll.. with some portions of earlier date. The 
ihnpel (restored) is used for public services. 


Wa do DOt bold ourselves respoiuible tor tbe opiiiiOD» 
of our correspondents. All communtcations sboald 
be drawn up u bnefly a« pot^sible, as ttaere arc 
m&ay claimants upon tbe space allolted to 

U 13 particularly requested tbat all drawingi and 
all communicaiioiu refipectiDg illustrations or titeran 
matter, txraks for review, etc., sbould be addreued 
to tbe Editor of tbe Ne>%8, Efflngbam 
House, 1, Arundel Street, Strand, W.C, and not to 
members of the staff by name. Delay is not infre- 
quently otberwise caused. All drawings and otber 
communications are sent at contributors' risks, and 
tbe Editor will not undertake to pay for. or be liabl* 
for, unsougbt contributions. 

Wtien favouring us v'*.h drawings or pbotograptM, 
arctLit«cte are asked kindly to state bow lon« tiia 
building has been erected. It does neitber them nor 
us mucti good to illustrate buildings which have baeb 
some time executed, except under specUl circam- 

••"Drawings of selected competition designs, im- 
portant public and private buildings, details of old 
and new work, and good sketches are alwaya wel- 
come, ^nd for such no charge is made for insertion. 
Of more commonplace subjects, small cburchea. 
chapels, houses, etc.— we have usually far more sent 
than we can insert, but are glad to do 60 when tpact 
perm:t.s, on mutually advantageous terms, wbicb 
may ba ascertained on application. 
Telephone: Oerrard 1291. 
Telegrams: " Timeserver, Estrasd, London." 

Bound Copies of Vol. CX. are now ready, and 
should be ordered early (price 12s. each, by poat 
12s. lOd.), as only a limited number are done up. 
A few iKiund volumes of Vols. XXXIX., XLI,. 

xcn., xcii!., xciv., xcv., xcvi., xcvii.. 
xcvui., xcix., c, CI., en., cm., civ., cv.. 

CVI., evil., CVIII.. and CIX. may still be ob- 
tained at tile same price ; all th« otber t>ouDd 
volumes are out of print. 


Tlie charge for Competition and Contract Adver- 
tisements. Public Companies, and all oHlcial adver- 
tLsements is Is. per line of Eight Words, the first 
line counting as two. the minimuni charge beiog &s. 
for four lines. 

The charge for Auctions, Land Sale*, and Mis- 
cellaneous and Trade Advertiwments (except Situa- 
tion Advertisement*) is 6d. per line of Eight Worda 
(the first line counting as twol. the minimum charge 
being 4s. 6rf. for 50 words. Special t#rm» for aerie* 
of six insert-ions or more can be aacertained on appli- 
cation to the Publisher. 

6nn«TioNs v»c«Nt. 

The charge for advertisements for " SItuatlona 

Vacant " is Two Shillings and Sixpence for Twenty 

four Words, and Sixpence for every Eight Words 

after. All Situation Advtrtittmtnli mutt tt BTtaaii. 


The charge for advertisements for " Situation* 
Wanted " and " Partnerships " is One Shilling for 
Twenty-tour Words, and Sixpence for every Gisbt 
W'orda" after. 

All Situation and Tartnerihip Adttniicm'nf 
mxiwt h* Tirepnid 

Rates for Trade Advertisement* on front page as4 
special and otJier positions can b« obtained on 
application to tlie Publisher. 


Replleji to advertisements can t>e received at t»>« 
omce, Effingham House. I. Arundel Street. Strand. 
W.C. free o/ chargr. II to he forwarded under 
cover to advertiser, an extra charge of Sixpence ia 
made. (See Notice at head of " Situation*.") 

Adverl-Lsenients for the current wt-ck must reach 
tlie omce not later 3 p.m. on Tuesday. Prontr 
page advertisements and alterrations or stop orders 
for serial advertisements must reivch the oHlce by 
drst post on Monday to secure attention. 

Rfckived.— O. P. and Co.— K. F. and R.— J. E. and 
Son— F A. X. and Co.— H. H. and Co., Ltd.— 
A C Co.. Ltd.— C. A. and Co.— R., Ltd.— J. H. 
II. and Co.— W. R. L.— G. I. F. Co.— W. W and 
Son— F. D.— C. J. S. and Co.— N. and Co.— 
B. Co.— C. and Co.— \V. S. Co.. Ltd.— I. C. S.— 
E. B. D.— T. W. H. 

Anni-s — Yes. 

PiuxciPAi.. — Quite riglit. 

DoinTFtx— They are quite trustvvortliv. 

L.R.l.B.A. — We really do rot see the .suggested 


A houHiiig soheiiie. to co,st nearly £20,000. :^ 
to be carried out ot Nuneaton. 

V memorial brass is to be erected in the 
^lunicipal Teihnical Institute. Belfast, to 
comniemorati' the heroi.sni of W. F. McFad- 
zean. V.C.. a former pupil of the Trade Pre- 
paratory School of the Institute, who lost his 
life by throwing himself on a bomb, thereby 
saving the lives of his comrades. 


January 17. 1917. 

Volume CXII.-No. 323" 



Effingham House. 

Cuirente Calamo 49 

The A. A. Pushes On 50 

Th« Royal Academy Winter Exhibition of 

Graphic Art 51 

The American Institute of Architects . . . . r,i 

Quebec Architects Demand Legal Qualification.. 5-2 

"Recent Progress in D-'edging Machinery" .. .52 

Building By-Laws 53 

Our Illustrations . . 'U 

Obituary 65 

Tests of Concrete Specimens in Sea Water at 

Boston Navy Yard r.5 


The Roman Wall from Sewcastle to Carlisle .. 65 
Repopulation of Our Rural Districts .. ..66 

Correspondence 67 

Building Intelligence 67 

Trade Notes 67 

Professional and Trade Societ'es 6S 

Legal Intelligence fs 

Our Office Table ivs 

To Correspondent.- i;9 

To Arms ! -q 

Tenders -q 

Competitions Open 70 

List of Tenders Open 70 

Strand, W-C. 

Church of St. Catherine, Nea^den, JIiddles«x. View 
from South .Aisle into Choir, from a photograph 
by Mr. Richard Moreland. Mr. John S. Ader, 
F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 

The Library and Chapel in the Vicar's Close, Wells 
Cathedral, Somersetshire. Measured and drawn 
by Mr. James Macgregor, Architect. 

Sports Pavilion, Saughton Public Park, Edinburgh. 
Mr. J. A. Williamson, A.R.I.B.A., City Architect. 

K Suite of Painted Furniture at Windsor Castle, de- 
signed and decorated by Lady Kinloch for Her 
Majesty the Queen. 

(luxxtTxit Calamo. 

hto tliat portion of the Bill providing for 
I /the sale of works of art in the possession 
' * ' of the National Gallery Trustees, or which 

The monstrous muddle of our building may be acquired by them in the future, the 
by-laws is an old story, and one upon Council ask that, in the event of the BUI 
which we have often dwelt. These j becoming law, "the most intimate and 
wretched regulations are now over forty /sympathetic consideration be given to the 
jears old, and have long been obsolete, jmeeds of the aforesaid provincial and 
Based upon the " model " series origin- I Colonial galleries before any work be sold, 
ally issued by the Local Government seeing that the deficiencies of our provin- 
Board of that time, for towm areas, they ^cial collections, in the matter of pictures 
have been applied to couTitry and rural i by deceased masters, are so many that all 
districts, to which they are quite un- j the National Gallery duplicates of any 
fitted. Taking no account of modern importance could be absorbed by them with 
methods or new materials, such as con- 'great advantage to the difiusion of art 
Crete, they shackle the builder at every knowledge in our own country." The 
turn. And they vary greatly in different , Council are also of opinion that any legis- 
loealities, so that a row of houses on one iHation designed to restrict the exportation 
side of the street may be under a set of certain classes of paintings, etc., should 
of regulations which have no force over 'apply to all works falling into those 
the way ! Mr. Justice Grantham, a few iclasses, and not be restricted to those speci- 
years ago, desiring to build some rural | fied on a list wliich has been prepared by 
cottages, fought the authorities in the ; or for the Trustees of the National 
Courts, and gave us all good example. .Gallery. Tlie considerations ui^ed by the 
Many, if not most, of these by-laws are | Association are reasonable, but whetlier 
legally bad, as being ultra vires; but .'they are likely to receive attention at the 
going to law is both a costly and a risky hands of the Trustees is doubtful, judging 
business, and so they are rarely dis- 
puted. At the present time small houses 
and cottages are urgently needed, and 
this need wiU be still greater after the 
war. Of course, no real reform can be 
expected for years ; -but, meanwhile, the 
Government could, under their existing 
statutory powers grant a wide discre- 
tion to all the local councils, or, even 
better, issue an order from the Local 
Government Board suspending the most 
absurd and vexatious of these by-laws 
for the duration of the war. This could, 
and should, be done at once, and upon 
broad lines, under good expert advice, 

by the past proceedings of tlvat body 
What is wanted at Trafalgar Square is an 
administration capable of understanding 
■and meeting obvious home needs, and we 
trust at an early date we may get it. 

Finders of mare's nests seem always able 

in these days to command space in the 

! Times, relying possibly on the ignorance 

of its conductors of facts. The following 

letter, which appeared in that journal la«t 

AV'ednesday, is one of the most flagrant : — 

Sir. — During the Inst two years a pseudo-Greek 
Temple of impo-sing dimensions has been erected in 
St. Marylebone for the use of the borough council. 
It does not appear that any cost has been spared 

on its external adornment or on its internal fittings. 

and that would give owners and builders I ^.''o" *•";, *'"« t^e building was started huge 
® _ placards have covered tlie hoardmgs with wnioJi 

a fair chance of getting on with the it is surrounded. These proclaimed in letters 2 ft. 

work they are now ready and willing to 
do for the benefit of tlte whole com- 

or more in height :— " To Dress Extravagantly in 
War-time is Unpatriotic." " Gas and Electricity 
should Not be Wasted." " Every 15s. 6d. Saved 
Would Purchase 124 Cartridges." " Don't be Ex- 
travagant in Your Expenditure this Christmas." 

But so far no notice has appeared " To Build 

-. 1 X X 1 -I- I T^. i Extravagantly in War-time is Unpatriotic." Pre- 

In a letter to tlie Irustet* and iJireotor cepts of economy backed by expenditure on such a 

rif tliA ^ratmTlAI Gallerv thp roiinril ct the s'a's ar" no* "kely to prove convincing. Would 
ot me, JNat-lonai uaueiy tne L-ouncU ol tne .^ ^^^ ^^ better-at a time when the country is 

Museums Association, a body representing , in urgent need of money— to stick to the old adage, 

"Example is better than precept"?— I am, Sir, 

the leading museums and art galleries in 
the Empire, express their appreciation of 
that part of the National Gallery Bill, 
1916, which proposes to allow loans to 
Colonial galleries and some extension of the 
facilities for the loan of pictures and works 
of art to provincial galleries. With regard 

yours, etc.. COMMON SENSE. 

January 9. 

Very " common " sense indeed ! Would it 
not be better for the amateur censore of 
extravagance to acquaint themsehes with 
the truth before they make themselves ridi- 
culous ? The design for the new Mai-jle- 

bone Town Hall was accepted in Novem- 
ber, 1911, nearly three years before the 
war began. Its need had been patent for 
several years. The Marylebone Borough 
Council acted throughout, as we said on 
p. 751 of our issue of December 1, 1911. 
with tlie " most business-like fairness and 
common sense." We illustrated the com- 
petition designs in that number, and in 
our review of the successful design by Mr. 
Edwin Cooper, F.R.I.B.A., we remarked 
on the moderate cost of the extremely able 
and attractive scheme — Is. 2d. per foot 
cube. In our issue of May 8, 1914, we 
gave Mr. Cooper's Royal Academy per- 
spective of the building, whicli sliould 
sufficiently satisfy any competent judge as 
to the character of the design. The con- 
tract for the building was made long before 
the war began, and it is well that was the 
case, as the Borough of Marylebone has 
saved thousands of pounds. Its comple- 
tion and occupation are hindered because 
the Pensions Committee at present occupy 
the building. 

A useful hint, which we ourselves have 
more than once emphasised, in connection 
with the housing problem is given by Dr. 
R. T. Edwards, the medical officer of 
health for Merioneth, in his annual report. 
That there is a scarcity of suitable work- 
men's dwellings in different parts of the 
country we aU know too well, but till the 
war is over no new ones will be built, and 
Dr. Edwards advises all local authorities 
to resort to the provisions of Section 15 
of the Housing and Town Planning Act 
of 1909, in preference to enforcing the 
powers conferred upon them by Sections 
17 and 18 in regard to the closing of 
houses which become unfit for human 
habitation. In tliis connection he recalls 
tltat relative to tiiese powers the Local 
Government Board says: — " It is satisfac- 
tory to note that the number of the autho- 
rities who have exercised these powers has 
increased substantially. In addition to 
the repairs and improvements efiected to 
dwelling houses by means of formal action 
under this section, local authorities have 
secured the execution of a large amount 
of work for the improvement of houses by 
means of representation to, or negotia- 
tions with, owners, without resorting to 
formal notices under the Act, and, more- 
over, the number of notices under the 
Public Health Act for the removal «f 


THE Bl'ILDIXG NEWS: Nu. 3237. 

Jan. 17, 1917. 

nuisances is verj' large. Dr. Edwartls also 
draws the atU-ntiim of local authorities 
to the coiisideraiile difliculty e.vpwienced in 
ol)tainini; from owners r>f jnoperty sufli- 
cient notice of prospective changes in the 
tenancies of small cotitages. Under Sec- 
tion 15 the local councils are empowered to 
require the owner of any dwedling house 
to put it into a fit and wholesome condi- 
tion before a new tenant is allowed to 
oc<-upy the premise's, but owing to the 
neglect of owners to give notice of imjiend- 
ing changes of tenancy, new tenants are 
allowetl to enter into occupation before an 
opportunity is given for the in.spection of 
the premises, and to state what altera- 
tions are required before re-letting. 

'riio dream of the Cifij Press fascinat<?s 
us--bom and educated in the City of Lon- 
don, and appreciating thoroughly its ex- 
■cellent -sanitation, far in advance of tJiat 
•uf most of the modern boroughs that 
cluster round it. but we fear it is unrealis- 
able. '■ How different a place would the 
City be," remarks our icoiitemporary, 
'■ were it to become once again the liome, 
•ind not mei-ely the office and counting- 
tiouse — .a social community, and not 
merely tlie centre to whicli tlie citizen 
<-oincs to earn the money which he sjK-nds 
l^eyond its bordere. One initial difficulty 
stands, of couree, in the way. The In- 
habited House Duty is an effectual bar to 
any return. As the law stands, the oocu- 
Vation of a single room residentially ren- 
ders tJie entire building liable for duty. 
Separate assessmen.ts may, perhaps, over- 
come this obstacle in a measure, but a 
retum en masse can only materialise if 
the law is altex-ed in such a way as to 
render the occupier re.'^ponsible merely for 
the i-ooms used for rt«idential purposes. 
Some day we hope to see the Corporation 
making a move in this direction, and so 
paving the way for such a revivification of 
Ihe City. Many a landlord would, we feel 
snn-e, welcome sucJi a revolution, and cer- 
tainly many a citizen, and more especially 
tlie lieavily rented and rated trader, would 
readily avail hini.s(.a,f of the opportunity 
offered to retrench financially by ' living 
in.' Into wliat ideal flat,« could sudi build- 
ings as Salisbury House and Kiver Plate 
House be converted. What a splendid 
(.oulevard could be ci.ustituteil by the erec- 
tion of imposing buildings along the Em- 
bankment. How cosy as homes would be 
ham© of tilic old world buildings that still 
remain to us, the efforts of the building 
frateniity notwithstanding, in the high- 
waj-s and bycways of the City," And may 
we add how comfortable it would k^ to 
•ailjourn from breakfast to work and from 
the office to dinner witliout wasting the 
V-ouple of hom-s lost daily in r. 
liusiness and returning home. 

As was to be expected, the First Commis- 
sioner of Works, after taking expert 
advice, has rejected the fantastic sugges- 
tion that the public parks in the centre 
of London should I* ploughed up for th-:- 
growth of food. Tlie soil is unsuitable, 
and the soot and dust would make £;ood 
crops out of the question. An exception 
is a small part of Kensingt<in Gardens. 

to Ix' used as a demonstration area to show 
allotment holders the possibilities of 
vegetable cultivation. As regards Rich- 
mond and Bushey Parks the case is 
different. They are well removed from 
the city's smoke. Even there, however, 
the possibilities are limited. A consider- 
able proportion of both parks is under 
WfKxlland, and much of it is either marshy 
or so gravelly as to entail great lalmur in 
cultivation. The King's approval to the 
breaking up of these Crown ))ro))erties ha^ 
been given as an example to the private 
ownei-s of demesne lands more suitable for 
cultivation. As both Richmond Park and 
Bushey Park are enclosed, the protection 
of the growing crops will be comparatively 

: >-••<»—< 


The Architectural Association, always 
the most virile of our professional socie- 
ties, is taking time by the forelock in 
regard to the requirements of members 
of the profession returning after the war. 
It may, of course, be some time before it 
is necessary to put the scheme in opera- 
tion, but it is well that all architects, 
and especially the younger members of 
the profession, should know that it is 
under consirleration. The Council will 
welcome suggestions from its own mem- 
bers, but they should be offered promptly, 
as the arrangements contemplated should 
be perfected to the smallest detail if they 
are to be really effective when required. 

The Counal of the Association, in their 
brief resume of the suggestions before 
tlieni, anticipate, as we all do, that the 
architectural profi-s^ion, as soon as peace 
is made, will lienefit by the inevitable 
desire to push forward as soon as possible 
the various building schemes which have 
been suspended or postponed owing to the 
war. However busy architects may be- 
come, it is almost certain they will be 
handicapped by a shortage of help. Dur- 
ing the war the normal annual influx 
of young assistants to the architectural 
profession from the schools and by pupil- 
age has ceased entirely, and the number 
of assistants who have fallen in the war 
will affect the jirofession to a marked 

Thus, at the end of the war, whilst 
there will be an accumulation of some 
years' delayed work to be jiroceeded with, 
the number of assistants will be less than 
it was before the war. 

The A. A., therefore, contemplates pro- 
viding facilities for assistants to be 
brought into toucli with would-be oni- 
ployers : helping the temporarily disabled 
and unlit, helping those who, as a result 
of the war, find themselves tofallv dis- 
abled from following the architectural pro- 
fession further, and assisting to. become 
qualified architects those disabled from fol- 
lowing other callings ; and providing; 
means for those who di-sire it to recover 
such architectural proficiency as they may 
have lost whilst serving. Each (jioject 
seems to us a practical one and deserving 
of all support. 

The A. A. has always kept a bureau for 
unemployed assistants, which has been re- 
cocnised by pra<'tisiiig architects as a 
centre from which they could obtain 
assistants. During the w?.r the rule that 
only members of the A. A. when uneni- 
ploved could use the bureau has been 
waived, and if has been opened to the 
profession generally. It is suggested that 
this arrangement continue to be in force 
for such [leriod after the war as may be 
determined. It is suggested that the 

scope of the bureau be widened, and that 
it be given some such title as " The A. A. 
Employment and Information Bureau for 
Architects returning from the Army." 
Its scope should not be limited in any 
way, but it should be allowed to develop 
as experii'nce shows to be necessary. As 
the A. A. War Service Bureau has been, 
since the commencement of the war, the 
recognised centre for assisting members 
of the profession in Army mattci-s, so 
should the proposed new bureau be avail- 
able for any architects' assistants seeking 
advice and assistance on any matter con- 
nected with the return to civil life. 

As regards tiie provision of facilities for 
assistants to be brought into touch with 
would-be employers, a register of disen- 
gaged assistants should be kept, and also a 
register of architects requiring assistants, 
arrangements being made, if possible, to 
work in conjunction with the 2)rovincial 
societies, who would also be able to consult 
the bureau on behalf of any of their mem- 
bers. Information could be collected as to 
openings in the colonies and abroad, and 
assistance given to those compelled to seek 
another climate on account of broken 

There will probably be a number of 
assistants at the end of the war who, for 
some time, through various disablements 
and nervous disorders, will not be capable 
of taking up the full duties of an archi- 
tect's assistant, but who at the same time 
would be able to follow a light employ- 
ment, and who, indeed, woulii benefit by 
so doing. To meet such cases, it is 
suggested that a drawing, tracing, and 
photd-pnnfing office should be formed, 
which should undertake all such work as 
commercial offices of this nature usually 
undertake. Such an office would un- 
doubtedly, in the first instance, need sub- 
sidising, but in a short time it should pay 
its own expenses, and provide a fair wage 
to all employed. Profits, if any, could 
be given to benevolent schemes in connec- 
tion with the profession. It should be 
managinl on business lines as far as prac- 
ticable, but its object would be defeated 
were not a certain amount of latitude 
allowed to those employed. There is no 
reason why such an office should not be a 
liermanent institution, as there should 
be, even in the slackest times in the pro- 
fession, no difficulty in keeping it supplied 
with work, and in any time of acute un- 
employment in the future it would be a 
very useful means of providing work. 

Theri' will be probably very few totally 
disabled, and thus iJievented from follow- 
ing the architectural profession further, 
coming under this category who will need 
to consult the bureau, as there are already 
many institutions in existence for i-e- 
training the disabled according to their 
abilities, but at the same time, as the 
A. A. has done so much to encourage mem- 
bers of the profession to join the Army, 
it wonld seem its duty to be prepared to 
help any who, through their service in the 
Army, are compelled to give up the pro- 
fession for other work. The bureau could 
collect all information about re-training 
schemes, so that such information should 
be ready at hand for anyone in the pro- 
fession needing it, and the A. A. should 
use its influence to get the best possible 
training and help for those consulting it. 
It shoidd also co-o])erate, where practic- 
able, with the various training <ommittets 
in assisting men from other callings who 
wish to train as qualified architects. 

There will also be those who will desire 
to recover such architectural efficiency as 
they may have lost while serving, and it 
is suggested that arrangements be made 
to help those who wish to be coached up 
again in professional matters, after three 

Jan. 17, 1917. 



ijv more years' absence from the architec- 
tural world. As an educational body, the 
A. A. could certainly best organise that. 

We are sure the scheme will elicit 
general approval and any necessary aid. 
It is in every way likely to prove a worthy 
continuance of the Architectural Associa- 
tion's past activities, which only the mis- 
fortunes due to the war and common to 
most of us have suspended. We wish it 
the most complete success and the heartiest 
co-operation of all concerned. 


As already announced, the Royal 
Academy Winter Exhibition, which will 
oyyen to-morrow, consists of drawings, 
etchings, and engravings in the various 
forms by living artists, and the principal 
societies for these arts are fully repre- 
sented. There is also a retrospective sec- 
tion, intended to illustrate the history of 
engraving and etching from the Fifteenth 
to the Nineteenth Century, and showing 
many rare examjiles of most of the prin- 
cipal masters of line and mezzotint engrav- 
ing and of etching. The exhibition also 
includes a number of modelled designs for 
memorials by leading British sculi^tors. 
Representatives of tlie Senefelder Club, 
the Society of Graver-Printers in Colour, 
and the Society of Twelve have collabo- 
rated with the Royal Academy Council in 
the organisatiun and arrangement of 
the exhibition. A large number of the 
drawings, etchings, and engravings by 
living artists will be for sale, and half of 
■the proceeds of each sale will be given to 
the Red Cross Society. 

There are no less than 1,334 exhibits, 
many familiar to most of us, but not a few 
which are seldom seen, and some which 
are of no great interest. Gallery I. is 
devoted to drawings, including four by 
Mr. Alfred Parsons, R.A., eight bj- Mr. 
George W. Lambert, six by Mr. F. Der- 
went Wood, A.R.A., six by Second-Lieu- 
tenant Muirhead Bone illustrating scenes 
at the Western front, eight by Mr. Wil- 
liam Rothenstein. four by Mr. George 
Clausen, R.A., and three by Mr. William 
Strang, A.R.A. Of architectural interest 
we note a " Doorway of the Castle of 
Maniaces, Syracuse ' (2), by Mr. F. 
Hamilton Jackson, R.B.A. ; ''The Pool, 
Pershore " (12), by Mr. Reginald Blom- 
lield, R.A. ; " Pisano's I'ulpit, Siena 
Cathedral" (52), and 'West Porches, 
Chartres " (53), by Mr. Thomas W. Rooke, 
R.W.S. ; and "The Citadel, Laon, 
France ■" (128), and " Metz " (129), by Sir 
Ernest George, A.R.A. 

Gallery II. has more drawings and wood 
engarvings. Mr. Bernard Gribble sends one 
of his spirited naval efforts, " Destroyers 
on the Track of a German Submarine" 
(136). and a good design for Red Cross 
stationery, " The Iron Duke " (257). Two 
of the best things in this room are the 
"Design from Julius Caesar" (154) and 
" Sketch of a Bloodhound" (186), by Mr. 
Briton Riviere. Among others. Sir 
Edward J. Poynter, P.R.A., shows a good 
' Study for Fresco Painting " (192). 
There are several good things by Mr. 
Edmund H. New, including "Giotto's 
Campanile, Florence" (131), "A General 
View of Florence" (134), and "High 
Street, Oxford " (135). 

Gallery III. is devoted to aquatints, 
mezzotints, etchings, and di-y prints. 
Here, again, INIr. Greorge Clausen and Mr. 
William Strang are liberal contributors, 
and there are some good things by Mr. W. 
L. Wyllie, R.A., and Sir Charles Holroyd. 


Mr. A. Wallace Riniington sends 
tarism or Christ ' ' (460). 

Gallery IV. is occupied by lithographs 
by deceased and living artists, and Gal- 
lery V. by more lithographs and colour 

On the whole the "Retrospective Sec- 
tion," which fills the larger of two 
South Rooms, is the most interesting fea- 
ture of the exhibition. It comprises a 
very fine selection of engravings and 
etchings, illustrating the history of those 
arts from the fifteenth to the nineteenth 
century, and there are some rare examples 
of most of the principal masters of line 
and mezzotint and etching, including 
several by Rembrandt and Albrecht Durer, 
and a good selection from Turner's 
" Liber Studiorum," lent by Mr. A. A. 
Allen, M.P. The smaller South Room 
is given up to Victorian illustrations. 
There are several by Mr. Henry Holiday, 
Whistler, Sir Luke Fildes, Sir E. J. 
Millais, Frederick Sandys, G. J. Pinwell, 
Charles Keene, Sir E. J. Poynter, Ten- 
iiiel, Burne-Jones, D. G. Rosetti, Hobnan 
Hunt, and Aubrey Beardsley. 

The sculpture is a somewhat varied col- 
lection of models and sketches. There is 
a sood bronze statuette of " Victory " 
(913), by Mr. Alfred Drury, R.A. { a 
sketch model for an equestrian statue of 
Edward VII., by Mr. Hamer Thornycroft' 
R.A. ; another of the memorial efiigy of 
the late ^Marquis of Salisbury in the 
Salisbury Chapel, Hatfield (918), by Sir 
W. Goscombe John, R.A. ; and Sir Thomas 
Brock's model for the tomb of Lord 
Leighton (922). Some appear to have 
been designed to suit any qualified client, 
as, for instance, the " Model of a memo- 
rial to commemorate some notoriety," by 
Mr. Charles L. Hartwell, A.R.A. 

The fiftieth annual convention of the 
American Institute of Architects was held 
at Minneapolis on December 6, 7, and 8 la.'st, 
and was _numerously attended and well con- 
ducted. The reports of the various commit- 
tees were practical, and the hospitality ten- 
dered to all present hearty. We give from 
the report in the American Architfrl the 
principal points of the opening address by 
President Mauran. 


For just haif a century the American In- 
stitute of Ar'chitects has been meeting in 
annual convention. 

• Each succeeding year has marked some 
gress toward the goal of the truly national 
idea — toward that common understanding 
whicli comes alone through unified service in 
the cause of those ideals which must ever 
stand just beyond the goal. 

In all the broad field of human endeavour 
the two callings which stand out as being in- 
herently constructive are journalism and 
architecture. The lawyer's brain, alert and 
resourceful, is given more to analysis in the 
daily round of his practice than to that 
sTOthetic. constructive thought which contri- 
butes to the advancement of mankind. 

It is true the surgeon and the physician are 
devoted searchers for tlie truth as a founda- 
tion on which to rear their manifold contribu- 
tions for the betterment of humanity, but 
their activities are proceeding along ever- 
narrowing lines as the broadening field of re- 
searcli is subdivided for the winnowing. But 
where stands the successful architect of to- 
day? Not where he stood at the moment of 
the holding of the first convention of the 
American Institute, just half a century ago — 
or even twenty-five years ago — a cultured 
gentleman, giving to the world his painstaking 
solutions of the simple problems of his day 
and generation. To-day he must still he not 
only the cultured gentleman, the efficient 
solver of his clients' problems, but, in the suc- 
cessful practice of our creative art, he must 
be the astute business man, the master in the 

broad sense of all the sciences which have 
contributed to the complexity of the modern 
building. Moreover, he must ever lead always 
a few laps in advance of the client outlining 
his requirements, be they the technical ones 
of the director of a proposed hospital, or the 
simpler demands of orientation of a private 

The millennium has not yet come, but I 
want to try to point out to J'ou the way by 
which its coming may be advanced by leaps 
and bounds At this, the fiftieth convention, 
your officers have wrested from that time- 
devourer, "unfinished business," one entire 
afternoon session to be devoted to an effort to 
formulate a plan for assisting the United 
.States Government in its architectural 

Wlienever a complicated problem is en- 
countered, the first advice of the architect is 
to call in an expert — one who has given time 
to an exhaustive study of similar conditions, 
but we architects are perhaps naturally disin- 
clined to take our own medicine — annually we 
give much thoughtful effort to the solution 
of our officers and board of directors, who in 
turn select with judicial care the committees 
of experts to study the manifold complexities 
of our organic law and our professional 
activities. But when we meet as delegates to 
hear the decision of our experts, the very 
strength which is going to lead us to higher 
things becomes our weakness through force of 
habit and the near perspective in which we 
regard these details. I began by saying that 
our profession is "inherently constructive," 
and, with that constructive impulse dominant, 
we straightway fall to discussing the reports 
of our experts, suggesting changes and im- 
provements so comprehensive as to embrace 
the punctuation — and all on a moment's 
notice we attempt to qualify as experts in as 
many minutes as our committees have taken 
days to assimilate the controlling facts. 

Heretofore the reports of these, our pains- 
taking labourers in the vineyard, have been 
handed over to hastily gathered committees 
for a consideration that, with the best intent, 
can be but superficial. Now, since your 
officers and board of directors have had pro- 
gress reports throughout the year, and are in 
every way familiar with every detail as well 
as with the ideals and aspirations of the Insti- 
tute body, we have decided to review all com 
mittee reports m the report of the board of 
directors. The next step is a long forward 
move, calculated to maintain the essential 
feature of democracy in our organisation and 
to jirevent that dangerous tendency toward 
centralisation of power One full day has 
been given to the Committee of Delegates, ap- 
pointed in advance, to digest and thoroughly 
weigh the subject matter thus presented by 
your boaixl, and to comment freely thereon 
in transmitting the same to the delegates. 
This is an effort to place each matter before 
you in such a final way that long debate will 
prove superfluous as precedent to your adop- 
tion or rejection. Doesn't that promise an 
orderly, systematic di.sposition of minutise, 
which will clear the deck for action that is 
worthy of the highly constructive thought of 
the foremost men in our profession ? 

Two fields of endeavour stretch before us. 
One might be called the field of "understand- 
ing" and the other the field of "service." 
One have held a viewpoint revealing 
every hiU and valley in the field of under- 
standing to estimate the "cuts and fills" in 
the smoothing process that waits for our 

A very considerable group in our member- 
sliip conceives the functions of the Institute 
to be that of a rate bureau. Their attitude 
indicates a mental parallel between the 
vSchedule of Proper Jlinimum Charges and a 
lever, whereby a prospective client may be 
coerced into paying an established fee, but 
with little regard to the character and value 
of the sei-vices the Institute had in mind 
when it decide<I that the present minimum 
was a fair value to put upon full service. 
.Such an attitude engenders neither respect 
for the Institute nor respect for the architect. 
Can we not bring an understanding through 
our discussions which will reveal the truth 
that the type of ser^e rendered shaU bring 
the desired return in respect, and our 
pecuniary reward in fees higher than the 


THE BL'ILDLXu ^£\V,-: .\u. o-';.7. 

Jan. 17. 1917 

niiu.'iriuia when, and oiJy ii-hea, they repi*- 1 toucl>ed our hearts ami siirred our every 

sent vaJae reoc:ved? 

'J'bflf iLTr 

who sincerely belit 

EtTeugtii -B-hjch comes iix>ni ni- 
aod act can oiJy grow in .. 
-i • ' J' Inrt^tnte of Arcbitectc, one and 
;i oivit^ible. 

H '^- in'.K.h iTp V- ■ - -■' ,m one 

,Tio!:,.r .. ;.r....-:, b;. jf your 

offic-rt ii, v;>:tmg c _; .•.;.-. Bome- 

ti.ins over a year ago. and iiow jnucli the^d Chapter? Vnr:«»d is attested by the 

ii.arvt j.iit . lie last foin-teem 

TrK'Lthi- ■: { • My mind is so 

-' ■' ' and cf 

I 15 beeii 

^ ._; . an end- 

^t. But the point 

• tfiat sessions of 

ver to work 

_ " — and if I 

with tie ■ 

'fa comj' 

.-" of vL.. 

oe in a 

■ waiting 

' . servioe. " 

e ip eivpn to 




t irree of toe 
■le Bea. To- 
'■trt we TTi'jft 

iig to Liie oi the national 
If theee opposite minds be set to 
r field of ■■ understanding " T 
would ttim tip the first ma-- 

as lie peritjniis a common labour i 
'WF from '-'»^.-t \' ■ '■'"'^ci -jTid fr'>TT^ ' 

struct ire c And on that day let i 

uy Ti' t '•»■ ■ -r-pared to take up the' 

ng to US by T.: 
•IB of the wc; 
ly expressed •. 
1 fcave tried 

_ . ._. ._^. ■■ It is unwon 

o! us. it is inerpedient and tmprofitable, to i 
V s - :';^n discuetine little quesdons of cor | 
matters d casuistry. Cannot 
iito Bc«me rrand ■princiii'le. eo i 

'.■us as il they were a s" 
- .:nz them one by one. v 
we woiud oiiTy move on, we should icave 
them behind^ and then in the dear, cool air 
we wouJd do the work whict we have de- 
termined to do." 

1 »a» < 

A Bill has been introduced into the Quebec 
Legislative Council by '• - TT .• .J. L. Perroi 
which wiU make it ir r any pe:- 

to act as architect v :jg a men. 

of the Province of Qucbot Association oi 
Architects. The association objects to any 
person calling himself an architect ' 
being a member, and lejal action ; 

vever, proved un- 

that pereone act- 

^e boui.^ to be members of 

the Bill is to ren - ' " ' 
measure is also a 


ilACHlNEilV. ♦ 

Bx WiixuM Bbows, M.Inet.C.E. 

■' • • • ^-aU wjli biKke* dredgeri;, 

of tile " cuiKT," "ilrag, 

■.yj)es, and dipper dreagerb. 

. ol tuese typee within itc liuute it 

._ ..bed a£ being best suited for particu- 

liji ttasses and conditions of dreaging, and 

t-,i»- vt^seb described in the paper liave not 

' . -^ of any phenumeual 

m, but because eprcial 

..15 L'v.^ uc voted to iheir aesign 

.? several conditions of their io- 

Witb regard to the question of dredging 

L .ft* Xi'j fair cijmparisous can be made un- 

' . is had to all the items — 

. - and stores — and to the pby- 

.iid-ticiiii met with. Comparisons are 

; value when the conditions are fully 

- - - - _. . . .,-., details 

hen the 

...^,— .-c .... -1^ T.*'rt.? 

are reduced to 

Br,;- - - 

The bucket hopper dredgtr "' bilurus ' js 
taken to represent the most modem dredger 
of the bucket type, and particulars are given 
of I be work done by the dredgers " Coro- 
zal," "K.uphiis," and " Oct<ipiis." 

The " Silums " is a twin-ecrew bucket 
r dredger btiilt of steel to Lloyds' re- 
.ents for the port ol Bombay. 
:^-:ijth between perpendiculaie ... 260 ft. 

Breadth moulded 46 ft. 

II. . „ .ulded 20 ft. 

: has a capacity of 1,500 tons. The 

^--eratiug plant consists of two 

■; cylindrical multitubular boilers, and 

are two main engines of compound 

suiiace-cxMidensing type for propelling the 

vessel, or f^r driving the drencing ^vi^x as 

required. ~ ' ' a;!. 

en^nes ai -■ i 

llie a: 
Bill is ^ 

c It. capacity for 
al, and a smsUer 
■ I each of 22 ciibi_ ;;. capacity. 


Th«H!* dredeer. •_• ve satisfactory results 

jt calling in a' 

bu.ld , 

we earn < 

■r.v. A 



wiUi bu 





■ - aja]ri«t 

■ er.<. and 


ibers of the associations. 

3 ^ . /: .- . - . i, .. " 

sViali taVe or mal;c tise of the 

use ol a" 

r let' sf 

days, unless such 
ler paid. 
»— «■ 

ail ;'-> a-:r..^ .ir« ;i!Z'.y 

^t \wt\ ' f in v*'Tit Ti'i^ "TV nrtVi" 

T'nr H-lywell Urban Council has aj-!>"int<-5 
.-e with a view to the pcm 
Sow to the famous St. ^^ 

• <d, were 

r-i us ijir i^AiiiUay 1 • r carrj-- 

• lit a very large : scheme 

desired to be capable 

■ - "•••'- '■' soft clay 

"• • ft., and 

^t<d to a 

■:i eibore. The 

•itly increased 

■ ,.. W il. ■■ .- ire :—' 

L^nrt 205 ft. 

'ti m-niided 42 ft. 

13 ft. 

'r ■- ^— Ten by a set 


r ■ V l>o!lers are 

^1 rotilti- 

... Howden 

ivicrJ draiiglit. Tlit cutter is of rotarj- 


Iji •' "^ " ' - " - -ting Twantews 

with dredgers were 

■iiper ie*d it liie ordinarT meeting 
o! Civil EngiDMre on Taesdmy, 

Jan. 17. 1917. 



employed to cut the clay that fonned the 
bank and bed of the canal and pump it 
through a floating pipe-line to alongside of 
wherever it was desirable to deposit it upon 
the bank, and then raise and discharge it by 
means of a floating terminal pontoon with u 
raised pipe overhanging the bank. 

Three suction cutter-dredgers, each with 
1,000 ft. of floating pipe-line and a terminal 
IMjntoou with 80 ft. overhang, were ordered 
by the Indian Government. The "Oswald " 
and "Campbell," the two smaller boats, both 
have 24-in. diameter suction and discharge 
pipes, and the " Lees " has a suction pipe 
30 ins. in diameter, and a discharge pipe 
27 ins. in diameter. 


At Durban, where suction-dredgere of the 
moored tv^ie have been employed with excel- 
lent results, the depth of water at the en- 
trance in 1884 i\-as 7 ft. 2 ins., which had 
become 36 ft. 5 ins. in 1914, mainly as a re- 
sult of dredging. Up to the end of the yeai 
1914 the total volume of solids removed at 
Durban amounted to 81,737,292 tons. 

The chief difficulty of dredging on the Bar 
at Durban is that the work has to be carried 
out in the open sea and subject to heavy 
weather. To meet such conditions, the 
suction-pipes of the Durban dredgers are in 
two parts, joined together by flexible 
armoured piping spanned by universal joints. 
The upper end of the suction-pipe is carried 
on a trunnion-bearing near the deck, and the 
nozzle end is controlled by hydraulic hoist 
gear designed to maintain the two lengths of 
pipe relative to each other in the same line 
of axis when working at any depth. The 
hoisting gear is so arranged that when the 
length of pipe belo>v the joint de\Tates from 
its axis with the upper length, the hoisting 
gear automatically raises the lower length, 
thus allowing the lower end to clear the 
obstruction wliich caused the deviation. 

At Lagos, pump-dredging plant is used in 
connection with deepening the bar at the 
entrance to the harbour, which has hitherto 
been subject to considerable fluctuations. The 
dredgers employed particularly for this part 
of the work at Lagos are the pump hopper- 
dredgers " Egerton '•' and " Sindgrouse." In 
their main features they are much alike, the 
" Sandgrouse " having a hopper capacity of 
1,800 tons, while the " Egerton's " topper 
capacity is 1,200 tons. 

The dimensicms of the " Sandgrouse " 
are : — 

Length 291 ft. 

Breadth 45 ft. 

Depth 18 ft. 9 ins. 

And she is fitted with two sets of triple- 
expansion surface-condensing engines driving 
twin screws, and one set of triple-expansion 
engines directly connected to the dredging 
pump. Steam is supplied by three marine 
cylindrical multitubular boilers. The suc- 
tion-pipe arrangement - pennits of entire 
flexibility in any direction. 

The remaining dredging plant at Lagos has 
been principally provided with a view to the 
reclamation of certain swamps. The recla- 
mation dredger is specially arranged for 
pumping from barges alongside by means of 
two independent dredging pumps, so arranged 
that they imay work either singly or in 
series, depending upon the distance the mate- 
rial is to be discharged. 

The suction cutter hopper dredger for 
Lagos, now under construction, is fitted with 
one set of triple-e.xpansion surface-condensing 
engines arranged to drive the dredging pump 
or the propeller as may be required. 

The outboard suction pipe is fitted with a 
special drag nozzle for use when dealing with 
compact sand, while a spiral rotarj' cutter is 
provided for dealing with clay and harder 

A special feature in this vessel is that four 
independent automatic mooring machines, 
four capstans, and one steam windlass are 
provided for mooring purposes. 


The "M.O.P. 210.C." and " M.O.P. 211.C." 
are selected to illustrate the drag suction or 
moorless type of dredger. They weie .specially 
de.?igned and constructed to meet the condi- 

tions prevailing at Buenos Aires and the 
character of the material there met with 

These vessels have a hopper capacity of 
1,650 cubic metres, and are each fitted with 
four sets of triple-expansion engines. The 
engines are arranged in pairs, so that all four 
sets are available for driving the dredging 
pump or the propeUers separately, or two sets 
may drive the dredging pumps and two sets 
drive the propellers at the same time, as may 
be required. Steam is supplied by four 
cylindrical multitubular boilers 

When commencing work the vessel is 
steamed slowly ahead on the desired line of 
e.\cavation, and the drag nozzle is lowered 
into the material until the inlet opening of the 
nozzle is completely sealed by the clay to he 
raised, so that the load on the hopper is made 
with the minimum amount of added water. 

The drag suction dredgers " Cormorant," 
at Rangoon, and " Canterbury," at Lyttel- 
ton, are of the same type as those employed 
at Buenos Aires. The " Cormorant " is 
204 ft. long, 38 ft. moulded breadth, and 
17 ft. 6 ins. deep ; hopper capacity 27,000 
cubic ft., mean draught 14 ft. 3 ins., and 
speed per hour on measured mUe 9^ knots. 
She is fitted with patent steering jets, so that 
the vessel can be steered entirely independent 
of the rudder. The dimensions of the "Cor 
morant " and the " Canterbury " are alike- 
the only difference of vital importance is the 
arrangement of the propelling and pumping 
machiner}-. In the " Cormorant " one pump 
was fitted driven by independent engines, 
while two sets of engines were fitted for pro- 
pelling, each driving one twin screw direct. 
In the "Canterbury" the machinery ar- 
rangements are similar in all respects to the 
arrangements already described for dredgers 
"M.O.P. 210.C." and "M.O.P. 211.C." 


To illustrate this type of dredger, the 
modern 15-cubic-yard dipper dredgers 
" Gamboa " and " Paraiso," employed on. the 
Panama Canal, have been selected. 

The ability of these dredgers to dig into a 
bank of shale, sandstone, lignite, or any of 
the softer rocks, dispose expeditiously of a 
rock too large to pass through the dipper, dig 
to 50 ft. depth, and load into scow of almost 
any size, makes them very valuable tools for 
work of this class. They are capable of dredg- 
ing 7,000 to 10,000 cubic yards of rock per day 
of twenty-four hours, depending on the degree 
of hardness of the material. The material 
handled by them is loaded into bottom-door 
steel dump scows. 

The principal features of the "Gamboa" 
and " Paraiso " are the following ; — 

Each dredger has two dippers respectively 
'if 15 and 10 cubic yards capacity. The dip- 
per handle is 72 ft. "long. The main hoisting 
engines are of the twin tandem compound 
type. The winding drum is graduated so as 
to give a low speed when digging. The 
swinging engine is of the double-cylinder 
high-pressure type, with steam-operated link 
reversing gear." The dredger is fitted with 
three spuds. The forward spuds are placed 
far enough back to allow a swing of 180 
degrees for the boom. The third spud is 
placed centrally at the stern. 


At the last meeting of the Naiberth Urban 
District Council the surveyor (Mr. W. G. 
Mattliias) tendered his resignation. 

The death is announced of Professor Emile 
Bertaux, Professor at the Sorbonne, who for 
manv years worked at the French School of 
Arci-iseoloKy in Rome. He was the author of 
several volumes on history and art. 

A memorial to the late Mr. F. Logie-Pirie, 
of Burwash Weald, has now been completed, 
and consists of a much-needed and appropriate 
addition to Sl^. Philip's Church in the form 
of a lych gate, executed by Messrs. H. Hems 
and .Sons, of Exeter, to whom the work was 

The death of Mr. R. C. P. Willyams has 
taken place at his residence, Carnanton, St. 
Columb. in his 80th year. He was a Justice 
of the Peace and Deputy Lieutenant for Corn- 
wall, was one of the original members of the 
committee appointed to form the Truro Dio- 
cese, and also served on the committee which 
was appointed for the building of the Cathedra) 
at Truro. 


The following ajipeared a few days since 
in the Timts. Ihe last paragraph is espe- 
cially worth consideration; but one rather 
despairs as to the chancee thereof ! 

iiiveu at the present time a cei'tain amount 
of building is going on, and must go on, 
for the lamentable shortage of cottages 
almost everywhere has become a serious 
menace to the production of food and other 
necessarj' commodities. And there is not the 
slightest doubt that this house famine is 
largely due to the building regtUations now 
in force, which have had the effect of de- 
terring or adding needless hardships to the 
eliorts of cottage builders. Both the cost 
of building and the rate of interest 
are at present so high — and wiU probably 
remain so after the war — that the abolition 
of many of these out-of-date and inconsis- 
tent enactments has become a question of 
national importance. Having been fotmded 
on the "model" series issued forty years 
ago by the Local Government Board, all 
building by-laws have long become obsolete. 
They take no accomit of modern improve- 
ments or the use of new materials (such as 
concrete), "and it is no exaggeration to say 
that most of the progress made in the way 
of economical construction has been depen- 
dent on loopholes that may be fotind in 
them. These by-laws were originally drawn 
up for governing building procedure in town 
areas; they have mischievous consequences 
when applying in rural districts. To keep up a 
high sanitary standard and to prevent flimsy 
construction is essential. But some of the 
present limitations, however imperative they 
may be in crowded centres, are unnecessary 
in the country, where buildings are often 
of a single story and far apart from each 
other. The danger of fire or infections 
diseases spreading to neighbours is non- 

How inconsistent the " ridiculous " by- 
laws are can be seen in some neighbourhoods 
where a different set is in operation on op- 
posite sides of the same street. Then take 
as an instance the question of room heights. 
This is an important matter where cost is 
the main factor (as it always is when cot- 
tages are being considered), for high rooms 
mean expensive high walls. Some local 
authorities insist on ceilings being 9 ft. up, 
but say nothing as to the length and width 
of rooms, although floor space is far 
more essential than abnormal loftiness. 
Rooms 7 ft. 6 ins. or 8 ft. high are much 
warmer and cosier, and can be equally well 
ventilated by a proper arrangement of open- 
ing windows. And a low cottage, besides 
being cheaper than a high one, is more in 
accord with smroundings of hedgerow and 
coppice. There are districts in which the 
tops of windows may be 6 ft. above the 
floor; elsewhere this height has to be 7 ft., 
and sometimes 7 ft. 6 ins. (which once cost 
a client of mine an extra £100). As an 
actual example of the waste of money caused 
by differing drainage regulations, I can men- 
tion two groups of munition workers' cot- 
tages I have recently been engaged on. which 
were built within a few miles of each other 
by the .same contractor. The varying by- 
l.iws made a difference for the drains alone 
of more than £20 per dwelling. 

GoRDOK Allen, F.R.I.B.A. 
Holm dale Road. Hampstead. 

Tile Scarboroueh G.ts Company undertakes 
to supply and fix free of charge the best quality 
upright or inirerted mantles at one penny each. 
It is explained that although the cost to the 
comoany of each mantle is 3^.. the loss that 
would be incurred would be made good out of 
the profit derived from the production of the 
benzol extracted from the gas at the request of 
the Government. 

The directors of the London County and 
Westminster Bank. Ltd.. after making pro- 
vision for bad and doubtful debts, providing 
£319.000 for depreciation of investments, and 
applying £100.000 in reduction of bank pre- 
mises account, haive declared a dividend of 9 per 
cent, for the past half-year (less income-tax), 
making a total distribution of 18 per cent, for 
the vear 1916. leaving a balance of about 
£182.290 to be carried forward. 












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Designed and Decorated by Lady Kinloch for Her Majesty the Queen. 



Jan. 1/. 1917. 

(Bat Sllnstrations. 

The parish of Ncasden-cum-Kingsbury is 
uniq-.ic in the Diocos,^ o£ London. It consi.sts 
of Neasden, onrie a small ha;nlct which iias 
•iuriiig the last decade developed into a large 
residential centre for the employees of tlie 
.Metropolitan Railway, and it a'lso includes 
part of old Kingsbury, where the ancient 
parish church, acstricted to the capacity 
if Beating only 120 persons, datecj back to 
.Saxon tin: is. It is situate midst the wooded 
fields adjacent to the Welsh Harp reseorvoir. 
>St. Catherine's, the new church herewith 
illustrated, stands at the corner of DoUis Hill 
Lane, in a very comniandiiig position near 
the .\easd';-n Golf Club li'jks. The first 
portion of the church was Lonsccrated last 
Spring, but the war lias hindered the com- 
pletion of th-> nave and western end. The old 
church and the new <ne .art a mile ajxirt. 
In thu fornior the late W. E. Gladstone used 
to r(ad the kssons when visiting the Earl of 
Aberdeen ,'tt Dollis Hill House, now in use 
as -i V.A.D. oonvalesce-it hosjntal for 
soldiers. It is the property of the public. 
Hard by in the old village Oliver Goldsmith 
wrote " She Stoops to Conquer " and 
■ TIio Vicar of Wakefield." Neasden 
is rich in other historic associations 
from the earliest era. Tliore was a 
Roman encampment here used by Csesar on 
his march from St. Pa.ncras to .St. Albans by 
way of Edgware, as described by StukeJey, 
the antiquarian. Mr. John S. Alder, 
E.R.I.B.A., of Anmdel Street, Strand, is 
the architect of the new church whicji con- 
sists of nave, chancel with north and south 
aisles and a side chajwl. The photograph 
of the interior of the east end, refirodnced 
among oiu- illustrations, was taken by Mr. 
Richarl MoreJand. Mr. Moreland is a wator- 
• olour painter anul amateur photographer. 
H« naturally wislies it to be understcitKl that 
Ills i)hotographs are not professionally ))ro- 
■luced. and he alone is responsible for the 
points of view selected for his pictures, 
which avoid the usual conventional methods 
oi aspect. We shall give an c.\tevior \'ic\v of 
tii.s church at an early date 

On various occasions we have given sketclics 
and drawings of this cathedral, palace, and 
vicars' close, but no measured details 
tii this beautiful library and diajiel such 
as we publish to-day have appeared in our 
pages^. These excellent studies, to good, lari;e 
scale, have been lent us by Mr. James Mac- 
gregor, of Dunfermline. This double page is 
very complete with a plan, sections and end 
elevation delineated alongside the larger scale 
detail of this choice facade. The vicars 
choral attached to the cathedra! were 
chantry priests first ordained at Wells by 
Bishop' Joceline in 1237. No regular estab- 
lishment for their housing was provide<l, how- 
e\er, till Waiter de Hulle (sub-dean of this 
cathedral in 1334 and Archdeacon of Bath, 
13-12) gave lands aiul two messuage." at W'olls 
iu order tlial the thirteen chantry priests 
might liv'p together in community. This 
intention was carried into effect by Bislio|) 
Ralph de Shrewsbury in 1347. He erected 
the hall with the west-end side windows, 
and also the quaintly designed pulpit over 
the fireplace, where grace was said. His 
]ilan provided liouses for the brethren on a 
uniform .scale, comprising a keeping-room 
Tielow and- a sleeping chamber above, but tlie 
tenements had no offices whatever, Siive only 
a store closet, beyond which there was a 
yard. Some of these old dwellings remain 
intact, but others liave been altered, or two 
thrown into one holding. The common hall 
originally affordctl ample accommodation for 
refectory purposes, and the kitchen adjoined 
fi.r sufficient service. The vicars, conse- 
(juently. only needed simple lodgings of their 
<iwn without kitchens and larder offices. 
These houses range pictnrestiuely on either 
side of the tapering quadrangle, which mea- 
sures 436 feet long, with a widUi of 65 feet 
next the gatehouse to 56 feet at the cliapel 

end of the close, which looks almost recti- 
linear in form. The gate is at the southern 
end, opposite to the chapel on the north 
extremity. The library is reached by a spiral 
stairway. The institution provided at the 
outset for two principals, the chaplain's resi- 
dence being situate at the west of the 
library, which has a charming open timber 
ridge roof. Each of the little stone-built 
dwellings has a lofty cut stone chimney stand- 
ing in a line with the frontage walling, and 
each house has an enclosed garden forecourt. 
Several of tlie old masonry porches are in 
situ, but not a few have been transmogrified 
by Georgian bay windows, hooded door heads, 
and stucco plastering outside the stonework 
facings. In one of the restored tenements 
is a most admirable mediaeval interior fitted 
with antique furniture. It is an artist's 
house, and by a door in the party wall two 
houses have been united. Above is a studio 
with the old root timbers showing. The heart 
of the close is the chapel, which has been 
ascribed to Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury. 
The traceries of the well-designed window* 
are of his time. The doorway, which 
originally stood, according to Pugin, in the 
centre of the west-end of the chapel, is now 
set in under one of the window-heads on the 
south side, as shown by the accompanying 
drawing. Various heraldic devices are carved 
on shields at the heads of the panels of this 
door. The drip stone of the hood moulding 
is cut off on one side against the adjacent 
buttress, and the centre of the opening arch 
does not line with that of the traceried win- 
dow-head above it, showing that the door is 
an insertion. De Beckyngton's arms are 
carved upon a shield on the side of the bell 
turret. His executors repaired the close 
buildings in the fifteenth century, and 
another evidence of their work occurs on 
the chimneys, where the rebuses make 
so notable a feature. Tlie gateway was 
carried out by Bishop Ralph in 1360. 
Richard Pomeroy lengthened the premises at 
the east end, and set up the chain gate 
in the reign of Henry YIII. The vicars' 
close escaped the fate of other religious houses 
at the Reformation, " altliough some sacri- 
legious people hoped to spoil it ; but Eliza- 
beth, thinking such a villainous deed would 
not be borne," granted a charter from West- 
minster in the twenty-fourth year of her 
reign, constituting them a body corporate and 
politic, with the title of " Principals, Seniors 
and Vicars Choral in the Cathedral of St. 
Andrew, Wells," and limiting the college to 
twenty, with fourt<>en as a minimnni. The 
cliange in the value of money and subsequent 
neglect, notwithstanding Royal protection, 
brought about a bad state of things, including 
the use of the gatehouse by a brewery and 
malting. In 1863 the buildings were restored, 
and tlie common hall was decorated by the 
late William Bulges, who painte<l the figure 
of St. Andrew in the large apartment above 
the chimney piece, whicli he designed. Mr. 
Haywood Sumner decorated the interior of 
the" chapel with a scries of sgraffito subjects, 
and the metallic lustres of figures above the 
dado of the screen were painted by him. 
The beams of the chapel ceiling form four large 
panels subdivided into four smaller conqiart- 
nients, which again are made up of four smaller 
ones. The timbers are richly moulde<l, and 
have carvo<l wooden bosses at their intersec- 
tions, standing out in bold relief. The late 
.1. 1). Seddinp was .appointed the cathedral 
architect in 1883, and be carefully looked after 
this chapel, but we do not know whetlier he 
iei>aiieJ this fa(;ade. over which he was most 
enthusiastic. A bird's-eye view of the 
vicar's close, including the gatehouse, was 
inihlished from the pencil of the late C. E. 
Mallows in The Building Nkws for July 19, 
1889, while in our issue of July 20. 1883. a 
sketch of the chain 'g.itc and street front will 
bo found, drawn by Mr. M.iurice B. Adams, 
together with two plans of the hall and gate- 
way, as well as a p'.an of one of Uie houses 
in "the close. The college library is a most 
delightful apartment, and we printed an ex- 
quisite drawing in pencil of its interior by 
the late C. E. Mallows on August 10, 1894. 
in which number a plan of the cathedral 
precincts at Wells, indicating the position of 
the vicars' close, will be found. A larger 

plan of the cathedral and cloisters was, at 
the same time, included for reference. In the 
issue for August 17, 1894, a view of the 
choix and staircase to the chapter house 
appeared, sketched by C. E. Mallows. On 
January 5 last a double page appeared with 
an article and plan in illustration of the 
Bishop's Palace at Wells by Mr. Maurice B. 

This pavilion is a prominent object, viewed 
from the railway from Edinburgh to Gla£gow 
and the north. The Park of Saughton be- 
longs to the Coi-poration of Edinburgh, ajid 
extends to about 100 acres, acquired some 
years ago at a cost of £55,000. The northern 
section is allocated to golf, football, and 
cricket. This building, therefore, is devoted 
to acc-ommodating in a central position those 
taking part in these sports. The grounds 
devoted to football and cricket are made inter- 
cJiangeable, so that the building and sports 
area can be used in combination, thtse games 
being pUiyed, of cx)urse, at different times of 
tlie year. The pavilion is built of brick, and 
loughcast. Ruabon tiles are used on the 
roof, and all woodwork is painted white. 
The upper floor is allocated to the green - 
keeper. The building cost about £1,000, and 
was carried out to plans and under the super- 
vision of the architect to tlie Corporation, 
Mr. James A. Williamson, A.R.I.B.A. 


Towards the end of the eighteenth century 
a fashion prevailed of painting furniture, 
brought about for Uic most pait by the in- 
fluence of the Bix)thers, and also by 
the then popular miu'al and ceiling paneJs 
decorated in colour by Angelica Kauflmann 
and her school of p.ainters. Lady Kiniocb of 
Gilmerton, with the laudable view of em- 
ploying women artists, has lately established 
an industry for decorating and jxiinting 
present-day fui-niture on similar lines by en- 
deavouring to levive the taste of Pergolesi, 
Zucehi, and CijM'iani. The Queen lias brought 
the movement into prominence. A room at 
Windsor Castle, during recent structural 
ronovajtions of the private apartments, was 
set apart for tlie reception of a siute, 
specially designed and decorated under tJie 
direction of I..ady Kinloch. We give a pjhoto- 
gra]A showing four of the principal pieces. 
All of them are new, excepting the old 
Hepplowhite chairs belonging to Windsor 
Castle. One of tliis set is included in the 
illustration. The Pergolesi cabinet shown is 
described as a lixuiscript of a genuine 
eighteenth-century one. The vogue thus 
emulated was not enduring, owing to the 
fact tliat painted furniture readily sutlers 
from .st:uns, and everyday use spoils it, the 
surface being so liable to scratcli. Repairs 
cannot be satisfactorily done without re- 
painting the entire object, or perhaps large 
portions of its colour scheme. Sofas and 
suites of ciliairs to match in painted beecli or 
biivh w<xid were produced by Hejiplewliite, 
Mainwaring. and their contemporaries. These 
wei-e upholstered in cashmere, jiainted in 
(wttenis to match the general design of eajch 
piece. Tlie commodes of the period usually 
had circular fronts oi- were designed with 
concaved ends, fliuiking convex centres. 'Iliis 
insured good serpentine lines of elegant con- 
tours. Their surfaces were decorated \ntn 
landsciipes hi ova.!s and flowers, or inter- 
mingled by figure-work after the pnnts of 
Bartolozzi,"or sometimes by architectural coni- 
yiositions by Francesco Piranesi. Several 
layers or c"oats of paint were applied and 
carofullv rubbed dorni (as in coiiclimaker s 
ImmIv work) with fine sandpaper ui sueces- 
iiion, and then polished. The ground tinte 
varied from white, cream, green, and even 
black, on which the coloured decorations were 
skilfuUv e.xecuted. The choicest work was 
limited" to articles not likely to be subject to 
hard wear, such as fire-screens and occa- 
sional tables. Half-cdrcular pier Ubles were 
very favourite subjects. 'Table-tops had 
.lonietimcs copper-sheet insertions fixed into 
them to take wear and tear. Tlic legs aod 
iu-nm ti window seats, called " loving stools,' 

Jan. 17, 19i; 



often had the arms aud Jegs gilt like the 
friezes oi bigger pieces, decorated with 
griffins, honeysuckle, and other i^seudo-olassic 
ornament. When curtains and draperies are 
paant«i as margins to the furnitiu'e panels, 
as in this Queen's cabinet, the effect is de- 
teriorated by increasing tlie faidts of the 
style. Messrs. Tredegai-s, Limited, executed 
this cabinet work. They lent us this photo- 
graph. Oyater-white serves as the ground 
colour, and the ornaments are in bright rich 


Mr. Herbert Batsford, the managing direc- 
lor of the w-ell-known firm of architectural 
publishers and booksellers, died somewhat 
suddenly, aifter an illness of nine months, at 
Ills residence at Golders Green on the 14th 
inst. Herbert Batsford, the third and 
youngest son of the late Bradley Thomas 
Batsford, by whom the business was founded 
in 1842, was born in 1861 and educated at 
the Philological School, Marylebone. He in- 
tended to devote himself to the practice of 
the law as a ibarrister, and for this pix)fession 
he had early shown remarkable aptitude. 
However, the death of an elder brother in 
1882 caused him to €nt«r the family business, 
with which he has been continuously asso- 
ciated ever since, and which bears the 
stamp of his energy and enterprise. Mr. 
Batsford had an extraordinary know- 
ledge of art books, prints, and engravers, 
especially those of the 17th and 18th 
centuries. This knowledge was founded 
upon keen artistic perception and a great 
admiration for the work of the masters of 
these periods. Mr. Batsford made several 
original discoveries, notably the existence of 
an earlier state of Piranesi's extraordinary 
imaginative " Carceri." In addition, Mr. 
Batsford did much to develop the publishing 
activity of the business, especially during the 
past ten years. Many of the more important 
books of the firm were not only supervised 
and produced, but owed their inception, to his 
insight and initiative. Amonsst the books 
may be mentioned the two folio volumes on 
" The Domestic Architecture of the Tudor 
Period," which he entrusted to the late 
Thomas Garner, and which were afterwards 
completed by Mr. Stratton. Other volumes 
were Richardson's "Monumental Classic 
Architecture," Vallance's "Oxford Colleges," 
Bond's " Gothic Architecture," Ward's " Du 
Cerceau," Swarbrick's " Brothers 

Adam," Statham's " Short Critical 
History of Architecture," Tanner's " In- 
terior Woodwork," Stratton and Wade's 
■"Bruges," and Adams' "Modern Cottage 
Ai-chitecture." He aimed consistently at a 
liigh ideal of attainment, and Iris enthusiasm 
was frequently a som-ce of encouragement 
and even inspiration to the authors and those 
who worked with him. Mr. Batsford was 
active in issuing art publications un to the 
summer of last yeaj, when he prepared, in 
conjunction with Jlr. Walter H: Godfrey, 
r.S.A., an interesting monograph of "Eng- 
lish Mural Monuments," while as recently as 
TDecember last he personally supervised the 
production of a record on "Port Sunlight" 
tv Mr. T. RaflRes Davison. As an instance 
of Mr. Batsfoi-d's broad literary sympathies 
raav be mentioned the Series of " Fellow- 
-hip Books " in eighteen volumes by well- 
known writers, which he issued some three 
ye^-s ago. Associated with Mr. Herbert 
Batsford in the business for the las.t twenty 
vears have been his nephew, Mr. Han-y 
Batsford and Mr. W. Hanneford Smith, 
who as the two remaining directors will con- 
tinue the business. 

Th'/ Hvtho Town Coimoil recently deoided to 
ca.rr\ out cert^ain improvements, but Councillor 
J. B. Tumbridge wrote to the President of the 
Ixjcal Govcmmerat Board protesting agaj'nst 
such expenditure in war-time. Tlie Boaird 
commuiiiicated with the Council asking for its 
o'ostrvations on the matter. At the monthly 
me<'ting of the Corporation tiie Mayor (Mr. 
W. R. Cobay). the originator of the soheme, 
'itfered to lend the money free of interest 
until after the war, and the offer was aooeptc^d 
on the motion of Council Tumbridge. 



Professor F. Haverfield, Camden Professor 
of Ancient History at Oxford, had prepared 
a paper on "The Roman Wall," from New- 
castle to Carlisle, to be read before the 
Chester and North Wales Archseological 
Society, but was unable to make the journey 
north, and in his absence the paper was read 
last week by Miss il. V. Taylor, who assisted 
the professor in the preparation of his work. 

The paper stated that the ruins of the 
Roman w^U, the northern frontier defence of 
Roman Britain, still stretch from Wallsend- 
on-Tyne, three miles east of Newcastle, to 
Bowness-oa-Solway, twelve miles wesrt of Car- 
lisle. One of the best tests of an Empire's 
vigour was certainly the amount of strength 
which it could exert, without overstrain, on 
its really remote- frontiers. When it failed 
to maintain these, to defeat its distant 
enemies and control its distant officers, it 
was probably nearer to its decline and fall 
than when it had ceased to conquer more and 
more territory. In one military resjiect the 
Empire closely resembled the world of to- 
day. In it the defensive was far stronger 
than the offensive ; towns were rarely taken 
by storm, but often by hunger; the prevail- 
ing arm was heavy infantry ; cavalry was of 
little account. No one would be surprised 
to hear that this age of wall defence, of 
trench warfare, as we should call it to-day, 
produced no great general who could be 
ranked with Hannibal, Marlborough, or 
Napoleon as a genius in tactics or strategy. 

Professor Haverfield ventured to assign the 
fall of the Roman Empire to a reason which 
was in most minds to-day. He did not 
attempt to predict how far attrition might 
be likely to overthrow our present enemies, 
but he had little doubt that attrition was a 
real factor in great wars, and he thought it 
destroyed the Empire of Rome. Long 
plagues and long frontier struggles against 
the inexhaustible man-power of the bar- 
barian invaders gradually wore down the 
imperial fighting strength. If we should 
learn any lesson from the Roman Empire it 
was that which seemed to ihe in many enemy 
mouths to-day. the lesson of Durch-Halten. 
That to-day a Roman culture was spread over 
W^estern Europe, that we were the allies of 
France, of Italy, and (in Roumania) of a 
Hohenzollern prince, was in part due to the 
cold tenacity of the Roman frontier defence. 
Guns and munitions in inexhaustible numbers 
were the only help against, human hurricanes, 
and that Jlome had not these was hardly her 
own fault, but that of the slow progress of all 

The Roman Wall was 73i mUes long, and 
survived in innumerable fragments, which, 
in respect of its history, presented some ex- 
ceedingly difficult problems. It was a com- 
plex structure, and. like the lines_ now 
stretched out across Western Europe, it was 
not one single rampart, but a succession of 
ramparts, one ibehind the other. In front of 
the wall, with scarcely an intermission, ran 
a deep, broad ditch, and behind the wall ran 
p. second work of loose earth. Excavations 
he had conducted neai- Gilsland revealed vet 
.inother line. These lines of trenches, just 
like ours of to-day, had their appropriate 
fortresses, Wockho'uses. and turrets at suit- 
able intervals. The whole length of the wall 
was connected together by a substantial road 
some 17-18 ft. across, stoutly paved with 
cobbles and edged with kerbs, and there 
were milestones. More excavations, especially 
in the forts, were needed to answer many 
que.=vtions. and perhaps even that would not 
Ivanisii all obscurities and doubts. He had 
little hope that the various obstacles, local 
and personal ie-nlousies, and the like, ever 
would be sufficiently overcome to admit o-f 
real success, and this was not the moment 
even to dream of a work which would co.«t 
some thousand pounds, and need the atten- 
tion of many skilled sunervisors, hard to 
collect even in peace, nnd the toil of man'- 
aWe-bodled labourers. Had the neiffhlxmrin'' 
TTniversity of Durhnm been inclined to attael- 

ithe task much might have heen aehievetJ ir 
the nasi. 


By R. E. Bakenhus, M.A., M.Soc.C.E. 

A paper, presented January 3, 1917, to the 
American bociety of Civil Engineers, de- 
scribes a test of twenty-four concrete speci- 
mens which were immersed in sea water for 
seven years. The object of the tests was to 
determine the action of sea water on concrete 
c-pecimens of wet aud dry consistencies, of 
various proportions of ingredients, and of 
(litterent brands of cement, as well as the 
effect of special compositions. 

The methods of mixing, analyses of the 
various cements, sand, and stone, and the 
conditions of the test, as well as all other 
data having possible effect on the resiilts, are 
stated in the paper. The information ds given 
in tabular form where possible. 

The specimens were examined at intervals 
of about one year, and record was made of 
their condition. The results of these obser- 
vations have been tabulated, and show pro- 
gressive deterioration of some of the speci- 
mens and remarkable durability of others. 
Recently, the specimens were examined with 
great care, and gi'aded in the order of dura- 
bility. These results ai-e also tabulated. In- 
dependent tabulations are made of the 
vai-ious series of tests originally planned, to 
ascertain in one case the effect of wet and 
di-y mixture, in another case the effect of 
rich and lean mixture, and in others the 
effects of special brands of cement, and of 
using lime, Sylvester wash, etc., with the 

The results are interesting, and seem to 
show, briefly : 

(a) That the 1 : 1 : 2 mixture is eupenor to 
the 1 : 2i : ^, and that the 1 : 2^ : 4^ is, la 
tiu-n, superior to the 1:3:6; 

(b) That the wet mixtures are superior to 
the dry ; ■ . 

(c) 'That the effects of magnesia or alumina 
in varxing pi ©portions are not very marked, 
and follow no apparent law, although the 
two most durable specimens are those lowest 
lu alumina content : 

(d) That extra care in mixing produced 
decidedly beneficial results ; 

(e) That hydrated lime was of no benefit, 
but rather a detriment ; 

(f) That the addition of Sylvester wash was 
harmful ; and 

(g) That the addition of clay to the cement 
had a slightly beneficial result. 

The deterioration occurred between high 
and low water, and was most marked at mid- 
tide. Above high water there was little 
deterioration, and the same is true, but to a 
1 !ss marked extent, of the concrete continually 

The experiments are not sufficiently exten- 
sive to warrant drawing final conclusions in 
ail cases, unless confirmatory e\idence is avail- 
sble. In utilising the results, the hmitations 
of the tests and local conditions should be 
takei'. into account. 

It has been arranged that the Gladstone 
Memorial in St. Andrew Square, Bdmburgh, 
will be unveiled to-morrow (Thursday) at noon 
by Lord Rosebery. 

The first plan lodged fpr several montlis for 
a new dwelling-house in Rochdale was passed 
by the Budlddng Committee last Wednesday. 

A gift has been made to St. Mary's Church, 
Kettering, of a rood beam, with three oarved 
figures in wood, as an in memoriam thank- 

ilr. Lucius O'Oallaghan, F.R. I.A.I. , of 
Dublin, has been appointed by the Loixl Lieu- 
tenant as Governor and Guardian of the 
National Gallery of Ireland for a term of five 

The engagement is announced of the Rev. 
Michael Weldon Champneys, younger son of 
Mr. and Mrs. Basil Champneys, to Carolime 
Helen Mary, only child of tlie late Tlionias 
Saunders Guyer and of Mrs. Guyer, of Bexhill. 

At Chester last Thursday Mr. William Henry 
Lancaster, formerly land agent for the small 
holdings under the Cheshire County Council, 
pleaded not guilty to charges of embezzlement 
and falsification of books, and was committed to 
the assizes for trial. There are twelve charges, 
involving a total sum of £218. On behalf of the 
prosecution it was alleged that the total defalca- 
tions were close upon £1,800. 



Jan. 17, 1917 


By Theodore G. Chambers (Fellow.) 
The depopitliiitioii of the rural districts is 
not a modern trouble to communities. It hjis 
troubled monarch.s and .sU-ite.-iiiien thmugh- 
out the ages. Me(liii-\ al moiiai-cli.s constantly 
tried to st-em the tide of emigration from the 
couiiti-y by making laws to prevent it. Six 
times in the si.\teenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies effoi-ts were made to prevent the 
gix>wth of Paris, and during the reigns of the 
Tudors and Stuai'ts the growth of towns in 
this country and the emigration from the 
rural districts were the sources of much 

The real danger to the body politic lies not 
so much in the mere depopulation of par- 
ticular areas as it does in the separation of 
the inhabitants of a given country into two 
camps, with completely different and often 
hostile economic conceptions. 

The extent and rapidity of the movement 
in the past hundred years has been remark- 
aible. In the year 1851 thei-e were in 580 
towns in England and Wales a population of nnder 9,000.000. The rural population— 
and it was tlien even more of an agricultural 
)x>pulation than is the ru!-;iJ population 
to-day — was almost exactly tlie same figure. 
Even at thi.s date the economic interests of 
tlie townspetiple and rural dwellers were 
often incompatible, (but the equal distribu- 
tion of the )OTpulation did not give a pre- 
jionderance of powei- to the one or the other. 
Even with the rapid growth of the urban 
population the politic^il power of the landed 
classes enabled the claims of the rural 
economic interests to be uj>hold for some 
years as against the growing weight of the 
commercial and industrial e(-onomic interests. 
But by the year 1911 the growth of the 
urban pofiulation ina<ie the country pre- 
dominantly urban. In that year 78 per 
rent, of the iMipul.ition of England and 
Wales, or over 28.000,000 people, were living 
imder urban conditions, while only 22 per 
cent., or nnder 8,000,000 people, ■v.-ere living 
under rural conditions. As regaixls their 
economic interests, the di.s-))arity was even 
greater than tlies^ figures indicate. 

Overcrowding is a relative matter, and there 
may be differences of opinion as to what 
constitute,s overcrowding, and to what extent 
technical overcrowding is in itself injurious. 
But most p<K>ple will agree that the condition 
of living more than two jiersons per room, 
which has been adopted as the official standard 
of overcrowding, is an indication of other 
conditions which will ))rol]ably be morally 
and pliysically detrimenl;il. That there 
should still be 3,139,472 persons, or 9.1 per 
cent, of our [wpulation, living in condi- 
tions, is a sorry cfjmmentary on our civilisa- 
tion. That this condition is often coincident 
with the collection of ni; of people in 
limited areas is only what one would expect. 
This is liorne out by olHcial figures, whidi 
rhow that while the average population li\ ing 
m-^'-.! thin two in a room in England and 
Wales is only 9.1 per cent, of tlie population, 
it cxcee<ls 10 per cent, in 31 of our cities over 
.SO.OO" it.'nl 'lants. it excee<ls 15 per cent, 
in 12 of them, and in 5 cities it actually ex- 
ceeds 30 per cent. 

Although vital statistics do not prove that 
the modern well-ordered city is detrimental 
to health, it can certainly be said that the 
concentration of population in the circum- 
stances which existed in the towns of the past 
produced an enormous drain on our vitality. 
Excessive urban mortality is mainly due to 
lack of pure air, water, and sunlight, together 
with uncleanly habits of life. But, as Weber 
justly says, " There is no inherent and 
eternal reason why men should die faster in 
large communities than in small hamlets pro- 
vided they are not too ignorant, tiw stupid, 
or too selfishly individualistic to co-operate 
in the securing of common benefits." 

We may safely assume, therefore, that all 
classes in the community will now agree that 
it is desirable (1) to attract a larger nopula- 
tion to the land, ,and (2) to increase the pro- 
duction of food in this country, and so to 
reduce the amount which ha-s to be imported 

from abroad, (3) to take such steps as may 
put an end to the detrimental effect of certain 
urban conditions on the stability and physical 
titrength of the nation. The difficulty is to 
construct a policy broad enough and big 
enough to effect such jirofound changes as are 
implied in these three statements. 

In the direction of a.ssistance which the 
State might afford the agricultural producer 
without detriment to the economy of the town 
dweller, I would place improved means of 
communication. The system of uniform rail- 
way charges in certain geogi-aphical zones, 
which might be of iussistance to the home 
producer, would certainly be more fea.sible 
under unification. 

The effect! of this system must tend to 
eliminate the factor of transixn-tation facili- 
ties from the advantages or disadvantages of 
particular localities for production. The zone 
tariff system has, I believe, been successfully 
developed in Hungary ;, but it has to be borne 
in mind that such a system of uniform rates 
would have less effect on a sea-girt territory 
like the British Isles than it would have in an 
inland state. The bearing of an extended 
coast line on the problem can be at oncL' 
grasped when we realise that one-fifth of the 
population of England and Wales is situated 
al eight of our chief ])orts of entry, and that, 
however we may manipulate our inland trans- 
port rates, seaborne produce can always reach 
these great centres of population by water. 
Nevertheless, the several decentralising effect 
of the zone tariff system cannot l>e over- 
looked in its bearing on the agricultural prob- 
lem. It would inevitably tend to distribute 
the poulation over a wider area, thus tending 
to take the markets for jirodure nearer to the 
producer. Unification might also lead to a 
more enlightened jiolicy as regards canal and 
road transport. In the direction of the fuller 
control of the roads by the State and in the 
exten.sion of motor services there lies mucli 
riKim for constructive policy in aid of agri- 

We may now consider what steps can be 
taken to bring about this industrial penetra- 
tion of the rural districts. One of the most 
potent iuHuences on the deiMpulation of the 
rural districts has been the centralisation of 
manufactures, with which the direct attrac- 
tion of the city is .so intimately connecte<l. 
The industrial capitalist has sought the town 
for many definite economic reasons. The 
wage-earner has been attracted to the towns 
by the higher wages jiaid by the industrial 
capitalist and by the interests, amusements, 
and educational" facilities which he un- 
doubtedly finds ill the town. Wherever 
capital goes there is a tendency for labour to 
follow. If the industrial capitalist can be 
drawn out of the town into the country, the 
wage-earner will soon go after him. and he 
will soon create his interests, amusements, 
and educational facilities. 

In the garden city conception there lay 

much wisdom, and it has been unfortunate 

that the giirden city movement has .so largely 

developed into little more than the coiistnic- 

tidii of garden suburbs. The motive of the 

initiators of the garden city was rather the 

industrial penetration of the rural districts, 

than the mere improvement of the life of the 

town dweller by taking him out of the city 

to sleep, beneficial as this is in itself. The 

])olicv has only been partially successful. The 

Leufiworth Estate was purchased in 1904. and 

may he said to have reached in t\yelve years 

a tolerably secure position, but its rate of 

growth has been extremely slow compared 

with that of towns which spring up by means 

of natural causes. The history of Letchworth 

jiroves the extreme difficulty of endeavouring 

to force human movements in the presence 

of adverse economic f.actors. The arguments 

in favour of carrying the town boldly into the 

country can lie" easily stated and will be 

readily accepted, but with the advantages 

there "will be certain disadv.antages, and it 

will be convenient to consider these togetber. 

The manufacturer get« the advantage of 

cheap land, enabling him to erect roomy con 

venient factories with one storey and a good 

light. Everything is on one floor and under 

one roof. TTie cost of building is less, and 

the cost of upkeep is less. A high ground 

many trades — for example, printing — the clear 
air and absence of dust make for improve- 
ment in work. 

The removal of the factory from the town 
would, in many cases, also tend to provide 
the manufacturer with a higher class of 
labour. The conditions under which the 
ojieralives would live would improve their 
physique and increase their power of pro- 
duction. The operatives could be not only 
well housed, but they would live under con- 
ditions which would make for their greater 
hapjiiness and well-being all round. 
Generally .speaking, manufacturers requiring 
the best" type of labour would gain, but all 
manufacturers would not find an advantage. 
Ill a great city a certain type of employer is 
able to draw upon casual labour. Even those 
who have provided garden dwellings for 
some of their labourers seem to be compelled 
to draw a considerable amount of cheap 
female labour for certain operations from 
neighbouring congested towns and cities. 

t'heap traiisi)ort is more vital to many in- 
dustries than is cheap land. The ultimate 
deciding factor is profit. It is no use offering 
manufacturers cheap land and a better type 
(if labour, if other elements which they have t<i 
consider outweigh these. All that has been said 
nil the (luestion of the unification of railways, 
managements, road and canal transport facili- 
ties, has an important bearing on the (question 
of industrial penetration of tlie rural district*. 
Generally speaking, it may be stated that no 
movement of the kind can be produced unless 
the capitalist is convinced that it will pay 
him to set up his enterprise in the country. 
He cannot be forced to go where he thinks 
he will lose his money. As we have said, the 
worker will tend to follow if capital leads the 
way. But it is necessary to do .something to 
make the worker desire" to leave the towns 
and to keen him in the country. 

P'rom the point of view of the operative 
tliere are arguments for and against the 
garden city. On the face of it there are cer- 
Tain material advantages. Life as a whole 
niav he more desirable in theory. His housing 
conditions may be excellent. He can combine 
a certain amount of food growing with his 
ordinary avocations. It must, however, be 
remembered that the worker in many trades 
is not very keen on turning uut into his 
garden after his ordinary day's work is done, 
however much of an economic advantage it 
mav offer him from the point of view of the 
lecture room. I'niess the new city is designed 
on a certain scale with schoo:s and amenities 
ill excess of its early requirements, the workei 
will have reasonable fear for the education of 
his chidren and for his own and his wife's 
amusements and interests. The average town 
worker is not particularly keen on country 
life, and the very poor cling t*) their own 
streets and would not excbange their sur- 
roundings for any of the advantages of the 
garden citv. 

It is pi-obable also that the worker feels a 
greater sense of libertv in the large city. Hf 
and his familv have a great choice of occupa 
tion. If he liioves into a new town with less 
range of employment he runs a greater risk of 
unemployment." Single industry towns are 
alwavs liable to become bad places for the- 
operative in the event of economic diflTiculty 
affecting that industrv. The greater the nuni-_ 
her of industries the less chance there is ot 
widespread unemployment. Again, the 

garden citv under the control of an employer 
is not an altogether ideal place from the point 
of view of the oiierative. Nevertheless, as we 
have hinted, the question of the wi.shes and 
feelings of the operative is a small part of 
the iiroblem. If the means of bvebhood is 
offered in the new city Uie operative will go 
here, and although he may grumble, he wiil 

• R<»B(1 at th« nrdinary g^nef'Rl Tn*»elin» o' th*» R'lr 
Terors' Institution, held on Monaay, J»nu«ry 15, 1917. 

t,.^.. - ---„ . . , . ,. . 

stay there so long as he can earn his hving. 
Th"ere will be distinct racial benefits from the 
improved conditions, but the conclusion we 
have to accept is that the urban exodus can 
be obtained only bv inducing the capitalist 
producer to put down his capital in the 
country. . , , 

Tt may be interesting to consider whetlier 
the Stale could assist the movement to some 
extent bv making employers of labour re- 
siK.nsible" for the adequate housing of tJiose 

rent tends" to "buildings of many floors, and I they employ. In this country 250 000 males 
high buildings entail increased haulage. Inland 50.000 females are employed by the 

Jan. 17, 1917. 



national and locaJ Governments, 397,000 are 
employed on the railways, and over 1,000,000 
in mines and quarries. Neither the State nor 
the local authorities, nor the industrial 
capitalists have in the past shouldered their 
responsibilities in the matter of housing. 
The Central Government, the local authori- 
ties, and the railway companies should, in 
my opinion, be made responsible for housing 
their own servants. The great capitalist cor- 
jxirations of the future, with their large 
resources, their ability to purchase Wge 
blocks of land at a cheap rate, could easily 
lay out. and build on a large scale, and could 
house their oiw-ratives in a manner im- 
measurably superior to those existing, and 
such a course of action would have a direct 
effect upon the power of production of their 
employees and be beneficial to the commu- 
nity as a whole. The question is admittedly 
a difficult one. Unless great care were taken 
there would be serious hostility on the part 
of labour. 

In spite of all the difficulties of the ques- 
tion there is to day a sufficient movement in 
the direction of the industrial exodus from 
cities to warrant a belief that the tendency 
is likely to continue and to increase in 

The tendency to decentralisation of indus- 
try has certainly become marked in the 
Tnited States. Many manufacturers have 
realised the disadvantages of citv conditions. 
They have moved to avoid the burden of high 
rente and high rates and the hindrances to 
rapid expansion which exist in the congested 
conditions of the city, and where often ex- 
pansion of any kind is impossible. Improve- 
ments in transportation, which enable the 
manufacturer to be at some distance from his 
markets of purchase or sale, and the tele- 
])hone and rapid post system, which enable 
the policy of a liusiness to be efficiently 
directed from a mere office in the city, have 
all aided the movement. 

"In recent years," said Weber, "the de- 
centralising movement has taken a still more 
favourable turn, largely as a result of con- 
tinued improvements in transportation 
methods and a more enlightened policy on 
the part of railway hianagers. who have 
learnt that the factor of distance is of minor 
importance in the expense account as com- 
pared with the additions ito the revenue that 
result from a judicious encouragement of in- 
dustries in small cities along their lines." 

To-day we see the same movement growing 
in this country. Every railway company is 
now advertising cheap sites for factories "bor- 
dering their systems. This policy woxild 
probably (have begun much earlier ii' we had 
permitted the railway companies to hold 
belts of surplus lands. 

Much might be done to assist movement 
by pro-idding a clearing-house for informa- 
tion as to the advantages of different dis- 
tricts from a cummercial point of view. 
Tabulated statements might be prepared by 
the Board of Trade giving for each district 
information as to cost of lani. rates, means 
of communition. railway rates, proximity of 
coal and iron and the raw materials, and 
■ other data, to enable manufactm-ers to 
judge of the desirability of moving their 
works. Greater financial assistance mio-ht 
be given to public utility societies instituted 
for the provision of works of public utility, 
such as housing schemes, transport facilities, 
and all that class of enterprise which is in- 
tended for group benefit. 

The vital problem of the near future is to 
discover the happy mean between State 
assistance and State control. There are to- 
day four classes upon whom the lives of the 
people may be said to depend : the Centi-al 
fkivernment, tbe loca.1 authorities, the in- 
dividual capitalist, and gi-oups of the people 
themselves, and the future welfai'e of the 
mass of the citizens will, to a great extent. 
'he determined by the division of responsi- 
bility between these four. The function of 
the State appears to me to be that of dele- 
gating to the other three the functions 
which they are best adapted to perform for 
the general welfare. 

In the direction of increased power and 
re.sponsibility in the hand,< of the local 
authorities there is room for much deter- 
mined thought. The local authorities 

tlu'ougihout the country have, generally 
speaking, risen to the occasion during the 
war. Burden after burden has been thrust 
upon them by the Central Government. 
They have had to undertake immense re- 
sponsibilites and most oneixius duties, and 
they have proved up to the hilt that the 
policy of boldly delegating responsibility 
breeds the power to shoulder such responsi- 
bility. If, after the war, individual 
citizens of leisui'e and education will grasp 
a sense of their duties to the State and will 
enter the field of municipal activity, placing 
their brains and powers at the service of 
their localities, serving as members of coun- 
cils ajid taking an active share in local ad- 
miiiistration, it will have an immense bene- 
ficial effect on the well-being of the State. 
There are functions which the local authori- 
ties possess to-day, but which are rai'ely 
used, which would have a ^eat influence on 
the lives of the people. 

The welfare of the new town of the future 
will de|)end to a great extent on enlightened 
city management. One of the directions in 
which one may hope to see an improvement is 
that of raising the status of the permanent 
city official. Town management in the future 
should be one of the great professions, re- 
quiring a training in economics, civil welfare, 
town planning, and social work of every de- 
scription. The position of towm manager, and 
that of assistants in the town management, 
should be coveted by men of high attainments 
and great skill. By this means the whole 
tone of local self-government would be raised. 
The war has certainly imbued the country 
with a higher conception of oiBce and duty, 
and the unrecognised strenuous civic work 
that has been done throughout all the munici- 
palities of the country during the war can- 
not possibly be exaggerated. A new spirit 
has entered into civic life, and no one who 
has come into close contact with the cities 
and towns of this country during the last year 
or two can fail to have felt that an atmos- 
phere has been created that must prove to be 
permanently beneficial. 

The responsibilities of the industrial 
capitalists after the war will be onerous. 
UiX)n them to a large extent rests the power 
to maintain the industrial peace, but this 
aspect of the question is rather outside the 
range of this Inquiry. 

But I believe it is in the direction of dele- 
gating to the fourth class the individual 
gi'oups in the community, greater power and 
res]X)nsibilities. that there lies the greatest 
hope for our towns in the future. The policy 
of trusting the people to manage their own 
affairs can and should be extended wherever 
it is possible to do so. 

If thfl policy of housing by employers of 
labour is adopted, it is essential that labour 
should have a full share in the responsibility 
of town management. Such communities 
must be really self-governing units, not con- 
trolled by the capitalist, by the municipality, 
or bv the Central Government. 

We are a self-?overning race. We know 
what we want. We can reduce the de.^iderata 
to a simple formula. We want to increase 
the sum total of oirr home-grown food supply. 
We want a larger proportion of our popula- 
tion to be living under better physical condi- 
tions. Is it in our power by any possible 
courses of action to help towards this end? 
We know that artificial methods are useless. 
and that if we desire a permanent change of 
conditions we must work bv the gradual modi- 
fication of the causes which have led to the 
evils we deplore. Are there any practical 
steps that can be taken to reverse the ten- 
dencies to aga-lomeration — to attract the 
nenple out into healthy suiTounding-s, and +o 
keep them there? If we can do this we shall 
have done something towards securing both 
our aims. It must certainlv have the effect 
of increasins our food supplies, and will miti- 
gate the evils which have hitherto been in- 
si-iarab!e from industrialism. 

.A stra.nffe discoverv has been made in 
Rochester Catheflral. where the supi.os*>d fine 
example of clil-time wood-carvers' art in the 
dccoritive work of the famous Chapter House 
door has been found to be ooureterfeit, being 
a casting in solid lead, oiererly inserted in the 

I • I — 

To the Editor of the Building News. 
Sir, — ^Referring to the Bcildixg News of 
the 10th inst., tlie illustrations of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and the short history of 
this grand building are somewhat interesting 
to me, inasmuch as my father carried out the 
work of the new building under the con- 
tractors, ilessrs. Bennett and Sons, of Pres- 
ton, Lanes., commencing the work in 1825. 

It may be also of incidental interest to 
your readers to know that the foundations 
in the River Cam are built upon driven 
wooden piles, there being over 2,000,000 of 
London bricks laid in cement below the 
water level. Evidently this kind of founda- 
tion is satisfactory. 1 think I have in my 
possession a few sketches of interior work in 
connection with this building. 
Yours faithfully, 

A. Winder. 
Parker, Winder, and Achurch, Ltd., Hard- 
ware JMerchauts and ilanufactui-ers, 
Broad Street, Birmingham. 


Sir, — I notice that in your account of All 
Hallows Church, Barking, in your issue of 
January 3 you take exception to the battle- 
mented parapet with balls at the co.iicrs, 
shown on the drawing of the tower, which you 

When the plans for the restoration were 
being prepared by my father, an early 18th 
century print was found, I think, in the 
British Museilm — of which I have a sketch by 
me — showing the Cromwellian Tower with this 
identical parapet. This was, of course, suffi- 
cient authority for my father's drawing. 

A close examination of the existing parapet 
would, I think, also show that it is not 
coeval with the rest of the tower. 

Fe.^nk L. Pearsox. 

22. Ashley Place, Westminster, 
London. S.W. 

Januarv 11. 1917. 

IBniltixng intelligence. 

■ m I 

Tenders will be received up to 16th Febru- 
ary at the Secretariat of the " Junta- de 
.Servicios Locales," Tetuan, or in the Morocco 
section of the Ministry of State at Madrid, 
for the construction of a market in Tetuan 
iit an estimated cost of 175,000 pesetas (about 
£7,000 at par). The market building is to 
he erected on a site in the old grain market, 
and on the portions of the area not occupied 
by the market place other buildings are to 
be eri-cted. The market place, wnioli is to 
be built in the Jloorish style of architectnre, 
"uisO be covered in, and from 100 to 110 com- 
partments must l)e provided, ranging in 
size fi-om 4 to 8 square metres, all having 
marble or artificial stone counters, and the 
walls faced with white stones or tiles up to 
a height of 2^ to 3 metres. The floor is to 
be of cement grooved tiles, and the drain 
pipes of stoneware. A preliminary deposit 
of 1.000 pesetas {about £40 at pax) is re- 
quired 1,0 qualify each tender. The specifica- 
tion, pians, etc., niay be inspected at either 
of the above-mentioned oflices. 



Bell's United Asbestos Co., Ltd., have re- 
centlv laid "Decolite" fire-resisting floors at 
the Scala Theatre, Tottenham Court Road, 

Boyle's latest patent " air-pump " ventilators, 
supplied by Messrs. Robert Boyle and Son, ven- 
tilating engineers, 64, Holborn Viaduct. 
London, E.C., have been employed by Messrs. 
\V. T. Henley's Telegraph Works Company, 
Ltd., North Woolwich. 


Sanction was given at the Surrey County 
Council meeting last week to the erection of .t 
memorial to the late Mr. A. G. Vanderbilt 
at a point 60 ft. from the centre of the road 
at iHolmwood Common, which he frequently 
used when coaching to Briffhton. 


[HE J3UILL)L\G NEWS: No. ;]2;>7. 

Jan. 17. 1917, 

Architectural Association of Ireland. 

Mr. {'<. \l., [iresideiit, occupied the 
chair at a meeting of the Architectural Asso- 
ciation of Ireland, held in the Association's 
RooTiLs, South Frederick I..ane, last week, 
when Mr. G. Atkin.son, R.H..\., delivered a 
lecture on "British Furniture Style." Mr. 
Atkinson, whose lecture was profusely illus- 
trated with liniclij;Iit views, confined his lec- 
ture to the development of the chair in the 
century 1660-1760, .1 perio<l when English 
furniture was at its highest from the artistic 
view of the de.signer. He traced the changes 
due to social and domestic influences, as well 
as the influence exercised by famous archi- 
tects. Not the least interesting portion 
of Mr. Atkiqson's lecture was his reference 
to the development of the work of Chippen- 


The president, Mr. John B. Oass. F.R.I.B.A., 
of Bolton, delivered a lecture to the mem- 
bers at the .socieity's rooms on Wedn&sday, 
January 10. on " Greece and ,«Jome of the 
IslaiKis in the .-Egean Sea." The lecture was 
illustrated by about sixty water-colour 
siketohea by .Mr. (t.oss, matle during lii.s visits 
to the Ne<-ir East, and gave added interest 
to the places described, and the arohitec- 
ItAinal remains of the golden age of Greece. 
The islands of the Grecian Ardhipelago seem 
the stcpping-.stoncs from the further East of 
tJiat wondei-ful civilisation of Greece whicJi 
so greatly influences our mo<leTn times. The 
interestB of Greek travel are not of the things 
of to-day, but of the conditions and progress 
of a wonderful i>eople over 2.000 yeai-s ago, 
and whose greatness has deiptirted. * iMykciur, 
destroyed in the fifth centui-y B.C., wa.s in it.s 
.irchateoture a late off.slioot from Minoan 
Crete. 15i)i<la«ros, the gi-eat open-air cure 
esitaWifihment, like the SaJiatoris of to-day 
with the temple of Asclo]niis, and the opeii- 
air theatre for 16,000 spectators still in good 
preservation,, 01ym,pia, and the many archi- 
toaturaJ glories "of Athens were well ilhi.s- 
trabed and described ; Deles, the sacred isle 
of the Greek confederation and the birthplace 
of ApoUo, now uninhabited, but the old city 
lias recently been excavated by the French, 
and is of great interest. The Venus of Milo, 
one of the great treasiiTes of the Louvre at 
Paris, was discovered at Mdlos, and further 
excavations wore IxMiig made by the British 
Scihool at .\thcn,<!. The haiilxnir is an extinct 
volcano, ■while Santorin i.s an inhafbited, sun- 
lKike<I, sulphurous lava and heap, ri.sing 
out of the se;i and suri-ouiuUng the mouth of 
a craitcT, into which the sliips sail, and there 
is still volcanic activity from its de]>ths. 
Samoa has home rule, and is one of the most 
prosperous of the islands with some interest- 
ing archit.o(tural remains, and I'atmos con- 
tains the cave in which the Book of Revela- 
tions was written, and many early manu- 
scripts. Other places were i1lu8tra>ted, and 
ski<t<-hea in the Dardanelles, (^iLstanlinople, 
ami Smyrna proved of considerable interest. 

Nation.\l FF.nERATioN ov Bun.mNo 
Trades Employkhs. — The annual meeting of 
the Midland Centre of the National Federa- 
tion of Building Trades' emjiloyers of Great 
Britain and Ireland was held in Birmingham 
last Thursday, under the jirc-iidency of Mr. 
F. I). Dolema.n. of Nottingham. The rejiort 
stato<l that there had been no im)irovemeiit 
in the condition of the building trade during 
the past twelve months. Apart from the 
election, or extension of factories, or work- 
shops required for war work in two or three 
towns, there had been very little activity 
in the industry. The abnormal conditions in 
regard to labour and materials had continued, 
and there seemed to be no prospect of im- 
provement in the trade until the war was 
over. With the object of preventing the 
building ^rade being brought to a staiul.still 
efforts had been made to secure a modifica- 
tion of the Order under the Defence of the 
Realm Regulations prohibiting the carrying 
out of any building work involving the use 
of steel or iron, or any other work amounting 
to more than £500. The oueslion was dis- 
cussed by the Executive Council, and the 
Federation, in December, when it was de- 
iid«l that an offer should be made to co- 
operate (in conjunction with the operations) 

with the Government, with a view to securing 
greater efficiency in the execution of construc- 
tional work and other matters. The report 
recorded the work accomplished during the 
year in respect to labour di.«putes, and the 
granting of war bonuses, and mentioned that 
the number of associations jiffiliated to the 
Centre was 23, the Birmingham Association 
retuining 279 members. The estimated 
balance in hand was £84, as compared with 
£94 at the close of the previous yeai'. The 
meeting approved the report, and the officers 
were elected for the ensuing year, Mr. C. 
Garlick (Coventry) being appoiiitetd presi- 




The King v. Hamhstead Boroich Councii..— 
(Before the Lord Chief Justice and Justices 
Ridley and Lush.) — In this matter the court 
considered a case which raised tlic question of 
the right of Alderman William Wtxjdward, 
F.U.I. B.A., a member of the Hampslcail 
Borough Council, to inspection of certain d(X.'u- 
iiienls. Cause was shown against a rule nisi for 
a mandamus being issued to the borough coun- 
<:il directing that Mr. Woodward should be 
yivcn access to inspect a report by the Medical 
Officer of Health in reference to 83. Palmerston 
Road, and a copy of the observation of the 
Ilealth Committee to the Ixx-al Government 
Board, and that he should be allowed to take 
copies of the same, on the ground that they 
related to matters of public importance in tlie 
administration of the business of the council. 
It appeared from the affidavit of Mr. Wood- 
ward that the council in June, 1911, on the re- 
commendation of the Public Ilealth Commit- 
tee, made la closing order in respect of the 
house in question under the Housing and Town 
Planning Act. Mr. Woodward came to tin- 
conclusion that the premises were in no sense 
unfit for human habitation, and that the action 
of the council was mistaken. An order was 
made for the demolition of the premises, ami 
at a lyocul Government Board Inquiry the 
whole of the medical officer's report was not 
produced. The Local Government Board finallv 
confirmed tlio order for demolition. Mr. Wtxxl- 
wnrd said it was not his desire or intention to 
make use of the information in the documents 
ponding litigation by the owner of the house. 
The Town Clerk of Hampstead denied, in an 
afl^idavit, that any facts on evidence with re- 
gard to the condition of the dwelling-house that 
were at the disposal of the council were not 
laid before the inspector at the inquiry.— The 
I,ord Chief Justice, giving judgment on Mon- 
day, said the question involved \yas only n 
ipiestioii of fact, there being no difference of 
opinion with regard to the principle of law to 
be applied. When Mr. Woodward wanted in- 
spcx;tion of the documents the town clerk re- 
fused on the grounds that Mr. Woodwmrd had 
given evidence in pt<iceo<lings which were Ijoinj; 
taken by Mr. Arlidge, the owner of the pro- 
|)erty, against the borough council witli respect 
to the order which had been made, and that 
at the inquiry which had been held he gave 
evidence. Priin,-> facie Mr. Woodwird hud a 
common law right to the jirduction of the 
doiuinents. The general principle was not con- 
tested, but it was contemled that in the special 
circumstances of this case the court, in the 
I'xercise of its discretion, should refuse to make 
the rule absolute, on the ground tJiat Mr. 
WocKlward was not solely actuated iby his 
public position, but was act,uat«l by the In- 
direct liiotivo of assisting Mr. Arlidge. He 
liad no hesitation in coming to the conclusion 
that Mr. Woodward's proceedings were not dic- 
tated solely by public interests, and not 
actuated solely liy tlie desire to raise the point 
as to tbe jtroceedings before the committee and 
the desirability of the council taking these 
matters into their own hands, lie did not wish 
it to be thouiiht that Mv. Woodward had in any 
way wilfully misle<l the court: he thought Mi-. 
W<>odward. almost unknown to himself, had de- 
sired to help Mr. Arlidge, and with that motive 
had sought to got information from the two 
documents.— The rule was discharged. 

Vicar's CcBiors Oi.aim.- Cables axd 
CnuHcnTXRDS— .\t the first public sitting of 
the W'ar T/os>es Commission for aw.ii-ding eom 
poiisiition in respect of property taken by 
Government under the Defence of the Realm 
rogulati<ms, tile Itcv. J. Dixon, of the Vicar 
age. W'illesden, asked for the repayment of 
professional charges incurred in niROtiations 
wilh the North Metropolitan Electric Liglit 
Company and the Ministry of Munitions in 
connection with the laying of an e'ectric cable 
through consecrated proiind. which he con- 
sidere<l was an outrage against religious feel- 

ings. — Mr. Wright, rcpresenung his legal ad- 
visers, said that Mr. Dixon had no authority 
to permit anyboly to use ajiy part of the 
churchyard, anil was therefore unable to con- 
sent to the laying of the cable. He pointed 
out to the tompauy two alternative routis — one 
along the street, about four times the lengttl 
of the churchyard route, and the second along 
the railway embankment. It was also pointed 
out tJiat the chancellor might see hia way to 
grant a faculty. Ultiniatelv the cable was laid 
under powers given by the Defence o£ the 
Kealm Act, and Mr. Dixon, who had incurred 
£11 costs, asked for nine guineas compensation. 

The Chairman said that he understood thai 

the lighting company were requinvl for mili- 
tary purposes to lay a cable, and the most 
direct way, except by incurring very consider- 
able expense, was to lay it under the pathway 
In the churchyard. The rector objeeted, oom- 
municatini with the local officials, and alter- 
native routes were suggested to avoid conse- 
crated groimd. Obvious objections to those 
alternative routes were pointed out by the 
engineers, and ultimately it came to a ques- 
tion that they were informed that the outrage 
which it was said would take place if the 
churchyard path was used wou'd bo a«iuaged 
by the payment of £200 to church funds and 
30 guineas for the expenses of a faculty. Thie 
was described as " blackmail," and thev re- 
fused to pay, with the result that the military 
authorities exercised their powers and put the 
cable through the chvirohyard. The refusal of 
the vicar to give his <onsent occasioned the 
bill of costs. — Mr. Wright: Not quite that He 
had no power to consent. — The Ch.iirnian : 
How is it he offered to take £200?— Mr. 
Wright: What he said was that if the com- 
pany were doing the thing on their own re- 
sponsibility it was a question of their saving 
£300 or £400 by taking the cable through the 
churchyard, but that they should not go 
through consecrated groimd unless the Court 
consented, and that it should not be done for 
the purpose of making a profit for a commer- 
cial compainy. Mr. Wright adde<l that the vicar 
was offered £30 in addition to his expenses. — 
The Chairman : He was a foolish man not tO' 
rake it. It was a question of how much. Tlie 
outrage to religious feelings would disappear 
if you got enough money. — Mr. Wright dis- 
sented. — The Chairman : Well, listen to your 
own letter. "If, however, the company is pre 
pared to increase its offer from £30 to £200, 
and in any case agree to pay costs and the ex-, including this application for a faculty, 
whether such application be successful or not. 
he and his ohuichwardens will apply for such a 
faculty."- Mr. Wright: We took rather the 
patriotic view.— The Cluiirman: The leas we 
say about patriotism in this matter the better. 
— Intimating that the Commission wo:. Id com . 
municale its decision, the Chairman said : " 1 
think you may say ihat the Commission tako 
a very strons view about this application." 

ODnr (Dffice f ahk. 
— I » I — 

Tlie new one-pound notes are to have on 
Uie back a picture of the Houses of Parlia- 
nieiit. A cynical coiTes|)ondent suggests that, 
instead of trying to popijarise a discre<lited 
institution, the space woaild liave Ijcon better 
filled by a little advice on how to make the 
new pound go as far as ten shillings wejit 
before the war. We do not gnunble at having 
to carry aboivt the home of the mother ol 
Parliamenrts, though, perhaps, a few ta.'aty 
re<.'ipcs for meatless days, or a remindei that 
sardines count as a course, would have been 
more appropriate to the mood of the hour. 

The annual reixirt of the Employers' Par- 
liamentary Association sounds an optimistic 
note as rt^iu-ds the future. It cannot he for- 
gotten, it says, that great wars in the past 
have often heralded the daiwn of a )»eriod of 
industrial and commeroia] prosperity. The 
American Civil War was followed by an un- 
precedented to industrisl eminence of 
that country. The war of 1870-71 has been 
utilised by Germany as a stepping stone to a 
great industrial )xisition. Signs are not want- 
ing that an industrial regenerative spirit is 
o|>erating in more than one of the Allied 
belligerents. Th« committee are confident 
that peaico will offer great opportunities for 
industri,il and commercial advancement for 
the Empire. "Tlie resources of the Empire 
are unrivalled. The cessjilion of hostilities 
will, and, bring about the more tho- 
rough development of these resources. There 

Jan. 17, 1917. 

THE BT.^ILDING NEWS : No. 3237. 


must be no narrow, insular \iiew taken of the 
future. This oountrj" must think in terms of 
Empire, and not of the United Kingdom. 
Oar overseas possessions are ready to act with 
us in peace, as they have suppoi-ted us so 
nobly dming war. The committee, in 
making these obsen'ations, preserve a neutral 
Attitude witli respect to past fiscal contro- 
versies; they desire only to reiterate then 
oft-repeated "assertion that the only way tt 
secure the consummation of these ideals is to 
organise the producer's as a whole."' 

The Welton Rural District Council at Lin- 
coln, on Friday week, considered a repon 
from the Highways Committee with reference 
to the calling up for military service of the 
.surveyor (Mr. Starkie). The committee re- 
commended that the district councillor for 
each pai-ish be authorised to supervise the 
repairs of the liighways in his district, to- 
gether with the manual and team labour 
thereon. Mr. H. Sargeant thought it was 
too much to ask each councillor to overlook 
liis parish, and proposed as an amendment 
itjhat a temporai-y surveyor be apix>inted. 
This was seconded by Mr. H. P. Stamp. A 
lengthy discussion followed the amendment, 
in the end being carried by thirteen votes to 
six. It was agreed to advertise at a salary 
of £100, leaving over the question of makmg 
lip the salary of Mr. Starkie (£140 a year). 

Dr. J. Walter Tewkes has issued a 
pamphlet reporting the progress made in the 
excavation and rejiair of the Sun Temple 
at Mesa Verde National Park. The monu- 
ment was discovered by Dr. Tewkes in 
1909, and since then work has steadily 
gone on in order to excavate and repair 
this interesting building. The pamphlet 
issued by Dr. Tewkes contains a full 
aooount of the building, with a ground 
plan, measurements, and photographs, which 
make it now possible to understand the 
character and pui-pose of this remarkable 

At the Guildhall Art Gallery last Friday. 
1 he Lord Mayor presiding, a meeting organised 
by the Royal Drawing Society was held to 
lonsider the future of drawing as an essential 
in science development.. The Society, on the 
invitation of Mr. Arthur Henderson, when 
President of the Board of Education, sub- 
mitted information concerning the connexion 
of its work with the teaching of science to 
the Committee on the Teaching of Science ap- 
pointed by Mr. Asquith. The memorandum 
drawn up has been approved by Queen 
Alexandra, who fully appreciates the value of 
the system whicli the Council of the Society 
adopt in training the young to draw from 
memory after observation. Drawing, it is 
pointed out, is a valuable, and often an abso- 
lutely necessary, means of making observa- 
tions, and the process of drawing also forces 
the observer to consider structural relations 
and meanings. 

The seventh exhibition of the Senefelder 
Club for the advancement of artistic litho- 
graphy, of which Mr. Joseph Pennell is Pre- 
sident, will be opened on Saturday, 20th 
inst., at the Leicester Galleries, Leicester 
Square. A special feature of the forthcoming 
exhibition will be the collection of lithographs 
by distinguished French artists, which will be 
shown together with those of the best living 
English exix)nents. Daumier, Gavarni. Dela- 
croix, Forain, Steinlen. Oorot, Carriere, 
Lepere, Legros, Rops, Fantin-Latoui', Puvis 
de Ohavannes, Renoir, Toulouse-Lautrec, and 
Willette will all be well represented in the 
coming building. 

The danger of British insurance ofiBces in- 
suring a portion of their risks with German 
tirms, £is w^as the practice before the war, 
was emphasised last week by Mr. W. Powell, 
late British Consul at Philadelphia, in an 
'address to the Royal Colonial Institute. 
Especially was this dangerous with regard to 
fire insurance (he said), as the premium rate 
lor this class of insurance was low, and large 
inducements were held out by the German 
insurance comj>anies to the English firms for 
this class of business. Thus the German com- 
panies obtained full details of the buildings 
and factories situated all over the United 
Kingdom, giving a splendid opportunity to the 
German Government for obtaining the situa- 

tion and resources of our maniifaotories with 
a view to their destruction by spies or air- 

At the sitting of the Ilkley Tribunal, last 
week, a contractor, engaged on the exten- 
sion of the sanatorium at INIiddleton, near 
Ilkley. who had been granted several p'ericds 
of temporary exemption to finish the work, 
applied for a further extension. He pro- 
duced a letter from the architect, stating that 
it would take five months to finish the build- 
ing. One of the merrubers pointed out that 
in June last, when a period of exemption 
was asked for by the applicant, it was stated 
that the work would take six months to 
linish. The applicant stated that he had 
been held back by other trades, and that men 
■had left him because they could get better 
wages elsewhere. It was pointed out that it 
was inicumbent upon him to proceed witli the 
work, and that he ought not to allow men to 
leave him on account of wages. He was 
gi-anted a further period of exemption up to 
February 28, with an intimation that this 
was final. 

The rule of tJhe past has been to send 
several men with ropes to facilitate the rais- 
ing of ladders to reach roofs and gutters, 
but the scarcity of men now demands the 
use of improved ladders, which bmlders and 
decorators have been extremely slow to adopt. 
However, the time has come to enforce adop- 
tion, and the Heathman telescopic ladders 
desei-ve greater attention than they have re- 
ceived. A 454't. ladder can be raised and 
extended bv one man and adjusted to inter- 
mediate heights from 17 ft. upwards, and, 
if anvthing. it is stronger than the one-piece 
ladder. Mr. Heathman has opened a new- 
showroom at 35, Aldersgate Street, near the 
General Post Office, for visitors who cannot 
journey to his factorv at Parsons Green, Ful- 
ham. and he antici.pates better adoption of 
his many improvem'ents by tradesmen. 

At the annual meeting of the members of 
the Propertv Owners' Protection Association, 
which wiU "be held at the Cannon Street 
Hotel on January 25 at 5.30 p.m., the chair 
wUl be occupied bv Alderman and bheritt 
Louis A. Newton. On the conclusion of the 
bu.siness of the annual meeting, probably bv 6 
o'clock, a general public meeting will be held, 
at which addresses will be delivered by the 
following speakers :— Messrs. James Boyton, 
M.P., Edwin Evans, L.C.C. (President of the 
Association), M. Cheverton-Brown, C.C, and 
\ W. Shelton. The Lord Mayor (Sir Wil- 
liam Dunn) and the Sheriffs wiU receive the 
delegates from the National Federation of 
Property Owners and Ratepayers and the 
members of the Council of the Association at 
the Mansion House prior to the annual meet- 

The shortage of houses is rapidly becoming 
acute in Bristol. Private enterprise has 
ceased to build houses for the working classes^ 
In two districts with 1,198 houses and wi'th 
a population of 5,618. a census revealed the 
fact that there were only two houses void, 
and both of them were unrepairable. It is 
regrettable that necessary repairs in many 
cases have been neglected. The old proverb 
"A stitch in time saves nine" applies to 
houses. The failure to make good a few 
defective bricks, to rebuild a quoin, results 
in back additions collapsing, and a. consider- 
able outlay is involved in rebuilding. The 
year has been marked by the number of cases 
of complaints of annexes falling down, 
collapse of roofs, etc. Investigation proves 
that timely attention would have saved 
matters if the slight repairs required in the 
first place had been attended to. Much work 
has been done without notices being served. 


We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions 
of our correspondents. All communications should 
be drawn up as briefly as possible, as there are 
many claimants upon the space allotted to 

It is particularly requested that all drawings and 
all communications respecting illu.?trations or literary 
matter, books for review, etc., should be addressed 
to the Editor of the Bcilding Xews, Effingham 
House. 1, .\rundel Street, Strand. W.C, and not to 
members of the staff by name. Delay is not infre- 
quently otherwise caused. All drawings and other 
camniunieations are sent at contributors' risks, and 
the Editor will not undertake to pay for, or be 
liable for, unsought contributions. 

When favouring us with drawings or photographs, 
architects are asked kindly to state how long the 
building has been erected. It does neither them nor 
us much good to illustrate buildings which have heen 
some time executed, except under special circum- 

*»*Drawings of selected competition designs, im- 
poTtunt public and private buildings, details of old 
and new work, and good sketches are always wel- 
come, and for such no charge is made for insertion. 
Of more commonplace subjects, small churches, 
chapels, houses, etc. — we have usually far more sent 
than we can insert, but are glad to do so when space 
permits, on mutually advantageous terms, which 
may be ascertained on application. 

Telephone: Gerrard 1291. 
Telegrams: '* Timeserver, Estrand. London." 

Bound Copies of Vol. CX. are now ready, and 
should be ordered early (price 12s. each, by post 
125. lOd.), as only a limited number are done up. 
A few tvound volumes of Vols. XXXIX., XLI., 

xcii.. xciii., xciv,, xcv., xcvi.. xcvii . 
xcviu.. xcix.. c, CI., cii., cm., civ., cv., 

CVI.. evil.. CVIII.. and CIX., may s»till be ob- 
tained at the same price ; all the other bound 
volumes are out of print. 

Alost of the back issues are to be had singly. 
.\ll back issues over one month old will be charged 
Gd. each, postage Id. Subscribers requiring back 
numbers should order at once, as they soon run out 
of print. 

Handsome Cloth Cases for binding the Building 
Xews, price 2s., post free 2s. 5d., can be obtained 
from any Newsagent, or from the Publisher, 
Effingham House, 1, Arundel Street, Strand, W.C. 

Received. T. W. H.,— C. P. and Co.— O. and Co.— 

•S. W. F. and Co.. Ltd.— J. O. and Son, Ltd.— 
C. .7. and Co.— Lt. B. L.— B. Bros, and Sons, 
Ltd.— K. C. r. Co.— L. L. K.— P. C. B. and Co. 

T. R. L.— No. • 

A. K.— Many thanks. 

r. J.— Kindly send. 2. Yes, if possible. 

\. W. L.— We do not know il the Arm still exists. 

T, T.— We do not agree with you. Scicsncc and 
art are not two complementary things, appeaUng 
to quite different intellectual faculties. They 
are one and the same, and both are product* 
of the creative imagination. It is for this 
reason that science really consists in the scien- 
tific theory, and not in the discovery and 
tabulation of '* Laws of Nature," still less dn 
utilitarian applications, which, however benefi- 
cial or harmful they may be, are merely the 
by-products of science. The scientist dreams, 
and creates a universe from his dreams. He is 
concerned with truth, it is true, but so is every 
artist. Keats thought truth and beauty were 
one, but, at any rate, it is certain that, in 
the words of the late Henri Poincar^ : There is 
a profound connection between the truth and 
the h>eauty of a scientific theory. 

->— •o»— <- 

There was a large attendance of workers in 
the building and ^Uied trades of Leeds at a 
mass meeting held in the Lees Hall, Vicar 
Lane, last Wednesday, to formulate a demand 
for increased wages. The subject was fully dis- 
cussed, and eventuaJTiV it was unanimoiusly 
resolved " That this meeting of the building 
and allied trades of Leeds, in view of the 
abnormal increase in the cost of living, hereby 
makes application for an increase of 2d. an 
hour, and that the terms of the resolution be 
sent to Mr. John Hodge, the Labour Minister, 
and to Mr. Neville Chamberlain. 

> m»m € 

Steady progress is being made with the con- 
struction of the Standard shipyard at Chepstow. 
Two slips are being prepared for ships of 3,000 
tons. Fifteen houses are in course of erection 
by Messrs. Falkner, of London, n^ho will also 
put up workshops for the company. 

A letter was read at a meeting of the Hull 
City Council last Thursdiay from Mr. T. R. 
Kerens, M.P. for East Hull, intimating that 
he wiU convey the deeds of the site of St. 
John's Church, which he had purchased, to the 
city, and will transfer shares, which at pre- 
sent rates are worth £35,000, for the erection 
of an art gaUery worthy of the oity on the 
site in Victoria Square. 

A well-known Worcestershire builder. Mr. 
John Howard, of Park Lane, Kidderminster, 
went to the top of the tower of his residence 
last week and got out on to the roof. He fell 
to the ground a considerable distance and was 
killed. Mr. Howard, who was 69 years of age, 
was a native of Kidderminster, and had been 
extensively employed as a builder. He spent 
many years in the Worcestershire Yeomanry, 
and when he retired some years ago he was 
allowed to wear his sword. 



Jan. 17. 1917. 



Hcadqiiart*r.«, linUlerton Strt-.t. O.xfotd StrtL-t. W. 



OFFICEll FOR THE WEEK.— Platoon CommandLr 
11. ill- r. Birkott. 

NU.XT FOR UCTY.— Platoon CommaMdcr G. 11. 

.MONDAY, January 22.— Tcclinical for Platoon No. 
!' at Regency Street. Squad and Platoon Dri . 
Platoon No. 10. Signalling Class. Recruits Drill. 
0.25— s. 

TUESDAY, January 23.— School of Arms, 6—7. Lec- 
ture, 7.15, "Musketry." By tlie Instructor of Mus- 

WEDNESDAY', January -24.- Instruttional Class. 
e.l3. Platoon Drill, Platoon No. 2. 

THURSDAY, January 25.— Platoon Drill, Platoon 
No. 7. Auiliulance Class hy >!.()., 0.30, 

FRIDAY, January 2B.-Tcelinical for Platoon No. 
10 R.Rcniy Street. Sijuad an<l Platoon Drill, ^o. U. 
Signallini! CUiss. Recruits Drill, 8.-25-8.25. 

SATURDAY, January -J?.— N.C.O.'s Class, 2.30, by 
Coy.-Cdr. E. G. Fleming. 

SUNDAY, January ■JS.-EntrenchinK at Otford, 
Parade Victoria (S E. and C. Rly. Booking Office). 
8 40 a.m. Uniform, haversacks, water-bottles. Mid- 
day rations to be carried. Railway vouchers will be 

.MUSKETRY.— For all Companies, see Notice at 

NOTE.— Unless otherwise indicated, all Drills, etc , 
will take place at headquarters. 

The Orders are liable to slight alteration. 
By order, 

January '-'O, lui". 


Mr Thomas H. Pilkingtoii, who for many 
years acted as assistant county surveyor to the 
Clare County Council, has died. 

Lioutoniamt \Va.lIis Coales. R.p;., son of Mr. 
Herbert G. Coales, onffineor and surveyor to 
t.hc Market Harborough iJrban District Coun- 
cil, has boon awarded the Military Cross. 

During the absence of all the paa-tncrs of the 
firm of Messrs. Pine-CoHin, Imro, and Angeli, 
wh.) are serving witli H.M. Forces. Mr. 
Charles J. Ford has kiiwlly consented to 
at-t«nd to tlicir business at 4, Mitre Court, 
I'lect Street. 

The < on December 27, at Madras, is 
announced of Mir. Krnest Montague Tihomas, 
F.K.I.B.A., who was coiusultiiig architect to 
tho Government of Madras, youngest son of 
tile late Edward Thomas aiKl Ijrotiier of Sir 
A. Brumwell Thomas, of London, architect. 

Severe criticisms of the plans of the new 
Star and Garter Homos at (Riclimond were 
made at the Town Council lust Weilnesday. 
Members said they were promi-sed a beautiful 
building in the Italian style, whereas the pro- 
posed structure ireseDible<l a barracks. The 
plans were referred back for consultation with 
the architect. 

A cable rewii.ved in London by the High 
Cx>mmissioner for Austrialia says that the New 
South Wales Government has endowed a 
Chair of Architecture at tlie Sy<lnoy Univer- 
sity for £2.000 annuially. It is claimed that 
this is tilie lirst occasion that a Govomment of 
tii-e British Emi>ire has recognised tiio national 
imix>rtanoe of architecture. 

At a meeting of the Ripon Diocesan Confer- 
ence at Bnwlford last Thursday a scheme was 
adopted for the formation of a new See of 
IJiadford, consisting of the Deanery of Brad- 
ford, the four Craven Dcanej-ies, and the 
Deanery of Clapham, which are all now in the 
dioceso of Ripon. A mininuim income of 
£2.500 ati<l a house costing £70,000 w-iU be 

.\ new mace has l>oon preseiited to the 
House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada 
to take the i^laoe of the one destroyixl in the 
lire of February 17, 1916. The donors are 
Colonel Sir C. C. Wakefield, ex-Loixl Mayor 
of Lon<lon. and the SherilVs. Alilerinan 0. A. 
Touche. .M.P.. and Mr. S. G. Slu ad. The 
general design of the mace is on similar lines 
to that used in the British House <)f Com- 
mons. The vase-shap<d head is divjdo<l into 
four panels by female figiirv^s with acanthus 
loaf terminals. These panels c*ontain tlie fol- 
lowing emtxwsed eniblems ;- The Amis oif the 
Dominion of Canada, tJic Rose for En«-land. 
the Harp for Ireland, and tile Tliistle for 
Scotland ; ab(>ve each emblem is the Royal 
Crown, and the initials G.R. are jilaced on 
either side. The mace is ijie work of the 
Gold.smiths and Silversmiths Company, Ltd.. 
of Regent Street, London 


Tclcpbone DALSTOS 13es. 

Msnv ycftn, t-oiin«etcd wltli 

tilt- *lal« linn ui W. li. 

U\SCELLES * CO.. ol 

UunlilU Kuw. 

Mildmay Avenue, ISLINGTON, N. 









WM. OLIVER & SONS. I id.. 

120. Bunhill Row. Ix>adon. E.G. 


*,* Correspondents would in all cases oblige by 
giving the addresses of the parties tendering — at any 
rate, of the accepted tender: it adds ta tbevoiue of the 

Batterse.v. S.W. — For removal of ashes from the 
Latchmcre Koad baths (One Year), for the horough 
council :— 

Ive, J. . . . . 9s. per load. 

(Recomnieniled for acceptance.) 
BRO.iDSTAiHs. — For (kinolition of 1-2, Leslie Cot- 
tages, for the urban district council : — 

Fuggle. (J. H £46 

.Martin. \V. W 42 8 6 

Dunn, E. (accepted) .. 84 16 

Newport. I.W.— For supply of 40n tons ot granite, 
I'.-in. gauge, and 100 tons ol j-in. granite chippings, 
delivered u|ion the Town Quay, for the cor|)ora- 
tion ■- — 

Rowc and Mitchell, granite 18s. 9d. per ton, chippings 
18s. 9d. per ton. inclusive of freight and delivery 
rate of 9s. per ton. 
Brookes, Ltd., Westminster, £1 Os. Id. and £1 Os. 4d.. 
inclusive of freight and delivery rate of 10s. per 
roRTSM0t:Tll.— Supply of spare fittings, etc., (or the 
drainage committee of the corporation : — 

Davis. H. ami W., Ltd .£87 

Vosper and Co., Ltd 81 

Wilkes and Co.. Ltd 76 15 

McKinlav and Co.. Ltd 76 

Shervell, J., Ltd.* 72 10 

Skipton.— For rebuilding walls at Clusburn, for th. 
Ski])ton Kural District Council; — 

Whittaker, W., Cowling (accepted). 
.^nrxH Shields.— For heating and ventilation of 
Court Buildings and Fire Briga^ie Station, for tlu- 
eorporation : — 

('.rev. 0., South Shields (boiler 

and flue (accepted) . . . . .£69 13 

Emiey and Sons (heatiuK Arc 
station) (accepted) . . . . 42 

WoRCESTKn. — For planting trees, etc.. at the pi--' 
market, (or the Markets Committee:^ 

Parsons, E. .T., l.s. St. Nicholas Street, £30 

>— ^••— < 


March 3 Wati-r Supply ami Sewerage Scheme 

(premium 5.000 pesetas— about £200), Manza- 
nares, Spain. — Secretaria del Ayuntamiento. 



Jan. 20. -Cottage ill tile grounds of new iiilirmary 
iMiilding at Eye. — For the Hartismer.- Board of 
Cuardiaiis. -H. Warnes. Clerk. I'nion Olhccs. Vic- 
toria Koad. Eye. 

Jan. 2 2.— Pulling down and clearing away olil 
cliapel premises and two adjoining houses, situate 
in Kent Street. Nottingham. —City .-Vrchitcct's 
Departimnt. (iuiUlhall, Nottingham. 

Jan. 23.— Engine Room at Refuse Destructor. 
Suffolk l!.>ad. Ilford.— For the I'rhan District 
Coinu-il. — \. Partington. Clerk. Town Hall. 


Jan. 21.^Laying nf ahoiit l.'.'no yards of 4-in. mains 
and suhsiiliary works at Penihrcy and Pontardil- 
lais.— For the Llancllv Rural District Ciumcil.— 
1). A. Howell. A.M.I.C.E., Water Engineer, Cowell 
Street. I.llUelly. 

Jan. 2 4. One Five-4on .*^<ain Tractor .ind Four 
Six-ton Trailers, delivereil at Joyc* (Jreen Ilos- 
pit'al. i>aTt'fo^d. Kent.^For. the ^Tetroix>litan 
Asylums BoiKl— D. Jtaira, Clerk, Bourd Offices, 
EniKniirkinent, E.C 

June 1. — Storm-water Pumping Plant, Calcutta.— 
For the Corporation. — The Indian and Ea-itern 
F.nginrcT. 50. Fencliurch Street, E.C. 

Jan. 18. Al.out 2,000 ft. run of BTitish Oak P'ank- 
inc. 3I2 hv 6 ins., delivert-d at Dvmchurcb by 
.Tune 1. 1917— For tlic Romaev Marsh Level — 
The lUiiliff, N««- HiUl, Dyme.hurch 

Jan. 22. — Fencing. .Manchester.- Supply and erec- 
tion of fencing and gates for allotments at 
French Barn Lane. Blackh-y. and Cliarle^towu 
Road, Mostoii : aUo (or allotiiieitts at Princ. -- 
Road South, .Mn.-s Side, and Dt-mc>ne Koad, F;t: 
lowtield. — For the imall Holdings and Allotment 
Committee. — Chairman of the Small Holdings 
and .Vliolm-nts Comiiiittt.e. .Manchester. 

IVIarch 30.— Wrouglit-iron t;ates and Fencing, for 
the Central Wharf and tjuav Street Landing. 
Auckland. X.Z.— For the Harhour Board.- The 
Commt-rei.-il Intellieenee Department. 73, Basing- 
hall Street, E.C. 


Jan. 27— Feb. 1.- P.oiiiiii;. cleaning, etc.. to the- 
laundry anci e.igine-liouse at the Newington In- 
.-titiition, Westmoreland Koad, S E. — For the 
Southwark Board of (jiiar<lians. — S. Wood, Clerk, 
(iuardians Offlccs, Ufford Street. Blackfriars. 

Feb. 7.— For Painting at various pUccs. — For the 
L,ancashire and York.--h:pe Haiiw.iy Oompany. — 
R. C. Irw-in, Sectvtary, Himt's' Bank, Man- 


Jan. 20.- I'ar-pr. lying mam roatU during 1917. — 
For the Es-ex Coiinly Council.— P. J. Sheldon, 
County Surveyor. Chelm>ford. 

Jan. 21.— Broken granite to the various stations 
in district. — For the .Midhurst Rural District 
Council. — A. G. (iibbs. Surveyor. Council Offlce^. 

Jan. 2 2. — (Jra3iiit<^ and - l-« and Gravel 

for Paths :n .'^lea.fori; .:,.- vcar).— For 

the Sleaford Rural |i — E. H. God- 

son. Clerk. 27, NortJig.iii.. .s.>L..;ord. 

Jan. 24.— For Granit*. BaKilt. Lmes-t^ae, and 
Tar Mac.vdam (one .vear). Railway Stationfi and 
Wliarvc-s in Dors«-t .— FV>r the County Council.— 
E. H. Hahgood. .\cting County Surveyor, County 
Offices. Dordiester. 

Jan. 2 7.-2 in. and J in. Tarred Slag; 2 in. and 
i in. Dry Slag: 2 in.. I in., and J in. Granite: 
2 in.. J in., and 5 in. Limestone, Stratford-upon- 
Avon.— For the Corporation —F. W. Jones. 
A.M.I.C.E.. Borough Surveyor, Town Hall, Strat- 

Jan. 2 9 British Macadam. West End. Hants.- For 

the South Stoneham Kural District Council. — Mr. 
E. Wynter Cross. Clerk. West End. Hants. 

Jan. 30. — Whinstone (broken and unbroken) and 
limestone and also tarred slag and whinstone for 
niac^idamiziiig purposes (One Year) in such quan- 
tities as surveyor shall from time to time direct. 
—For the Middlesbrough Rural District Council 
— W. Richardson. Clerk for highway purposes. 

Jan. 31.— Broken Stone, Chippings, and Tarred 
Macadam (One Year).— For the Xeston and Park- 
gate l" District Council.— Surveyor. Town 
H.-ll. Xeston 

Jan. 31 Setts. Kerbs, and Flags. Granit« 

.Macadam. Pitch and Tar. Slag Dust. Tar- 
.Macadam. Limestone Macadam. Brushes (One 
Year).— For the Otiey Urban District CounclL — 
O. Holmes. Surveyor to the Council. 

Feb. 7.— 7,.ino tiais (more or less) of iio. and IJ-i"- 
hand-broken basalt for road construction, anil 
.500 tons (more or les.s) of ;-in. clean chippings, 
to be delivered from the \arious stations in Mid- 
dlesex.— For the Middlesex County Council.— 
Clerk. County Council, Middlesex Guildhall. West- 


Jan. 22. (<ilK,tioii. Removal, and Disposal of 

House, Refuse. Xorthwich (One Year).- For the 

Crban District Council.— J. A. Cowley. Clerk. 

Council House, Nortbwich. 
Jan. 2 6 Scavenging —For the Sedgefleld Rural 

District Council— .1, W. Lodge. Clerk, Council 

oniees. Sedgelield, Kerryhill. 
Feb. 6. -Emptying and Removin'j Contents of 

pits etc.. and Removal of Hou^e Rcfu,5e (One. 

Two. or Three Yearsi. Old Hill. .Staffs.- D. 

Wricht. Clerk, Council Hou.-c. Old Hill. 


Jan. 31.— Mild Stc*l or Iron G.-ites and Fencing 
for Quay Street Frontage, Auckland, S.Z.— For 
the Harbour Board.— .Me&srs. W. and A. Mc- 
Arthur. LW., Canberra House, 1S19. Silk Stre«t, 
Cripplepatc, E.C. 


Jan. 20. — Granite, Illa>t Furnace Slag; and Tar 
Macadam (Cue Y'ear). Worcesit*r. — For the 
County Council. — C. F. Gettings. County Sur- 
veyor. 30, Forctyit^ Street, Wori'est<'r. 

Jan. '20.— Broken Granite or Basalt for Maiir 
Roads (One Year). Long Ashton Division. Bris- 
tol.— For the Somerset County Council.— G. K- 
FoHand. Acting County Surveyor. Wells, Somer- 

Jan, 20.— ^laterials and Toain I>al)Our,— For the 
Es-scx County Council.— Oounrty Sun-eyor's Office, 

Jan. 20 — Flmt-s, Gravel, Clialk. Team Labour.. 
Tools. Barrows. Hiamlisirt.s. e-tc, (on« yoar), — 
FVw the Norfolk C\>unty Coiinoil.— Clork U> the 
Council, Shipchouiic. Norwich. 

Jan. 21.— Broken Granite, Midhurst— For the • 
Rural District Council. --A. G. Gib6s. Surveyor. 
Council Offices. Midhurst. 

Jan, 2 7.— S:initary |ii|)es, etc. (One Year) -For the 
Bishop Auckland I'rban District Council. — J. T. 
Proud. Clerk. Town Hall Buildings, Bishop Auck- 

Feb, t.— ,\nnealed Scoritp (broken): bricks, casting*;- 
concrete flags and kerbs: Portland cement, pitch 
and tar: sanitary pii>es. gullies, junctions, etc.: 
slag (broken): coal (for domestic um: only), coke: 
timber: whinstone and granite (broken); and 
w-hinstone and granite setts and kerbo.— For the 
Middle«brou-.'h Cor|K>ration.— P Kitchen. Town 
' Clerk. Municipal Buildings, Middl-.-.sbrough. 

January 24, 191' 

Volume CXII.-No. 3238. 



Sffin^ham House, 

lurrentc Calamo Tl 

Buildir.g Materials 72 

.^(.T Six Months' Travels in Itaiy 73 

i'rotessLona] and Trade Societies , S6 

'>iir illustrations 8C 

<il>ituary SO 

Heating a Porous House 87 

Concrew and Reinforced Concrete 88 

John Tann's Safes, Doors and Strong Rooms 89 

Legal Intelligence . . . . 90 

Correspondence 90 

Building Intelligence 90 

Trade Notes . . 90 


Our Office Table mi 

To Arms ! , . , . yj 

Chips 91 

To Correspondents 91 

Tenders gj 

Competitions Open 9-2 

List of Tenders Open 92 

Latest Prices ' xji. 

An Octagonal House at Caldy. Cheshire, ^"iew of 
hall, billiard-room, and staircase, the front en- 
trance, and sheet of plans and sections. Messrs. 
Bregs, Wolitenholme, and Tliornelv, 

!■" F.R.I.B.A., Architects. 

Strand. W.C. 

I.xample.* of Italian .Architecture and Decorations 
illu.strating paper by Mr. Ivor Beaumont. Sing- 
ing gallery by Luca della Robbia, Museum ot 
Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence; vaulting, Siena 
Cathedral ; vaulting, Vatican PaJace, Eohic-Sala 
Ducale: detail of the la^ade, The Duomo, Flo- 
rence, and other illustrations, with the text 
wall decoration, .\vena Chapel, Padua, bv Gio 
Ho; Twelfth Century Doorway, Church of St. 
Guist, and ceiling decoration by Pinurrichio* 
Libreria Picooloniini, Siena Cathedral. 

General Headquarters Troops' Exhibition of -Art, 
Grand Prix Diploma Sketches in Frencli Flan- 
ders, bv Lance-Corp. \. E. Poley, Silver Med.^l- 
li,st, R.LB.A. Toners, Hotel de Ville, Hesden; 
St. Sepulciire, St. Denis, and the Abbey of St. 
Uertin at St. Omer. 

dnxTtnte Calamo. 

Tlie ten-ible explosion in East London, 
and those which have preceded it else- 
where, are heavy penalties to pay for the 
use of buildings for munition-making 
wliich are in many I'espects unsuitable, 
and in dangerous proximity to adjacent 
life and property. For the most part, 
before the war, such factories were remote 
from towns and thickly populated dis- 
tricts. So are those put up during the last 
three years ; and, however liard put to it 
the Government may have been, it is 
hardly consoling to accept pleas of 
economy or convenience for the retention 
a day longer than is absolutely necessary 
of other factories which, any moment, maj' 
cover another square half-mile of London 
with ruins. It is useless to speculate on 
the immediate cause of the catastrophe till 
the result of the official inquiry is pub- 
lished, and probably the inimours and 
i-eports of enemy agents and their share in 
the explosion are merely foolish talk. 
Tlie wonder is that we have not had more 
explosions all over the country in the 
absence of stricter enforcement of neces- 
sary regulations. While magistrates con- 
tent themselves with fining people who 
carry matches into the factories, and when 
absentees are allowed to defy tribunals, as 
the 235 navvies did last Friday and Satur- 
day at Birmingham, smoking and boozing- 
and fighting in the court itself, it is hardly 
likely that discipline — the one safeguard 
against accidents, can be maintained. 

"London Iced" on Monday morning 
found many thousands reduced to rely on 
Slianks' pony to reach the scenes of their 
labours. It was our fate to mark the 
contrast always presented, but on 
Monday more so by the condition of the 
streets controlled by the City and four of 
the adjacent Metropolitan Boroughs. 
Throughout tlie former, on reacliini; 
Moorgate, and to the confines of 
Westminster, tlie streets, having been 
cleansed long before passengers were afoot, 
were safe and passable. In the rest the 
choice was from skating over the glassy 
surface of slush in the extreme north of 
Islington to floundering through tlie 
greasy mud of at least a couple of days' 
accumulation elsewhere. Efficient labour is 
scarce everywhere, but surely the City does 
not monojxilise all competent organisation 
and capable superintendence ? Thanks 

thereto, 'even in the busiest thorough- 
fares, the City is not left to the late 
arrival on the scene of the mostlj- motley 
crews of the scavenging brigades recruited 
apparently- from the casual wards and 
other refuges for the lazy. Removal is 
prompt and thorough, and yet the charges 
are lighter than in many districts whete 
most of the mud is left to be removed on 
the boots of wayfarers into the clean 
streets of the centre of the Metropolis 
which the City .so well administrates in all 
that concerns sanitation. 

counsel, waste much time and money, and 
then often end by leaving the cases to go 
through the courts. 

-•\.ll men of business and, perhaps, more 
especially, those who, in these dark days, 
are trying to make a living by and about 
building are sick of the waste of time, 
trouble and mohey caused by our various 
jury methods. Grand juries, which once 
had a meaning as a protection against the 
Court for arbitrary action in the way of so 
called jjolitical libel, and the prevention 
of putting on his trial a man wholly 
innocent have years ago ceased to be 
anytlung but a form and a farce, 
^lagisterial investigation has made them 
mere useless survivals. In actual Criminal 
trials the jury will still stand for a full 
and free hearing, but in Civil causes 
juries are rarely of any real value ; they 
liave never been needed in Chancery, 
where the most important cases are now 
decided. On the Common Law side a jui'V 
is only wanted whtre the claim is so 
doubtful that every sporting chance is a 
gain. Yet we still see thousands of men 
dragged from their business or the land 
to sit as Grand jurors and solemnly 
follow police advice in finding " true 
bills " ! In the High Court the present 
sittings will require far over 2,000 men to 
leave their work and business and hang 
about or sit listening to counsel's tricky 
or technical talk, mostly about nothing 
that matters to anyone but the parties. 
The War's awakening should do some- 
thing to rid us of all this absurd and 
archaic wastefulness. In Building we 
have done our best to get away from 
juries, but our arbitrations are still too 
often found to be not much better. 'N^Hiat 
we need is a Tribunal of Building 
Arbitrators, similar to those of other 
trades in the City, where practical men, 
who know their business inside and out, 
deal quickly and finally with disputes on 
the facts and out of their own knowledge. 
We are still too much in the hands of our 
experts, who, working with lawyers and 

At Carlisle Consistory Coui-t, last week, 
the Vicar of Lanercost, the Rev. T. W. 
Willis, ajjplied on behalf of Mr. Juhn 
Charlton, Bank House, Lanercost, and 
also of Newcastle, for a faculty authoris- 
ing him to place on the south wall of 
Lanercost Prior}' Church a marble tablet 
in memory ot his two sons — Hugh 
Vaughan, a lieutenant in the North- 
umberland Fusiliers, aged 32, who was 
killed on June 24, 1916, and John Mac- 
Farlan, a captain in the Northumber- 
land Fusiliers, aged 25, who was killed 
on July 1, 1916. Mr. Willis said Mr. 
Charlton was the well-known artist, and 
he wished, the design of the tablet to be 
of a simple character. He had selected 
white marble because it was emblematic 
of the purity and rectitude of his sons. 
Tli.'ie might be some objection to white 
marble because the other tablets in the 
abbey were chiefly bronze or brass. 
Neither the patron nor the vestry had 
raised any objection to the memorial or 
its position. When it was suggested to 
Mr. Charlton that white marble niig'it 
be rather obtrusive he had expressed his 
willingness to have it toned down to a 
greyish colour. Having regard to the 
whitish colour of the walls, white marble 
would not look so obtrusive. Chancellor 
Prescott said in his opinion it would be 
a good thing if the parishioners of a 
parish would agree to postpone the plac- 
ing of meniorials in their parish church 
until the end of the war. It would then 
be possible for tlieni to combine and erect 
something that was artisticand beautiful, 
wortliy of tiiose who had given their lives 
tor their counti-y, and worthy ot the 
sacred edifice in which it was placed. 
Descendants in days to come would look 
with far more pride on such memorials 
than on some ot the isolated and some- 
times unwortiiy records which were occa- 
sionally proposed. Knowing the historic 
and famous chui'ch of Lanercost Prior.v, 
he did not think that the proposed slab 
was worthy of the position, and that, con- 
sidering the position in which it was pro- 
posed to place it and the adjoining 
memorials, it would be out of place. He 
asked the vicar to bring the matter before 
Mr. Charlton and to suggest to him that 
a brass or bronze tablet would be much 
more in keeping with the place. He ad- 


I HE BTlLDING NEWS: No. 32;3> 

Jan. 2+, 1917. 

joiuned the case tili Uie next Couit, so 
that anotlier applicatiuii might be made in 
such form as the applicant might be 

The Scotch Burgh of Buckie has been 
taught a useful lesson by the Edinburgh 
Court of Sessions as regards the right of 
its councillors to interfere with the burgh 
engineer in the apparently very proper 
exei-cise of his discretion. The plaintiffs 
were the Corporation of Buckie, and the 
appellants Messrs. Charles Brand and 
Son, of Glasgow, contractors for works of 
harbour extension, now approaching com- 
pletion, had removed some of their plant, 
and liad intimated their intention to re- 
move such additional plant as was no 
longer required for the remaining work to 
be done. The contract provided tliat all 
vessels, plant, and material jirovided by 
the contractors should become the abso- 
lut« pi-operty of the town council, and 
should not be removed without the written 
.sanction of the engineer appointed by the 
corporation. Application was made to 
him for his sanetion to the removal of 
<ertain plant, and he informed the town 
council of the application, which he was 
informed ought to be granted. The town 
council informed the engineer that he was 
their sei-vant in this matter, and in- 
structed liim to withhold liis consent. In 
puj-suanc© of these instructions the en- 
gineer replied to the defendants that he 
was unable to grant permission. At a 
later stage, however, and again on the 
instructions of the town council, he told 
the defendants that they wei-e at liberty 
to remove certain wagons provided the 
price was deposited with the town council 
iis security, in addition to £4,000 of re- 
tention money already held by them. The 
contention of the defendants on appeal 
was that the town <ouncirs change of 
front came too late, and that they were 
not bound to accept the decision of the 
engineer on the ground that he was dis- 
qualified by having already decideil the 
question in dispute against them. They 
argued further that the town council in 
controlling the engineer had broken their 
contract, and had no title to rely upon the 
alwence of informatioii which they caused 
him to withhold. The Divisional Court 
virtually upheld the view of the sheriff- 
substitute that, as the town council had 
renounce\l the position that they were en- 
titled to control the engineer, and since 
the latter had merely acted on a wrong 
view of his legal position, there was no 
reason for the contractore thinking he 
was biassed against them, nor why he 
should not proceed to consider an applica- 
tion for the removal of the plant. The 
whole trouble, the Court declared, had 
been cause<l by the wrongful attitude 
taken up by the town munril 
found liable in costs. 

<-ouncil did not advance the necessary 
money with which to pay wages, he " had 
to run all over the town to borrow it." As 
a result of the subsequent discussion it 
was resolved to ask the surveyor to con- 
tinue in office and to let the question of 
salary remain in abeyance until after the 
wir. He asked to be allowed a month in 
which to consider this suggestion, and that 
was magnanimously given him. Mean- 
while underbids from retired munition- 
workei-s and other millionaires desirous of 
varying the pleasures of retirement at 
Narberth by looking after a mile and a- 
half of streets will doubtless arrive by the 

wh.> weiv 

' Koui-pence a day and find yourself " 
seems to be the motto of the Xarberth 
Town Council, if the statements made by 
the suneyor when tendering his resigna- 
tion at the last meeting ai'e well fouruled. 
Out of that princely remuneration the sur- 
veyor seems to have been thought to have 
become a perfect Crresus, for, as the 

The Xalional War Savings Cummittee 
have inade it clear that building societies, 
whether incorporated or unincorporated, 
may invest in the new War Loan any 
portion of their funds not immediately 
required for the pur2)05es of the society 
and which the rules permit them to invest, 
notwithstanding that the rules do not 
specifically provide for investment in such 
a security. The Committee also state that 
a registered industrial and provident 
society may invest any part of its capital 
in the new AVar Loan, if its rules do not 
direct otherwise ; and that the trustees of 
a societj- or branch registered under the 
Friendly Societies Act, 1896, may, with 
the consent of the Committot^ or of a 
majority of the members present and en- 
tilled to vote in general mei^ting, invest 
its funds or any part «if its funds to any 
amount in the new War Ixian, notw'itii- 
standing that the rules do not specifically 
provide for investment in such a security. 

* »»» « 

The informal confeiences, the first of 
which is to be held at the R.I.B.A. to-day, 
will, no doubt, elicit discussion of a more 
or less valuable nature, though the sub- 
jects so far tabled are rather hackneyed. 
Probably the last on the list, which 
is set down for 5Iarch 5, when >fr. 
Searles Wood will deal with new materials 
and methods and their influence on 
designs, will prove the most fruitful. Some 
of these, in, the recent jiast, have hardly 
influenced design for good whether be- 
cause of the ignorance of the architect 
using them, or resulting from other 
causes, we do not propose to discuss. Our 
purpose is to suggest that at some sub 
sequent date it might be advantageous, 
at any rate to the majurity, to discuss 
the possibility of establishing a standard 
of materials for the sake of honest 
builders and to check dishonest contract- 
ing. We have several times suggested 
this during the ^last lialf-century, but 
nothing has been attempted. We have 
it is true, bad tests formulated by the 
members <>r accredited representatives of 
some tif the trades, as by the Plumbers' 
Coinjiany for instance. We have also 
tests given in some of the textlK>oks ; but 
(hey are not always reliable or easy of 
apjdication, probably mainly because the 
experts who have conducted the tests 
have had little or no experience of the de- 
fects met with by the architect and 
builder in actual practice, and have had 
ideals of comparison in view which, how- 
ever excellent, are sometimes hardly the 
standard of excellence or durability the 
practical user is anxious to ascertain. 
For the must part, too, we expect that 
researches undertaken to arrive at such 
tests have been to a considerable extent 

superficial ow:ing to the lack of means 
and adequate requital of the labour of 
those undertaking them. One exception 
of course has been the good work done by 
the British Fire I'revention Committee 
in regard to the behaviour of materials 
under fire. If something of that sort 
could be done under the auspices of a 
really competent authority — preferably by 
the R.I.B.A. itself — and revisid from time 
to time as circumstances demanded, we 
are sure it would be welcomed by all 
honest manufacturers and by architects 
and builders, and that the public interest 
in the employment of reallj reliable 
materials and apjiliances would be the 
more effectually safeguarded. 

With some materials general tests of 
the sort that exist are of little value. A 
standard of unifoi-mity as regards stone 
might be hard to fix ; but architects might 
well demand some guarantee of quality, 
such as degree of porosity, seam, or 
weathering. Again, in regard to crush- 
ing and tensile strength, in actual, 
or resistance to stand a cross strain, as in 
the case of lintels or landings, most of us 
are pretty much in the dark. Not much 
more certainty exists about bricks and 
tiles, though with these, when supplied 
by a maker of reputation, there is more to 
rely on. With the metals — iron, steel, and 
zinc, especially — we assurely need more 
infonuation tlian is at presejit available. 
.\11 of us probably know, for instance, 
that thickness of wire-gauge is no 
guarantee of the quality of the iron itself 
or of the care with wliich the costing has 
been applied. Tests of cement are avail- 
able, and of concrete and mortar ; but 
these again are mostly the results of the 
examination of samples, and not of the 
behaviour of the materials in actual use. 
.Vsphaltes. again, are a somewhat unknown 
(piantity e.xcepi in the case of the really 
reliable brands, against which, in the 
absence of any realisetl standard of com- 
parison therewith, the purveyors of manu- 
factured imitatiims, not unfrequently 
tender to their own advantage, but neither 
to that of the honest builder nor of the 

As regards woixl, especially, there is 
much information available, but most of 
it is really of little service to the 
archittvt because of the lack of infoi-ma- 
tion vouchsafed in regard to the con- 
dition of the material tested. Of wiiat 
use are tables, such as one before us at 
the moment, in which the comparative 
resilience of different kinds of timber an- 
given 1 Any architect reading it W(mld 
know at once that the standards of ex- 
cellence given are those of ideal, not 
average, wiKxls. Bvit how is he to know 
that the timber the builder gets is in the 
same condition, soundness, and of free- 
dom from defects and knots as the test- 
pieces used fi-om which the table was 
compiled, or that the test-pieces them- 
sches were selected with due care and 
adi'<iuate knowledge ? 

We repeat that it -would bo to the 
general advant-ige of all concerned if ex- 
periments coidd lie conduct<'d by some 
lx)dy of the profession, with icientific 
precision and thorough knowledge of the 
Whaviour in actual use of the material 
tested. The lalxiur would W considerable,^ 
and the cost as well. But in no long 
time the work should be self-supporting^ 
Then we should have a series of reallj 
reliable standards on which contractor 
might base their prices, and to which' 
we and the other profe.ssional journals. 
give currency week by week, insteaq 
of those w-hich we know not a few of ou 
readers think rather wide sometimes, biifl 
which are based on informaticm which if 
is difficult to check, and which has to 
obtained in different localities. 

Jan. 24, 1917. 




I wish to. take you in imagination and to 
some extent in reality, with the aid of photo- 
graphs and .^ketches, to the mingled beauties 
oi Italy, and to the historic sites therein 

On May 28, 1909, I travelled bv train from 
London to Tilbury, where I boarded the P. 
and O. liner " Orontes," which departed from 
Tilbury Docks at 1 p.m. The good ship left 
Gibraltar June 2. On Sunday morning, June 
6, we steered into the Bay of Naples. It is 
e.\ceedingly beautiful and well de.^erving of 
all the praise that has been lavished upon it 
The coast is well studded with villas and 
dotted with gardens. 

Arriving in the harhour at 6 a.m., after 
having had breakfast in the saloon, I went on 
to the upper deck and viewed Naples. The 
sight was superb. '■ Vedi NapoH e poi 
muori." The city rises from the shore in the 
form of a great amphitheatre, divided into 
two crescent shapes, by the hill of ,San Mar- 
tmo, which is well worth the while to climb, 
from which a splendid view may be obtained, 
and then to explore the rains of "the monastery 
of San Martino. The coast sweeps round to 
the beautiful town of Sorrento and further 
ties the famous island of Capri. There is no 
doubt whatever of the gi-andeur of the whole, 
and the island of Capri completes the mar- 
vellous curve of teauty that bounds the Bav 
of Naples. 

But, for those whose time is limited, one 
cannot, I think, do better than visit the Muse 
Nazionale. Here are all the chief treasures 
found at Herculaneum and Pompeii after the 
eruption. The ancient hronze in the Museum 
are fine. One can feel that they are a revela- 
tion of what bronze statuary can be. There 
is nothing to be compared with them any- 
where else. The e.xquisite modelling, life 
and movement, illustrate tlie surpassing e.xcel- 
lence of antique sculpture. 

Before I describe some of the buildings, I 
wish to di-aw your attention to one curious 
distinction betweea antique and modern 
bronzes. A bronze statue is never solid. In 
modem bronzes the core or hollow part in- 
side the statue is rough and shapeless and 
about an inch or two thick all round. But 
this is not so in antique bronzes. The core is 
as beautifully finished in form as the statue 
itself, and in the casting process the ancients 
must have used two perfect models coinciding 
with each other. The ancients had secrets in 
the art of casting which, like many other 
things, are lost to the modern world. 

Naples, I should think, is one of the noisiest 
cities in Europe. The clatter of wheels at all 
hours of the day and night, the cracking of 
whips, and the shrill cries of the hawkers, 
and also the ceaseless imijortunities of guides, 
street vendors, and beggars are verv distract- 
ing. The most medley throng thati saw was 
in the \ ia Toledo towards evening, and espe- 
cially the narrower side streets near Santa 
Lucia. Here I saw cooks at their stoves in 
the open air, and carrying on a brisk trade in 
macaroni, fish, etc. 

One of the principal huildings of Naples is 
the Church of San Francesco di Paola. with 
its dome and arcades. It is reallv an imi- 
tation of the Pantheon at Piome'. In the 
interior is a very beautiful altar inlaid with 
precious stones. Quite near is the Eoyal 
Palace, in front of which is an equestrian 
statue of one of the Neapolitan kings. 

On the morning of June 10, very early, I 
took the train for Pompeii, leaving from the 
Stazione Circumvesuviana. The views are 
very fine as we journey along. We crossed 
the lava streams, and for the first time I saw 
that in the dry state it is verv shnilar to 
cinders. Having read of Pompeii" before visit- 
ing it, I enjoyed seeing the ruined houses, 
which can be entered from the street by a 
narrow passage, which leads to a large court 
open to the sky, in the centre of which is a 
reservoir for rain-water. Most of the rooms 
are small, and contain frescoes and mosaics. 
The wall decorations to be seen at Pompeii 
are very charming. In fact, ancient Pompeii 
was a brilliantly painted city and rich in 
decorative crafts. Whilst at Pompeii I was 

c.*.'^ JJf "'^^ before the Incorpovated Institute of 
Bntiah Decorators. 

enabled to study a few complete schemes of lighting up its vast spaces, its gilded vaults 
colour, and eveii after the lapse of so many | and marble walls, the fine statues, tombs, and 
centuries the colours still retain much of their | decorations, making it the most magnificent 
original freshness. Even at the present time i and the most famous building of Europe 
the excavations are constantly bringing to | The Vatican Palace close by has been the 
light worke beaiitifidly fashioned m 'bronze i home of the Popes since the end of the four- 
and marble, which, of course, go to show that j teenth century. It contains about a thousand 
the arts then held a position such as we can i halls, chapels, and rooms, and the greater 
scarcely boast of nowadays. ^ ^ . ^, part of it is used to house the splendid col- 
The following day I visited Capri. The ' lection of books and works of art that have 
island IS a charming feature in the Bay cf been gathered together by the Popes The 
Naples. The shore is very precipitous, but paintings in the chambers of the Vatican 


exceedingly beautiful. The Blue Grotto is 
one of the chief sights. 

On the morning of June 15 I left Naples for 
Rome by the " treno diretti." Rome, the 
Eternal City, the capital of Italy, is situated 
on the banks of the Tibes. Modern Rome 
is principally confined to the plain, while on 
the heights lies ancient Rome. 

St. Peter's, the greatest Christian Church 
in the world, stands on what is said to be 
St. Peter's tomb. Over 150 years were spent 
in building. For three and a-half centuries 
the Church of St. Peter has been the goal if 
Christian pilgrims to Rome. A mighty flood 

were, of course, Raphael's greatest work for 
Pope Julius II. The camera della Segnatura, 
oontaining many masterpieces, the Dispute of 
the Sacrament. The School of Athens and the 
Parnassus, which occupied the painter three 
years, and afterwards he was commissioned 
to paint the room known as the Chamber of 
the Heliodorus, in which the painter's art 
was dedicated to the symboHcal representa- 
tion of the power of the Church. The 
Vatican decorations of the Loggie were being 
painted at the same time. 

Another still more ancient building in prac- 
tically perfect preservation is the Pantheon, 

of light pours down on the marble floor, ; which was built as a temple to all gods 



Jan. 24, 1917. 

twenty seven years before the birtli of Christ. 
It is one of the most wonderful buiklings in 
the world from an artistic standpoint. The 
ceiling of this fine Greco-Roman building is 
foi-med by a dome of the most elegant propor- 
tions. The only source for the admission of 
light being the circular opening in the ape.x 
<'l the dome. 

The walls and floor are covered with 
marbles of various colours. The Pantheon 
ii the last resting place of Raphael, Perino 
del Vaga, Giovanni da Udine, and Peruzzi, 
all great decorators. 

Many of the Roman Emperors did some- 
thing towards beautifying the old city on the 
seven hills. There is the Arch of Titus, show 
ing his victory over the Jews, and the spoils 
III the Temple being carried round Rome in 
Triumph. Is there any wonder that the Jew 
ri'i'uses to pass underneath the archway' 

sands who found a tomb within its faded 

Nowhere in Italy, except perhaps at 
Ravenna and St. Mark's, Venice, can mosaic 
work be seen to such perfection as in Rome. 
The apse was the chief feature of the basilica 
and is preserved intact in the Churches of St. 
Pudcnziana. It was probably the first Chris- 
tion church built in R<)me, and it is 
ciated with the stf)ry of St. Peter in the year 
42. He lodged first with Aquila and Pris- 
cilia in the Aventine, now the Church of St. 
Prisca. The mosaics of this fine and early- 
apse are oil a blue background with Apostles 
in colours and gold. Some very fine work is 
also to be seen in the chiu'ches of Saints 
Cosmo and Damino, of the sixth century; St. 
Agncse fuori le mura, of the seventh century : 
St. Nero and St. AcTiilleo, of the eighth ; 
and St. Prassede and St. Cecilia of the nintli 


As one wends his way Uu-ougli the ruins 
of the Forum Romanus, one is reminded of 
the past. It was here that those mighty in 
wav and wise in council met for consultation 
and advice. Here the sandalled feet of the 
Ca'.sars trod. Simply the ruins of the temples 
remain, and the Forums of Ciosar Augustus 
and others. But the monument of Rome's 
piiwer and grandeur is the Coliseum, which 
.stands unrivalled perha]).« as an example of 
:irphitectural dignity and execution. It wa.s 
■ (impleted by Titus in .\.ii. 80. and wa.s fi>r 
(■mr hundred years the scene of the cruellest 
.•spectacles the" world has ever witnessed. 
Here tremendous crowds of spectators 
"•atchcd the death struggles of gladiators, 
fierce fighting of hundreds of animals and 
tlie brutalising and inhuman exhibitions of 
tlie martyrdom of Christian.s." During the 
.Middle Ages much of the masonry was re- 
inoved, and now the Coliseum is "the most 
impressive of ruins, a monimient of the dead 
]rist and an unhappy memorial of the thou- 

cenluries ; St. Maria in Trastevere, and San 
Clemente, of the tenth and eleventh cen- 
turies ; Sta Maria Maggiore and San Gio- 
vanni Laterano of the thirteenth. In most 
of these Roman basilicas are to be seen re- 
mains of coloured decoration on the beams, 
purlins and rafters, with geometrical patterns 
painted on in a most direct maimer. 

Mosaic was also used by the Cosmatis for 
the decorations of the ambones and balda 
rhini. The tesselated pavements which cover 
the floors of so many of these churcJies are 
admirably designed in geometrical pattern* 
composed of pieces or red, green, and white 
marble of various shapes. 

Passing through lovely scenery I arrived 
at the Stazione Orvieto. Arriving in the town 
some boys accompanied me with my bag to 
an " Italiana Casa. " But I longed to .se^ 
the Cathedral, and was not the bit dis 
appointed. Orvieto is built as near the sky 
as circnmstances wiU permit ; in fact, all the 
old Etruscan cities are in this happy posi- 

tion. The drive up to Orvieto is over a fine 
road that winds round and round up to one 
of the old gates or the city. The facade is 
really the finest of all the Gothic fa<,ades i 
have seen. The brilliant colours of the 
mosaics are subdued by the soft colour of 
th'.' lovely columns. What mar\ellous reliefs ! 
And all the wonderful work around the por- 
tals. Then there is the interior, which gives 
onj the impression of simplicity. The 
beamed roof is delicately coloured in grey 
and red, which is supported with round or 
octagonal coliunns with arches of round, 
simple mouldings. The windows are filled 
with yellow translucent layers of alabaster, 
which are often turned to rich gold when 
the light of the sun streams through. The 
roof of the walls of the principal chapel are 
covered with frescoes, which look as if 
painted yesterday. Here Fra Angelico, of 
Fiesole, a famous painter, spent three-and-a- 
half months painting the spandrels in the 
ceiling. He and his pu(;il, Benozzo Gozzoli, 
executed two of the spaces in the vaulting 
ijver the altar. The rounded projecting rib 
of the ceiling is painted with flowers of 
cypress green, with here and there rich red 
and golden flowers. The whole is exceed- 
ingly beautiful and very effective, accen- 
tuating the fine curves in the vaulting. 
Groups of the Apostles are represented in 
pyramidical form, broadly painted ui>on a 
background of gold. The Doctors of Uie 
church, too, are depicted, and Christ in Glory 
with angels on either side against a blaze of 
gold background. The frne frescoes on the 
walls are by Luca Signorelli. 

The views from the cliff edge at Orvieto 
are glorious. I found the peasants very in- 
teresting and lively. There are all sorts of 
nook-and-corner siiops wliich are quaintly 
pictinesque in the narrow cobble-stoned 
streets. Often I have heard the peasants 
singing in their quaint Italian way as they 
return from their woiic in the fields at even- 
ing, some carrying large bundles of grass on 
their heads and others on donkeys. 

I took the train for Siena, and arrived 
there one hot July day. Siena is the queen 
ni Tuscan hill cities. The campanile of the 
lathedral was rosy with the pink of precious 
marbles, and the" Torre del Mangia ruddy 
with all the gleaming reds of ancient brick 
rising high above the terraced dwellings. I 
stayed a few weeks here, but to give you a 
iletailed account of all I did and saw is be- 
yond the confines of this evening. But. in 
passing, I will just mention the cathedral. 
tlie favade of which is adorned with sculp- 
tural decoration and mosaics. Red, black 
and white marbles were used in the building. 
The interior is very decorative with alterna- 
tive courses of black and white marble. The 
liavement of the cathedral is a work of art 
((imposed of inlaid marbles, black, red, white 
and yellow, with battle scenes and illustra- 
tions' from the life of Elijah. Of course in- 
laid marble work had been done by the great 
Italians before this beautiful pavement was 
thought of; for instance, in the gorgeous 
black and white eleventh century choir 
.screen and pulpit in the Church of San 
-Mi-.iiato. and on the floors in the cathedral at 
Lucca and the baptistery, Florence. The 
central feature of the interior of Siena 
cathedral is the wonderful octagonal pulpit 
in white marble by Niccolo and his .stm Gio- 
vanni Pisiino. 

As I was walking down the left aisle, I was 
attracted by a dgor of crossed knotted bronze 
ropes. Here was the entrance to the library 
of Cardinal Piccolomini. with its marvellous 
fresco decorations by Pinturichio. The de- 
corations were begun in 1503 and finished 
about 1507. The great decorative paintings 
on the walls illustrate the life of Pope 
Pius II. A sprightliness of splendour has 
been given to the whole interior by the judi- 
cious use of gold throughout the decorations. 

Daintily painted ornament* fill the tri- 
angular spaces of the vaulting in alternate 
colours of black, gold and vermili(m. These 
surfaces are beautifully divided by vaulting 
ribs, ornamented i?i red and gold on a back- 
ground, these ribs being separated from the 
panels by white bands or mouldings, with 
great dexterity and daring, yet producing a 
triumphant finale. 

But one should not leave Siena and its 

Jan. 24, 1917. 



vicinity witliuul studying the deconuive 
work HI the baptistery uf ban Giovanni near 
the cathedral. The walls and vaulting are 
decorated with fresco paintings of the early 
iifteenth ceii/tm-y. In the centre stands the 
beautiful font, in marble, with its bas-re- 
liefs in bronze, by Donatello and Ghiberti, 
and Jacopo della Qurcia. Again, in order 
to study the work of Signorelli, a visit to 
tne monastery at ilonte Uliveto, a beautiful 
ride in the country, will well repay the 
trouble taken. 

Leaving Siena, I passed through Perugia, 
-Vssisi and Citta di Castello on my way to 
J^'lorence. Perugia, even at the present iay, 
retains the aspect of a city in the Middle 
Ages. The irregular, steep and winding 
streets are very picturesque. 

The old Chamber of Commerce, known as 
tlie CoUegio de Cambio, and the audience hall 
adjoining the chapel were decorated by 
Perugino, with Pinturrichio as his assistant. 
The woi'k was completed in 1500. Perugino 
received the commission in 1499 for decora- 
tion, but from the colouring of one of the 
io<jms it is thought that the work is that of 
pinturrichio, the prince of decorators. On 
the walls of the .Sala di Cambio are painted 
the foui' virtues, together with historic per- 
sonages The three Christian virtues are to 
be seen in " The Transfiguration " (as the 
fulfilment of Faith); "The Adoration of the 
-Mag' " (as a revelation of Love) ; and " The 
Frophets and Sibylls " (as the heralds of 
Hope). On the ceiling, in medallion shapes, 
are painted with great freedom of touch, the 
5eve/i Planets, surroiuided by beautiful orna- 
ment. Some of the finest carved and inlail 
" ' tarsia " ' work is to be seen in this room . 
The doors and judicial benches are by 
Domenichino del Tasso, a Florentine wood 
carver (c. 1490). 

The colouring and treatment of the lorf 
\ au'-t in the audience hall reminds one of the 
work in the Apartamenta Borgia, in the 
Vatican, decorated by Pinturrichio. The 
vault is divided into several shapes by gilded 
mouldings. The square panels in the four 
corners of the ceiling have bright red grounds 
powdered with gold dots, the ornament 
painted on these grounds being character- 
istic of PinturricJiio's work (as in the library 
of the Cathedral, Siena). The rectangular 
panels have blue grounds dotted with gold 
stars, with figures of the Evangelists painted 
in beautiful toned colours of red and green. 
The central shape of the vault is blue, on 
which the decorator painted the four Evange- 
lists. The three-sided panels surrounding the 
large central division have gold groimds with 
ornament filling the shape. 

Needless to say, Perugia possesses an un- 
usual nimiber of handsome buildings and 
monuments, one of which is the artistic foun- 
tain in the Piazza del Duomo, in front of the 

AssLsi is picturesquely situated high up on 
the hills, with the fair Umbrian valley lying 
stretched out far below. Foremost amongst 
many eminent names, there is, perhaps, none 
which occupies a higher place in the religious 
life of the thirteenth centurv than that of 
St. Francis of Assisi. He was richly endowed 
with rare gifts and possessed the' power of 
drawing his fellow men to him, and impart- 
ing to them his convictions and sentiments. 
Erected over his tomb is the magnificent 
monumental church to which I now wish to 
direct your special attention ; in fact, it is 
acknowledged to be one of the finest examples 
we have illustrative of the true emplovinent 
of colour in decoration. The lower church 
was built in 1232, two vears after the death 
of St. Francis, and the upper church was 
erected twenty-one years later in the Gothic 
manner. The beautiful Gothic portal marks 
the entrance to t,he lower church in the 
cloistered quadrani;le. As I wended mv way 
through the vestibule I was greatly impres- 
sed by the feeling of solemnity and grandeur, 
a perfect harmony to behold ' And not least 
the exqui'site effect of the harmonious com- 
bination of richlv luminous colouring. It is 
veallv a convincing example of the accurate 
application of colour in relation to church 
architecture, whether in mural decoration, 
mosaics, or stained glass. In this Cathedral 
of As.sii^i are the grand frescoes bv Cimabue, 

Giotto, and Simone Memmi, whidh are en- 
circled by a beautiful framework of coloured 
detail, scrolls, and interlacing foliage, acceur 
tuating the lines of tlie architecture. In fact, 
on every part of the floor, walls, and vault- 
ing colour is applied to the architecture. 
Decoration of such a high order not only 
powerfully aids the architecture, but works 
hand in hand with the latter as a teacher. 

Citta di Castello is not far from Perugia, j 
and is most famous for its Renaissance build- 
ings. The Palaces of the Vitelli contain 
some very fine loggias with magnificent deco- ■ 
rative work. ' 

Let us now pay a visit to the wonderful 
city of Florence, which has grown up, as it 
were, in the bottom of a basin, with majestic 
hills rising roimd about it as if to defend 

uf .Santa Cruce, too, were decorated by Giotto 
and Taddeo Gaddi. 

The ancient palazzi of medieval Florence 
differ widely from the palazzi of Rome and 
Venice. The Palazzi Riccardi and Strozzi are 
famous examples. Tlie front of the Palazzo 
is regular and almost rectangular, with a 
great arched door in the centre of the ground 
storey, giving entrance to the courtyard in 
the interior. Over the doors and stairways 
that lead from the court to the rooms above 
and around, the heraldry of ancient families 
is suspended. There is usually a foimtain in 
the middle of the cortile, with its bronze 
cujjid or Mercury, from whose lips the water 
just trickles. 

On either side of the arched entrance the 
windows are square and sm.all, and defe"ded 


it from the rest of the world. Florence 
began to be more than a thousand years ago. 
Tile great black-and-white marble Cathedral, 
with its wonderful dome by Brunelleschi, 
and the Campanile by Giotto ; the quaint 
Baptistery, in which for a thousand years 
every Florentine child has been taken to be 
baptised. The most famous gates in the 
world are the main gates marking one of the 
entrances to this wonderful Baptistery of San 
Giovanni. They were designed by Lorenzo 
Ghiberti, who began to work on them in 1425, 
and took him nearly thirty years to build. 
Michael Angelo saicl they were fit to be the 
gates of Paradise. There are models of these 
gates, actual size, in the South Kensington 
Museum and Royal College of Art. 

Florence holds one camtive everywhere, in- 
doors and out. The walls of the churches are 
covered with frescoes, the Choir of Santa 
Maria Novella being decorated with frescoes 
by Ghirlandaio in 1490: in fact, his finest 
work, I should think. The cloisters and the 
room known a.s the .Spanish Chapel contain 
decorations pa'nted by Giotto and his con- 
temporaries. Several chapels in the church 

by iron gratings. The sills are far aibove the 
head of the tallest passer-by. There is 
generally a stone continuous seat, which, need- 
less to say, is pretty much at the service of 
the beggar and peasant. At the principal 
angles of these famous palaces were placed 
.beautiful wrought iron sockets, really in- 
tended to receive the end of a flagstaff or 
torch on the occasion of a festa. 

I cannot leave the Palazzo Riccardi (which 
was formerly the Palace of the Medici family) 
without mentioning the beautiful little chapel 
at the top of the staircase. Here Benozzo 
Gozzoli spent about four years decorating the 
walls and ceiling. 

The towns of Pisa, Lucca, Pistoia, Prato, 
and Ravenna would take too long to describe 
in detail. But among the many people who 
visit Italy one finds a gi'eat diversity of 
opinion as to which town is the most interest- 
ing. Some maintain that Rome is without 
doubt till' place. Others find such a charm in 
Florence, without feeling the slightest desire 
to quit it in quest of new scenes. But I 
think you will agree with me that Venice is 
(Continued on -page 66.) 



















■ -.■^' 














.5 / - i. 






















_: 23 















Stei'-iirt Bale, Phoio ] 

Messrs. Briggs, Woi.sten holme and Tiiokkelv, FF.R.I.B.A., Architects. 


\ ' 





Tower, Hotel de Ville, Hesdin. 
St. Sepulcre, St. Omer. 

St. Denis, St. Omer. 

Abbey St. Bertin, St. Omer. 


By Lance-Corp. A. E. Polev, Silver Medallist R.I.B.A. 



Jan. 24, 1917. 




(Continued from page 'I'j.) 

the one place that be seen, for Venice 
certainly jxissesses a charm of its own quite 
apart from that of any other Italian city. It 
is unique in its situation, its art, and its at- 
tractions. The Piazza is the heart of the city, 
and gives one the most striking evidence of 
the ancient glory of Venice. Here are great 
and imposing buildings : the Basilica of San 
Marco, the Doge's Palace, and the Palazzo 
Reale and Loggia. The Piazza in the even 
ings is a fashionable promenade and possesses 
a charm all its own. 

In front of the great Cathedral .stand three 
richly carved bronze pedestals, which support 
flagstaffs on which the banners of Italy are 
waved on festa days. .My time was fully occu- 
pied sketching in the Cathedral of St. Mark's 
and the Doge's Palace. The farade is richly 
vigorous, bright colour.s being used in large 
and reliefs. The polished marble columns, 
the lustrous gold and colouring is the most 
perfect in the world. The walls of the in- 
terior are lined witli slabs of marble to a 
height of twenty feet, forming a most beauti- 
ful pattern. The domed ceilings and soffits 
of arches are covered with gold mosaics, ■with 
figures of saints in briglit yet harmonicnis 
colours. The pavement is of te.siielated 
marble, noted for the beauty of patterns and 
devices. The vestibule, too, is covered with 
mosaics of the thirteenth century, the subjects 
being chosen from the Old Testament. 

Magnificent decorative work can be seen in 
the Ducale Palace ; the Sala del Senato and 
CoUegio, decorated by Paolo Veronese and 
Tintoret*o. The decoration.* are very fine and 
vigorous, bright colours being used in large 
masses, contrasted by co;ours of more subdued 
tones, and the whole enriched with gold. The 
decorations, I may say, were executed in oil 
colours and not fresco. The e.xterior of the 
Palace is very charming ; the simple diaper 
pattern aliove the arches being white, grey, 
and jiiiik marbles. 

One should not leave Venice without study- 
ing the twelfth century mosaic work in Tor- 
cello Cathedral. They are really superb. 

Padua. Verona, Milan, and Pavia were the 
next towns I visited. I find, however, 
that time will not permit me to speak of 
these, but, nevertheless. I thoroughly enjoyed 
the many weeks' stay there, studying the 
decorative work of Giotto ; the beautiful de- 
corations in the Church of Saint Anastasia at 
Verona, and the external decoration of tlie 
Palazzo del Consiglio. 

.\Iy travels in Italy culminated in a few 
quiet days fcy the side of Lakes Como and 


Royal Institute of iiritish .\rcliit<'cts.— The 
Council have arranged for a series of con- 
ferences to be lu^ld at tlie Institute on .sub- 
jects of interest to architects and of im- 
portance 1<) the public. The conferences will 
l>o held on Wednesdays at 3.30 p.m. at fort- 
nightly intervals, beginning to-day (Wednes- 
day)) January 24. The following is a list of 
subjects and dates so faT as at present 
arranged, together witli the names of the 
upenei's of the discussion and chairmen of the 
mtetings : — January 24. — "Architecture and 
Civilisation." Opener, Professor W. R. 
Lethabv (F.) ; Chairman, Mr. F. W. Troup 
(K.) "February 7.—" Education of the 
.Architect." Opener, Mr. Robert Atkinson 
(F.); Chairman, Mr. Reginald Blomfield, 
R.A. February 21. — " Pxhication of the 
.Vrc.liitect " (continued). Oliencr, Mr. A. K. 
Ricliardson (F.) ; Chairman, Mr. H. V. 
LancKester. March 7.—" The Control of 
■Street Architecture." Opener, Sir John 
Burnet, R.S.A.. LL.U. (F.); Ch.inrman. Sir 
.Nslon Webb. K.C.V.O.. C.B.. R.A. (F.) : 
March 21. — " New Materials and Methods as 
influencing Design." Opener, Mr. H. D. 
.•wearies- Wood (F.) : Chairman, Mr. E. Guy 
Dawbw (F.). 


The Batloy General Works Committee have 
approved plans for a new church hall at Hang- 
in c; Heaton. 

nr minstrations. 

This house, of which we give the plans 
with sections and two photographs, was re- 
cently erected on a fine site overlooking the 
estuary of the Dee, with views of the Welsh 
hills to the south-west. The design, so un- 
usual in form and interesting in character, is 
the outcome of instructions that the house 
.should take the form of an octagon 60 ft. in 
dia.nieter, having a flat roof, which would 
serve as a promenade. A feature internally 
was to be made of a billiard-room hall. The 
staircase is lighted by a tof lantern. Sec- 
tion E.F. shows the approach to the 
belvedere roof. The five principal bed- 
rooms were to be as nearly as possible equal 
in size. In meeting these conditions it was 
fell to be desirable that access to the draw- 
ing-room, dining-room, and front entrance, 
and all rooms on the first floor from the ser- 
vants' quarters should be provided without 
necessarily passing through the billiard-room 
hall. The plans wiU explain how these con- 
ditions >.ive been met, the whole contrivance 
being most ingeniously arranged. The floor 
of the hall is oak, and the walls are panelled 
in oak to a height of 8 ft. Columbian pine, 
painted white, has been used for most of the 
joiners' work. The house is heated through- 
out by means of hot- water' pipes and radia- 
tors. Externally the walls are faced with 
2^ inch sand-faced Seaiombe bricks, varying 
in colour from dull red to purple. The 
masonry of the entrance doorway is of Store- 
ton stone. Mr. James Merrit, Birkenhead, 
was the general contractor, and the architects, 
are Messrs. Briggs, Wolsteiiholme, and 
Thornely, FF,R.I.B.A., of Liverpool. ' 


Tlie four illustrations on our double page 
are described in Mr. Ivor Beaimiont's paper 
thereon on another page. The other three 
illustrations will be found with the paper 

The Headquarters Staff in French Flanders 
has awarded the Grand Prix Diploma to 
Lance-Corp. A. E. Poley, Silver iledallist 
R.I.B.A., for a series of architectural sketches 
made on active service during the war. 
These pencil pocket-book studies were chosen 
for this distinction in an exhibition of sol- 
diers' art work held recently, and they have 
now been forwarded for reproduction to The 
Bi'iLDiNG News. Our choice to-day will be 
followed by another page shortly. The sub- 
jects on the present occasion comprise tvpical 
buildings, chiefly sket<?hed at St. Omer. 
Facing the end of the Rue de I'Abbaye of 
that city rises the noble tower of the 
Monastery of St. Berlin, built between 1431 
and 1520. The founder was the monk of 
Luxeuil, who came to the place with St. 
Oiner in the seventh century. This abbey 
long fiirni.-ihed the iominating conventual 
establishment of Artois, and it was of the 
Benedictine order. The splendid monastic 
church was de-stroyed by the municipal ad- 
ministration of tlie town in 1830 under pre- 
tence of giving employment to the working- 
classes at the time. Since that act of short, 
sighted vandalism the premises have been left 
entirely uncared for, and they are still badly 
neglected. The tower of the Church of St. 
Se]iulchre, .shown by the next sketch, is much 
earlier in date, with its stone spire of almut 
1387. Aljove its single big portal is a 
tra<!eried lunette window of geometric out 
line, but rather flamboyant in style. The 
former cathedral of Notre Dame is ap- 
proached from the long Rue St. Bortiii. and 
includes work of the thirteenth and fiftconth 
ceiiituTies. The Palais de Justice, the fi>rmer 
F.veclie, designed liy Mansart. and the 
Hotel de Ville was erect<>d in 1834 with mate- 
rials obtained from the ruins of the .\bbey of 
St. Berlin. We include Mr. Poley's sketch 
of the massive tow<?r of St. Denis with its 
picture.sque Renaissance portal. The tower of 
the Hotel de Ville at Hesdin, shown also on 

iiur page, was erected in 1629. This prettily 
situated little to^vn on the Canche was 
founded by Charles V. in 1554, after the de- 
struction of Vieil-Hcsden, the ancient 
Helenum, by the Imperial Army in 1553. 
Hesdin is, perhaps, best remembered as the 
birthplace of Abbe Prcvost, the author of 
" Manou Lescant.'" Its great church, some- 
times called the cathedral, is a handsome 
structure of Sixteenth Century Renaissance, 
with a splendid portal flanked by two turrets, 
one on either side. Mr. Poley's careful sketch 
of this resembles a silver point study and too 
faint in line to reproduce satisfactorily. We 
shall, however, shortly give his sketches of 
the north and south porches of the cathedral 
of St. Omer, with others. The set includes 
The Prison, St. Omer, the Hospice Valbelle. 
and Le Mathurin, with its sculptured 
R'liaissance pediment of Late character. In 
the northern faubourg of Haut-Pont, the in- 
habitants preserve the Flemish language and 
costume, with Flemish manners and customs 

► ••—<- 

The death took place on Monday, at his 
residence in Chelsea, of Mr. William Frend De 
Morgan, the well-known son of Augustus De 
Morgan. Young De Morgan was boin in 1830 
and educated at University College School .-iiul 
the College, Gower Street, and, having 
adopted art as a profession, entered the Royal 
Academv as a student in 1859. In the years 
following 1864 he was chiefly engaged in 
stained-glass work, and in 1870 he turned his 
hand to ceramic work, when his exijeriments 
in lustre, at that time not much known in 
England, attracted attention among artists. 
His ixittery ranks with the best of its kind 
in England. He was one of the founders of 
the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, and 
was a great friend of William .Morris and Sir 
Edward Burne-Jones, who aijpreciated his rare 
wit and other "lovable quaUties." De Morgan. 
we are told, often sighed for the old 
Bohemian evenings siJent with Bunie-Jones 
in Great Russell Street, when the artists little 
Yorkshire maid came in and asked, "As any 
of vou gentlemen seen the key of the beer- 
barrel?" At the age of sixty-six. Mr De 
.Morgiui began to write fiction, and hardly a 
year Jias since gone by without a volume from 
iiis pen. 

The death occurred last Sunday at Rath- 
varna, Chichester Park, Belfast, of the 
Right Hon, Robert Young, Born in 1822, 
the eldest son of James Young, of ^^hIte- 
abbey. he was educated at Belfast Academy. 
Mr. Young afterwards went to Glasgow 
University, where he studied mathematics 
under Dr. James Thomson, father of l^rd 
Kelvin. On his return to Belfast he was 
articled to the late Sir Charles Lanyon, 
county survevor of Antrim, and afterwards 
M.P.'for Belfast. He took a prominent 
part in the construction of the Belfast and 
Ballvmena Railway (now the property of 
the Midland Railway of England). He was 
subsequentlv engineer of the Jlidland Great 
Western Railwav of Ireland, and lived for 
some vears at Atlilone. where he supenn 
tended the erection of a bridge across the 
Shannon, Returning to Belfast early in the 
'fifties, he started as an architect and civil 
engineer. He was afterwards joined by Mr. 
John MacKenzic and by his son, Mr. R. M. 
Young. He was a member of the Senate 
of Queen's University, Belfast. 

We rv..^ret to record the death ou the 15lh 
insUnt, at Brighton, of -Mr. R. C. Foster, of 
the firm of Messrs. Foster and Dicksee, of 
Rugbv. Born at Rugby in 1849, and educate<i 
at King's College and South Kensington, and 
under ilr. Arthur Evers, of Great ^larl 
borough Street, W., in the architwtural 'pv 
fession. he exhibited in the architoctural roimi 
at the Roval Academv in 1877 and 1878. In 
1879 he joined Mr. "W. Sidney Dicksee (a 
brother of Frank Dicksee, A. R.A.) in Uking 
over the business of Mr. John Bromwich, 
of Rugby, a well known building contractor, 
who had" carried out many works under Sal- 
viu. Sir M, D. Wvatt, and others. We 
gave Mr. Foster's portrait in our is,sue of 
October 10, 1890, and a long liet of the im- 
^ porlant works executed by the firm, of which 

Jan. 24, 1917. 



he remained a director up to the time 
of his death, although he retired from active 
busicess some years ago. They iiichided the 
Bankruptcy Offices in Carey Street, and other 
Goverrunent buildings, and many large 
mansions, artizans' dwellings, and other im- 
portant erections. 

We learn with regret, just as we are going 
to press, of the death of Mr. Edward Robeit 
Robson, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., F.S.I. , after a 
short illness, at the age of 81, at his residence 
at Blackheath. Born on Marcli 2, 1835, he 
Was educated at [jrivate schools. Having 
spent three years in the shops he was the 
pujjil first of John Dobson, of Newcastle-on- 
Xyne, and then of Sir Gilbert Scott. He 
travelled much in Europe, America, and 
Canada. He built the Piccadilly Art Gal- 
leries, the New Gallery in Regent Street, the 
People's Art Palace, Queen's Hall, several 
hundred schools in London, and many man- 
sions and churches. He was architect in 
charge of Durham Cathedral for si.x years, 
surveyor to the Corporation of Liverpool for 
some years, and the first architect to the 
London School Board. In later' years he was 
engaged in private practice in Westminster. 
His book on schooil architecture attained a 
viide circulation, and- he was the author of 
numerous .articles and essays in our own 
pages and those of kindred publications. 
We gave a portrait of Mr. Robson and some 
particulars of his career in our issue of Sep- 
tember 5, 1890. 

. ? ••» < 


By George H. Cvshino. 

I am convinced that the operation of the 
furnace, after the house is built, is a mere 
detail. No amount of doctoi'ing it or switch- 
ing coals will after the all-important item — 
the cost of keejnng the house warm. Once 
the house is built, the amount of fuel re- 
quired to heat it is well determined. On the 

■ other hand, I am now convinced that if a 
house is designed and built with a few simple 
facts ui mind, it is possible to save twenty 
to thirty cents a day — more than enough in 
five years to pay the difference in cost be- 

. J ween a good and a shoddy structure. 

This applies, of course, only to that part of 
the country lying north of the Potomac, 
Ohio, and Missouri rivers, whore the outside 
temperature for 225 days of the year ranges 
between sixty above and twenty below zero. 
I am assuming, also, an inside temp)erature of 
72 degs. I am measuring the cost of raising 
the house temperature from what it would be 
to what it should be. I am convinced, after 
studying my own and more than a hundr.;d 
other houses, that the secret of true comfort 
— and incidentally of fuel economy — is the 
proper design an3 construction of the house 

In a word, the cheap and satisfactory heat- 
ing of a home is primarily a matter of archi- 
tecture, and secondarily one of construction. 
.\11 efforts to save money on coal by changing 
from one grade to another, by doctoring the 
furnace, by buying smoke con.sumers, etc., 
after the house is finished smacks all too 
strongly of an old simile about a stolen horse 
and a" padlock on the door of an empty 
stable. All last winter I tried scientific 
trieks upon a pile of coal to heat a house 
that was improperly built. I got nowhere. 
I learned much that coal can be made to do 
and much that it can't ; but with all my 
wisdom, I couldn't actually heat a house im- 
properly designed and poorly built. 

To get the facts before us, I will start at 
the beginning. When I moved into this 
house, in iMay, 1915, it was five yeai-s old. 
It is situated on a lot 135 ft. by 175 ft., and 
is surrounded by thirty full-grown trees. On 
the theory that trees break the wind, it 
should have plenty of protection. It is, in 
fact, in the centre of a forest one mile wide 
at its narrow dimension and fully ten miles 
long. The winter was moderate, there being 
no more than two weeks of zero weather. 

■ From the Sciertlific American. Mainly applicable, 
■of coarse, to the locality indicated, but there are hints 
that may well be studied this side, as many who have 
«ndaied this winter in similar homes will agree. 

with au average temperature during live 
months of about freezing. 

I bought my coal and started my furnace 
fire early that fall with childlike confidence 
in the advice given me by a furnace manu- 
facturer. He said that I should be comfort- 
able all winter if I burned during the season 
only one ton of coal for every ICO ft. cf 
radiation in my hot-water system. My house 
had 600 ft. of radiation ; this meant six tons 
of coal in a winter. I added a ton and a-half 
to his estimate for good measure. That esti- 
mate i seven and a-half tons of coal was 
gone by New Year's Day, and winter nad 
not yet started. 

I knew then that something was wrong, 
and I was keen to right it. So I hunted up 
a fuel engineer who has made all sorts of 
scientific experiments for the Government 
and va.rious universities. He began to ask 
me how many "windoiws I had, whait sort of 
material the walls were made of, and how 
much inside space I had to heat. To exiplain 
why he wanted to know all this, he said : — 

■' WJien you burn coal you generate heat 
units (British thermal units, or B.T.U., to 
be scientific). If you cut a window, you let 
the hea.t out. To overcome this lo.?s you 
must generate heat units. If you have a 
tight wall, you keep the heat in to a certain 
extent, but still you lose a lot of it in that 
way. Walls will radiate heat. If you have 
a loose wall, you let more of the heat out. 
To overcome this loss — ^hig or little — yju must 
generate heat units. Then, after' spending all 
this heat merely to hold your own, you still 
have to heat the air to be waiiu. It takes 
heat units to do that, too 

"To do these three things is iwhy you burn 
ooal. As you see, you create heat mainly to 
offset the loss by radiation througli the win- 
dows, doors, and walls. When you have 
stojrijed that loss, it takes little heat to warm 
tlhe air inside." 

Having that key to my annoying situation, 
I found in an engineers' almanac a rule 
governing such matters. It read, as nearly 
as I can recall, as folUows : — 

" To offset the loss by radiation through 
glass in zero weather requires the generation 
of 80 B.T.U. per hour per square foot of 
glass. An average of Very cold and 
moderately warm day3 in winter will demand 
40 B.T.U. per square foot of wmdow glass 
per hour. To offset the loss of heat by radia- 
tion through the walls takes, in zero weather, 
15 B.T.U. per square foot per hour, or an 
average for the winter of 8 B.T.U. per square 
foot of wall per hour. To heat each cubic 
foot of air in tlie house, assuming a change 
of air every hour, takes one-fourth of a 
B.T.U. jwr hour." 

R requires no laiboiu'ed arithmetic to tell 
that it requires 160 times as much heat to 
offset the radiation through one square foot 
of glass as it di es to heat a cubic foot of air. 
Also, it takes thirty-two times as mucQi heat 
to offset the loss by radiation through one 
sfiuare foot of wall as it does to heat one 
cubic foot of inside air. Therefore, tight 
windows and storm windows and tight walls 
are worth while. 

To indicate how any home-owner may use 
this rule to determine bow mucli coal he 
should hum per season. I wnll apply it to 
my seven -room house. The following tabula- 
tion embodies the result : — 

Windows — 480 square feet at 40 

B.T.U. per hour 19,200 

Walls— 1,320 square feet at 8 B.T.U. 

per hour 10,560 

Inside air— 10,800 cubic feet at 

i B.T.U. per hour 2,700 

Total, per hour 32,460 

In one day it requires twenty-four times 
bhait. or 779,640 B.T.U. per day. " Coal shows 
great variation. An ordinary grade of 
antdiraoite coal, such as I used, will contain 
albout 13,000 B.T.U. per pound. But it is not 
possible for a fuMiace to yield 100 per cent, 
of efficiency. The loss up the cliimney is con- 
siderable ; "the loss by radiation tlrrough the 
sides is an item. Therefore, in practice, of 
the heat generated in the furnace it is con- 
servative to expect to get the use of 60 per 
cent. For that reason, instead of a possible 

consumption of coal of 50 lbs. per day, I 
should have burned not more than 100 lbs. 
of coaJ per day. 

Last year the cold wt/ather came late. 
This year the spring came early tio the fur- 
nace was needed only during IM days, wliicii 
was accounted for, m pai-t, by the lact tliat 
the house was closed for a month. 8o, even 
with all the wuidows, I should have burned 
only 9^ tons of coal if the theory is correct. 
However, theory weni to protest in my case ; 
1 burned, as related, edg'liteen tons of coal. 
And the house temperature was not the theo- 
retical 70° which may figures anticipate, but 
more neariy an actual average of 65'-'. It 
was practically impossible, in a word, to heat 
the liouse. 

Analysing, after the experience, as most 
of us are prone to do — 1 concluded that the 
man who built the house had tried the com- 
mon thing; he had attempted to limit the 
first cost. I do not say it was a house built 
only to sell, and hence shoddy. Rather, he 
feared to make it good enough for himself 
lest it prove too good for the man who might 
want to buy it. When once started upon a 
policy of sparing original expense, there was 
no logical place where he could quit. Thus 
he bought a furnace that was two sizes too 
small. This saved him less than fifty dol- 
lars. When I fell heir to this furnace mis- 
take I found that the fii'e had to be for-^ed 
all the time. This burned coal much faster 
thai! home needs demand and yielded no 
natural result but waste. Indeed, my yearly 
excess fuel bill is nearly double what the 
builder saved on tliis item. 

A similar effort at economy omitted the 
secondary damper from the chimney or the 
smoke pipe. That is, the only one installed 
was a part of the furnace. Thus, when the 
wind blew, there was no way to put a double 
check on the draught without shutting it off 
almost entir-ely. As a result, the consump- 
tion of coal doubled, but the heat escaped 
up the chimney without stopping to heat the 
water. To be specific, I burned one Sunday 
300 lbs. of coal instead of a normal 125 lbs., 
but the temperature of the water rose oidy 
five degrees. I might say that an ordinary 
damper fJo check this loss costs but ten 
cents, and the most expensive damper I have 
found costs but five dollars. 

The defects in the construction were even 
more serious. As has been indicated, this 
seven-room house has an unusual number of 
windows — forty in all. When the loss of 
heat through glass is recalled, this makes an 
expensive heating proposition at best. To 
make matter wlorse, the arrangement of 
them was bad. The south side, where th; 
sun shone, and where a certain amount of 
protection was afforded, is practically a dead 
wall. It has few windows. The nort^i side, 
where the wind is strong, and where i.o ^un 
enters, is practically all glass. To mike it 
worse, these window-s are of the "artistic" 
kind. They are casement windows made o." 
spongy wood. In wet weather thev can be 
neither shut nor opened. In dry vcather 
they touch the sill only at the hingjs. 'is a 
result, in winter they leak air into the house 
in veritable gales. To make them still more 
"artistic" they are latticed. The builder 
may have had an eye for beauty, but he was 
not careful to see that the joints between 
ihe wood and the glass were sealed witli 
putty. This made a secondary air leakage. 

In construction, the house was stucco on 
frame. The stucco apparently had been put 
on without using a proper mixture of sand, 
cement, and gravel. This is one thing that 
is almost sure to happen when one starts to 
save money on first cost. The result was 
that even the walls leaked air. This, of 
couree, added to the loss of heat. 

Having entered upon a catalogue of f" 
demerits'" of this house for a purpose, I will 
not overlook the principal one. The effort at 
"artistic" designing became a conscious 
strusgle to defy every tradition and to eli- 
minate every feature which has the sanction 
of time. Thus, every interior door down- 
stairs was banished, save one which segre- 
gated the kitchen. It is not possible, there- 
fore, to close off any cold room and thus 



Jan. 24, 1917. 

jirotect the rest of the house. On the con- 
trary, everything is wide open. There isn't 
even a door to the stairway. As a 
nioet natuial consequence, every jnrush of 
air at any cold point makes itself felt all 
tlirough llie house and destroys all efforts 
to heat it evenly and effectively. As a 
matter of fact, on cold days the family had 
to segregate itself in the upstairs sitting- 
room and summon the aid of a g<ui etove to 
help out the furnace. 

All things lielp to e.vplain why I 
burned 8^ tons of coal more than I should in 
a mild winter; why I paid 74.80 dollars niue 
for fuel than was necessary; why my house 
was a.lways cold. They indicate, 1 believe, 
that the proper time to study fuel economy 
is not after the house is built and the cold 
weather is upon one, but wlien the liouse is 
being built. 



The Joint Committee on Concrete and Re- 
inforced Concrete was .fonned by the union of 
Special Committees ap)x)inted in 1903 and 
1904 by the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, the American Society loi Testing 
Materials, the American RaUway Engineering 
and Maintenance of Way Association (now 
the American Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion), and tlic Association of American Port- 
land Cement Manufacturers (now the Port- 
land Cemenit Association). In 1915 there was 
added a Special Committee appointed by the 
American Concrete Institute at the invitaition 
of the Joint Committee. 

Progress reports fcy the Joint Committee 
were presented to the" parent societies in 1909 
and 1912, The rci>ort presented in 1912 has 
been printed by the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, the" American Society for Testing 
Materials, and tlie Anieriian Railway Engi- 
neering A.s.s<)cia.tion, and reference to that 
report may lie made for det.-iiis regarding the 
earlier work of the Joint Committee, a his- 
torio;iil sketch of the initrcMluction of concrete 
and reinforced concrete, and a bibliography of 
authorities upf>n whidh the repcwt was biised. 

Since 1912 the Committee has continued its 
study of the subject, has followed the working 
out of its rc^C!^)nl]nendations in actu.xl c(>nsit.ruc- 
tion. has weighed arguments and criticisms 
which have come to its attenticm, and has 
considered new experimental data. ^Vhile the 
Committee sees no reason for making any 
fundamental changes, the recommendations of 
its previous repori liave l)een revi-sed to .some 
exitent, and considera.ble new material lias 
been a<l<ied upon subjei-ts not jjreviously 
toudlied. There are wmie sulbjects upon which 
e.icperimentaltion is still in progi'ess, and the 
art of concrete and reinfoiTcd concrete will 
be advancing for m,anv years to come. 

Wliile this rejjort deal.s with every kind of 
stress to which concrete is subjected, and in- 
cludes all ordinary Cimditioiis of proportion- 
ing and handling, it does not go into all types 
of construction nor all the applications to 
which ctmcrote and reiiiforced concrete may 
be put. The report is not a .s)>ecificaition, but 
may be used as a basis for specifications. In 
their use, concrete niid reinforced concrete 
involve the exerci.«e of goo<l judgment to a 
greater degree than <lo any oilier building 
materials. Rules cannot pitxlnce or supersede 
judgment: on the contraiy, judgment should 
control the interpretntion and a,]>))lioaltion of 

The Conmiittee has not attempted in evei-y 
case to pre-sent rigidly scientific method," of 
analysis in dealiii!T wit.h stresses, but has 
aimed to rules which will load to safe 
results sufTicieiLtly close ifoi- ordinary design. 


The adantaliilitv of concrete and reinforced 
concrete for engineerimr structures or parts 
thereof is so well established thev are 
recognised niatwials of construction. When 
l)rop"prlv usod, they have prnved sati,sfactovv 
for those pnrpose.s" for which their qualities 
make them particularly suitable, 


Plain concrete is well adapted for struc 
tares in which the principal stresses are com- 

pressive, such as foundations, dams, retain- 
ing and other walls, tunnels, piers, abut- 
ments, and, in many cases, arches. 

By the use of metal reinforcement to resist 
the" principal tensile, concrete be- 
comes available for general use in various 
structures and structural forms. This com- 
bination of concrete and metal is particularly 
advantageous in structural members subject 
to both compression and tension, and in 
columns where, although the main stresses are 
compressive, there is also cross-bending. 

Metal reinforcement may also be used to 
advat tage to distribute and minimise cracks 
due to shrinkage and temperature changes. 

Eailurcs of reinforced concrete structures 
have been due usually to some one or more of 
the following causes : — 

Defective design, poor material, faulty 
execution, or premature removal of forms. 

To prevent failures or otherwise unsatis- 
factory results, the following precautions 
should be taken : — 

The computations and assumptions on which 
the design is based .should be in accordance 
with the esUiblished principles of mechanics. 
The unit stresses and details of the de.sign 
sliould conform to accepted good practice. 
Materials used for the concrete as well as 
for the reinforcement should be carefully in- 
spected aivd tested, special attention being 
given to the testing of the sand, as poor saiid 
has proved a frequent cause of failure. The 
measuring and combining of the materials 
which go to make up the concrete, and the 
placing of the concrete in the forms, should 
be under the supervision of experienced men. 
The metal f(u- reinforcement should be of a 
quality conforming to standard specifications. 
Care should be taken to obtain good bond 
between different fills of concrete, to prevent 
concrete from freezing before the cement has 
set, to have the materials thoroughly mixed, 
to avoid too wet or too dry a consistency, and 
t'.i have the forms cleaned before concrete is 

The computations should include all de- 
tails; even minor details may be of the 
utmost importance. The design should show 
clearly the size and position of the reinforce- 
ment." and should jirovide for proper connec- 
tion between the component parts so that 
they cannot be displaced. As the connec- 
tions between reinforced concrete members 
are freiiuently a source of weakness, the de- 
sign should i'nclude a detailed study of such 

The concrete should be rigidly supported 
until it has developed sufficient strength lo 
carry inipo.sed loads. The most careful and 
experienced iii.spection is necessary to deter- 
mine when the concrete has set sufficiently for 
it to be safe to remove forms. Frozen con- 
crete fre<iuently has been mistaken for 
properly set concrete. 


The execution of the work should not be 
sejiarated from the design, as intelligent 
supervision and successful execution can be 
expected only when both functions are com- 
bined. It is desirable, therefore, that the 
engineer who prepares the design and .speci- 
fications should have supervision of the exe- 
cution of the work. 

The Committee recommends the following 
practice for the purpose of fixing tlic re- 
sponsibility and providing for adequate 
supervision during construction. 

[n] Before work is commenced, complete 
plans and spwifications should be prepared, 
giving the dead and live loads, wind and 
fmp.oct, if any, and working stresses, show- 
ing the general arrangement and all details. 
The plans .should show the size, lenuth, loca- 
tion of points of bending, and exact position 
of all reinfoivement, including stirrups, ties, 
hooping, and s|)l icing, 

(h) The siiccifications should state the 
qualities of the materials and the proportions 
in which they are to be used, 

((■1 The strength which the concrete is ex 
pected to attain after a definite period .should 
be stated in the specifications, 

(rf) Inspection during construction should 
be made by ixmipeteait inspectors selected by 

and under the su(pervision of the engineer, 
and should cover the following : — 

1. Materials, 

2. Construction and erection of the forms 
and supiwrls. 

3. Sizes, sliapea, arrangement, position, and 
fastening of the reinforcement. 

4. Proportioning, mixing, ooneistency, and 
placing of the concrete 

5. Strength of the concrete by testa ot 
standard test pieces made on the work. 

6. Wihetlher the concrete is sufficiently 
hardened before the forms and BUpports are 

removed. . , „ _, » 

7. Protection from injury of ail pajits ol 
the structure. . 

8. Comparison of dimensions of all paru 
of the tinished structure with the p'.ans. 

(e) Load tests on fiortions of the linished 
structure shoukl be made where there is rea- 
sonable siuqiicion that the work has not been 
properly perlormed. or that, through inliu- 
ences of some kind, tlie strength has been im- 
paired, or where there is any doubt as to tlie 
Sufficiency of the design. The l.;ading should 
be carried to such a i)oint that the calculated 
stresses under .such loading shall be one and 
tluee-quarter times the allowed working 
stresses, and such loads should cause no jn- 
inrious permanent deformations. Load tests 
should not be made Wore the concrete has 
been in place sixty days. 

(a) Currosion of Metal liunforcimtnt.— 
Tests and experience indicate that steel sufiS- 
ciently embedded in good concrete is well pro- 
tected against corrosion, no matter whetliei 
located above or below water level It is re- 
commended that such protection be not le.s»^ 
than 1 in. in thickness. If the concrete is 
porous so as to be readily permeable by water, 
as when the concrete is laid with a very dry 
consistency, the metal may corrode on account 
of the presence of moisture and air. 

(h) Ele<-lnily.<i.<.— The e.xperimental. data 
available on this subject seem Ui show that 
while reinforced concrete structures may, 
under certain conditioius, be injured by th.- 
flow of electric current in either direction be 
twcen the reinforcing material and the con 
Crete, such injury is generally to be expecleil 
only where voltages are considerably higher 
tha'n those which usually occur in concrete _ 
structures in practice. If the iron be posi- 
tive, trouble may manifest itself by corrosion 
of the iron, accompanied by cracking of the 
concrete, and if the iivm be negative tliere 
may be a softening of the concrete 
near the surface of Uie iron, result- 
ing in a destruction ot the bond. 
The former, or anode effect, decreases much 
more rajiidly than the voltage, and almost 
if not (piite" disajipears at voltages that are 
most likely to be encountered in practice. "Vbe 
cUhode eifect, on the other hand, takos place 
even for very low voltages, and is, therefore, 
more imiwrtant from a practical standiwint 
than that of the anode, 

.<vtructures containing salt or calciunt 
chloride, even in very small quantities, are 
very much more susceptible to the effects of 
electric currents tliaii normal concrete, the 
anode effe<-t pi-ogressing much more rap'^ly 
in tilie presence of chlorine, and the cathode 
effect being greatly increased by Uie presence 
of an alkali metal, 

THiere is great weiglit of evidence to ,show 
that noniial reinforced concrete structures 
free fR>in salt are in very little danger juider 
niost practical conditions, while non-reinforced 
concrete structures are practically mimmie 
from electrolysis ti-ouibles. 

(.) Sea Wa'l(r.—T\\e data available concern- 
ing the effect of seji watii- on concrete or rein- 
fon-ed concrete are limited and inooncluRive. 
Sea w\ills out of the range of frost action have 
lH.>en .standing for many years without, appa- 
rent injury. In many places serious disinte- 
gration has taken place. Th>s li«f occurred 
chiefly between low and high tide levels, and 
is du^, evidently, in part tx> frost pi''>'»'<?f> 
acti.m also a,n>oars to b« >"<''™'f' ^>' /j"* 
s<,fto.iing of the mortar. To effect the b^t 
resist^uice to sea water, the concrete must be 
proixrttioned. mixed, and lilaccd so as Vo 
.revont the l>enet ration ot sea waten- into 
the nia-ss or through the joints. The agp^- 
gat..s should be carefully selected, graded, 
and proportioned with tlie ctment so as 
to secure the maximum possible density , 

Jan. 24, 1917. 

THE BUILDING N£\rs : No. 3238, 


tilie concrete should be thoroughly mixed ; 
the jointe between old and new work should 
be made water-tight ; asd tlie concrete shoulu 
be kept from exposure to sea water until 
it ifi tHoroughly hard aud impervious. 

(d) Acids. — Dense concrete thoroughly 
hardened is aSected appreciably only by acids 

which seriously injure other materials. Sub- 
stances like manure, that contain acids, may 
injui'iously affect green concrete, but do not 
.afieot concrete that is thoroughly hardened. 

(e) Oils. — Concrete is unaffected by such 
mineral oils as petroleum and ordinary engine 
oils. Oils which contain fatty acids produce 
injurious effects, forming comfwunds with the 
lime which may result in a disintegration of 
the concrete in contact with them. 

(fj Alkalies. — The action of alkalies on con- 
crete ie problematical. In the reclamation 
of arid land, where the soil is heavily charged 
■with alkaline salts, it has been found that 
concrete, stone, brick, iron, and other 
mat-erials are injured under certain conditions. 
It would seem that the level of the ground- 
water" in an extremely dry atmosphere such 
structures are disintegrated, through the crystallisation of the alkaline salts, re- 
sulting from the alternate wetting and drying 
of the surface. Such destructive action can 
be prevented by the use of a protective coat- 
ing, and is minimised by seeming a dense 

Chapxee III. 


The quality of all the materials is of para- 
mount importance. The cement and also the 
aggregates should be- subject to definite re- 
quirements and tests. 


There are available for construction purposes 
Portland, Natural, and Puzzolan or Slag 

(a) Portland Cement is the product ob- 
tained by finely pulverising clinker produced 
by calcining to incipient fusion, an intimate 
and properly proportioned mixture of argil- 
laceous and calcareous materials, with no ad- 
ditions subsequent to calcination excepting 
wa/ter ajid calcined or uncalcined gypsum. 

It has a definite chemical composition 
varying within comparatively narrow limits. 

Portland cement only should be used in re- 
inforced concrete construction, or in any con- 
struction that will be subject to shocks, vibra- 
tions, or stresses other than direct compres- 

(0) Natural Cement is the finely pulverised 
product resulting from the calcination of an 
argillaceous limestone at a temperature only 
sjfficient to drive off the carbonic acid gas. 

Although the limestone must have a certain 
composition, this composition may vary 
within much wider limits than in the case of 
Portland cement. Natural cement does not 
develop its strength as quickly nor is it as 
uniform in composition as Portland cement. 

Natural cement may be used in massive 
masonry where weight rather than strength 
is the essential feature. 

Where economy is the governing factor a 
comparison may be made between the use 
of natural cement and a leaner mixture of 
Portland cement that will develop the same 

(c) Puzzolan or Slag Cement is the product 
resnlting from finely pulverising a mechani- 
cal mixture of granulated basic blast-fur- 
nace slag and hydrated lime. 

Puzzolan cement is not nearly as strong, 
uniform, or reliable as Portland or natural 
cement, is not used extensively, and never 
in important work ; it should be used only 
for unimportant foundation work under- 
ground where it is not exposed to air or run- 
ning water. 

(3) Specification.^. — The cement should 
meet the requirements of the specifications 
and methods of tests for Portland cement 
which are the re.'^ult of the joint labours of 
special committees of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers. American Society for 
Testing Materials. American Railway En- 
gineering Association, and other affiliated 
organisations, and the United States Govern- 


Extreme care .=houId be exercLsed in select- 

and careful tests made of the materials for 
the pui-pose of determining the quality and 
grading necessary to secure maximum density' 
or a minimum percentage of voids. Bank 
gravel should be separated by screening into 
line and coarse aggregates and then used in 
the proportions to be determined by density 

(a) Fine Aggregate should consist of sand, 
or the screenings of gravel or crushed stone, 
graded from fine to coarse, and passing w'hen 
di-y a screen having j-in. diameter holes ;" 
it preferably should be of siliceous material, 
and not more than 30 per cent, by weight, 
should pass a sieve having 50 meshes per 
lin. in. ; it should be clean, and free from soft 
particles, lumps of clay, vegetable loam, or 
other organic matter. 

Fine aggregate should always be tested for 
strength. It should be of such quality that 
mortar composed of one part Portland cement 
and tliree parts fine aggregate by weight w-hen 
made into briquettes, prisms, or cylinders 
will show a tensile or compressive strength, 
at an age of not less than seven days, at 
least equal to the strength of 1 : 3 mortar of 
the same consistency made with the same ce- 
ment and standard Ottawa sand.' If the ag- 
gregate be of poorer quality, the prooortion 
of cement should be increased to secure the 
desired strength. If the strength developed 
by the aggregate in the 1 : 3 mortar is less 
than 70 per cent, of the strength of the 
Ottawa-sand mortar, the material should be 
rejected. In testing aggregates care should 
be exercised to avoid the removal of 
any coating on the grains, which" may 
affect the strength ; bank sands should 
not be dried before bein? made into 
mortar, but should contain natural moisture. 
The percentage of moisture may be deter- 
mined upon a separate sample for correcting 
weight. From 10 to 40 per cent, more water 
may be required in mixing bank or artificial 
sands than for standard Ottawa sand to pro- 
duce the same consistency. 

[To be continued.) 


It is the well-sustained claim of John 
Tann, Limited, that no fire-resisting safe of 
their make has ever had its contents de- 
stroyed bv fire, and that no thief-resisting 
safe they have supplied has ever been opened 
by a burglar. The firm is also the oldest 
established of its kind ia the world, having 
been founded in 1795, and the history of 
its development, and never-failing pursuit 
of every improvement, or modification ren- 
dered necessary by changing circumstances, 
is a very interesting one. Its latest achieve- 
ment, for instance, has been the devising of 
means to frustrate the possible employment 
by the burglar of the oxy-acetylene blow- 

With such credentials it is little wonder 
that the leading bankers, merchants, and 
others with valuable property to protect, 
have with confidence availed themselves of 
the perfect security Jolm Tann's safes 
guarantee. We have been much interested 
in one of the firm's latest productions, a high- 
grade bullion-room door, constructed for the 
Trustees of Queensland, to resist fire, the 
drill, the wedge, the oxy-acetylene blow- 
pipe, high explosives, and every other known 
means of attack, a series of illustrations of 
which are before us and can be had on appli- 
cation by any reader, together with the firm's 
latest catalogue, bv application to 117, New- 
gate Street. E.C. 

We should also mention that at Blackfriars 
House, which we illustrated in our New 
Year's number, thirteen of their " List 13 " 
doors have been installed. Of one of these 
we give an illustration. 

The door is 1^ ins. thick in the thinnest 

part, the outer surface being composed of 
John Tann's drill-proof unbreakable plate, 
lock chambers constructed of Steel T bars, 
6 by 4 by ^ ins. Steel angle bar frame, 6 by 
6 by i ins., with 4^ by 3 by ^ ins. angle bar 
rebate, with 4 in. packing bar. Eacli door 
has five sliding bolts at front, which pass 
through the T girder lock case and lock be- 
hind the angle bar rebate in frame. The 
bolts are secured by two of John Tann's 
patent, unpick able, gunixiwder-proof bank 
locks, the locks and lockwork being protected 
by an additional thickness of drill-proof 
plate, making a total thickness of 2j ins. 
The back of the door is secured by John 
Tann's continuous tongue bar. The " List 
13 " dooi-s have a chamber at back filled with 
the best-known steam generating composition. 
The other doors in Blackfriars House, " L'st 
8" and "List 7," specially adapted for large 

1 A convenient coefficient of density is the ratio of 
the sura of the volnnies of .lolid particles contained in 
a unit volnme to the total unit volume. 

- If the dividing size between the fine and coarse 
nBrereeate is less or greater than J in., allowance 
should be made in gradi"e and proportioning. 

8 A natural sand obtained a*" Ottawa, Illinois, 
passing a screen having 20 meshes and retained on a 
screen having 20 me=hes per linear inch ; prepared and 
fnrnished by the Ottawa Silica Company, for 2 cents 
per pound f.o.b. cars, Ottawa, Illinois. 

.John Tann's "List 13" Door. 

fire-resisting rooms in basements. The ven- 
tilating gates or grilles for the strong rooms 
are also all by John Tann, Limited, and of 
wrought steel. 

It will be remembered that to John Tann, 
Limited, was entrusted the making of the 
safe on board the " -Medina " for the Crown 
and Royal jewels worn by the King and 
Queen during their visit to India in 1911. 
Among the more recent of the hundreds of 
testimonials which the firm possesses is one 
of very timely interest from a well-known 
East End firm of goldsmiths, whose shops 
were raided by the mob in the recent anti- 
German riots in mistake. The rioters, after 
clearing the shop windows and show-cases 
of watches and jewellery, carried off the 
clocks and every article of value, and then 
turned their attention to the safe, which, 
although it weighed 7 cwts., was actually 
carried out bodily by a gang of burly ruf- 
fians, who crashed it down on the pavement 
time after time, but without effect. They 
then brought hammers and chisels into play, 
but all in vain. An inferior safe must have 
j-ielded to such savage attacks, but they could 
make no impression on the safe in question, 
although they smashed off the hinges and 
handles, and. in fact, made every possible 
effort to open it. It foiled every attempt, 
and was found with its valuable contents 
intact, and is as serviceable as ever. 

> »•» < 

Plans have been approved for a side chapel 
at St. Peter's Church, Swinton, Manchester. 

The .Journal of the Imperial Arts League 
states that information has been recedved that 
Mr. Alfred Gilbert, the soulptor, is a'live amd 
well and working in Bruges. His friends, who 
hav(* feared gre-atly for his safety, have failed 
up to now in all their efforts to trace him, the 
Geniiians havine: forbidden the making of in^ 
quiries of any kind in Bruges. The inforana- 
tion now obtajined has come through the kind 
anter\-ention of the King of Spain. 



Jan. 24. 1917. 


The El-.ston Roah Biiinixc Link.— The 
King v. the Tribixal of Am-eal, ex parte 
THE London County Council.— B<?foro tihe 
Lord CSiief Justice and Justices Ridley and 
Lnish, en Jaiunry 15-16, bhis matter was argued 
an a rule nisi for order tx> state a case, n rule 
haviiaig boon obtained by the London Countv 
t\>uncil directed to the Titibunal to show e;i,us'e 
\Hiy tlioy should not state a case for the opinion 
of the (tourt. Mr. Macanorraii, K.C. and Mr. 
A. A. Bethune, on behalf of tjie Metroi)<>litiain 
Railwuy Coinpany. appeared to show o;iuae 
agajinst the rule, the railway company Havimg 
obtiaiiKx} la decision of the Tribunal as ito tihe 
Iniiilding line in tlio poiMJon of Euston Road in 
which they were interested. Mr. \V. Craig 
llcrulertoii appeared in supix>rt of tihe rule. — 
Mr. Miaeinornan said : In tlhis case his clients 
had been before tihat Tribuinial, and tlhey had 
fixed a line. The railway coin^anv now ap- 
peared to show oause against tin* rule obtained 
by the Comioil being made lajbsoUite. His con- 
tenition was tlhat there was no question of law 
raised here, but that it was -entirely a question 
of fact, and lupon tlhat grournd itine Tribunal 
refused to stat^ a c^a-se. Tile fact* were that 
certain owners were d*'sirous of building in the 
I'}uston Road ibetweeii Diana Place mnd Fitzi'oy 
Place. , Tlie siniierintoivding laa-t^liiteot of the 
London County Council fixoil tHie building line 
for tUmt iH>rtion of tHie road. The mlatter went 
before tihe Tribunal, and they oame to the oon- 
elusion tihat tiliere were dilTorent lines of front- 
age in (lifl'erent iiarts of jihis long lentgth of 
ix>ad. They sjaid in effect that tiliere was no 
building line fiiom that portion in whicfh his 
clients' statiion stood. — The Jjord Ohief Justice : 
You say yoii cain have a sti-eet niaide up of four 
or five geiiiBral building linos? — ^Mr. Macinior- 
rein : Yes. — Mr. ri<''ndei-soii 'having spoken, the 
Court expresw'd tilie ojiinion that a case must 
he stated for the opinion of the iCburt on tihe 
first two gwunds ujion wliiolh the rule was 
stiattx) — viz. (1) Whetiior in these jJi-oooediiijjs 
the Tribunal were entitled to deflnie the goiiei-al 
line of biuildings between tlie jioints A and C 
on the plan, and (2) whether the Triibunal were 
right in determining that there was no general 
line of buildings bot.woon tlie poinds A and C. — 
The Ixird (ihiof Justice said the Court now 
only decided thiat lit was not Made dear to it 
that no jioinrt of law arose. Tlie order nisi was 
made on t.hreo grounds, and tjioy made tilie 
order absolute, but tdiey did not decide that the 
third rjioint— viz., whe'tllier the Tribunal were 
entitled to determine in what street or stivets 
the building.s to the west of the point B ^ye«' 
situiato or to dotermiine that snicli buildings 
wero not in the Eaiston Road at all, arose bc- 
tiveeii tfho railway cooiiipaiiiy and the 'Wlher 
partic«, and the ihird ground did not affect 

A Jesmono Btii.iiER's AvFAiiis. — .\t New- 
castle B;inkruptey Court, lost Thui-sday, Mr. 
iSwimburn Wilson" aipplied, on behalf of John 
Foster Dixon, builder, of Mildniay Cottage. 
Weet Jesmond, for discililarge from bankruptcy. 
—The Oflioial Receiver (Mr. CIvas. Woollett) 
said the <liate of tihe banknvj>tcy was Novem- 
ber 3, 1916, tlie liabilities wej-e £5,600. and the 
defioienoy £1.719.— Mr. Wilson ix)inted out that 
this man had been in bu.siness for sixteen 
years, with a turnover of £20.000 a year. On 
the question of uiiiu.-'trifiabte extravag'.aiice, he 
mentioned that altlioijgh for five or six years 
he had drawn from tihe business more than he 
tiWould, he drew loss than he might have done 
iaftorwar<ls. Books had been kept pTOperly. 
and on imjier tliero was -a surplus of severa! 
thou.sand pounds. He had put £1.200 into a 
■printing business which colltupscd, and in 
"anotflior si>6culaiiion he lost £600, also at tiliis 
time, amd he lost his head. He {Mr. Wilson) 
could put in no excusses for the Ix'tting, except 
that it wias part of his sport when he was well 
off. VWicn the time oame that he felt he oould 
not •' etiand up " in Newcastle, ho 'ost his 
head, went to Blackpool, and pave way to 
driidc. There had been a dividend of 5s. lljd. 
The cre<litoi-s' meeting would prolxibly have 
accepted Ss. On the allegation of fraud, he 
,put in two letters from two of tliose stated to 
have beccn defrauded, stating tflieir view that 
there was Jio intent to defrauil. — The Odicia! 
Receiver stated that he had placed the facts 
before tlie Board of Trade, recoimriending that 
pnx^eedings be left to the ereditoi-s if tiliey caied 
■to take their. No action had been takim.— The 
Judge : That practically means tihe wnchdrawul 
of tOi«' dliiarge of fraud'.— His Honour grartid 
the dis<4Darge. subject to a suspension < t tl.i-ee 


The death has takeni place at Windsor of Mr. 
Robert Palmer, at the age of eiglity-four years. 
He was employed at the Castle as a caqienter 
for nearly half a ceiitui-y. 

— I * » — 




Tv tlif Editor of The Building News. 

Sir, — I have read with interest your com- 
ments in The Building News upon Dr. 
II. T. Edwaixls's recommendation that local 
authorities should resort to the provisions of 
Section 15 of the Housing and Town Planning 
Act, 1909, ill preference to enforcing the 
jxjwers conferred upon them by Sections 17 
and 18. 

Your remarks, however, infer that tliere is 
an obligation upon the owners of projierty to 
give sufficient notice to the local authority 
of prospective changes in tenancies of email 
cottages, but I am unable to find anything 
in the Act which lays such responsibility upon 
them . 

Section 14 of tlie Act provides that " there 
shall be implied a condition that the bouse 
is at the commencement ol the holding in 
all respects reasonably fit for human habita- 
tion," and Section 15 statce that it shall be 
so kept during the holding. That liability 
is clearly the owner's, but it would appear 
that the local authority can only ascertain 
whether a cottage is in a fit state or not by 
occasional inspections after proper notice 
being given to the tenant as specified by the 
Act. — Yours truly, 

D. J. Jones. 

'• Delamere,' 

Pitshanger Road. Ealing. ^V. 

1 m I 

.Monagiian. — The County .Moiiaghan Sana- 
torium, situate close to the town on the old 
Armagh Road, has just been completed and 
will be opened shortly. The building, which 
is a fine substantial structure, has recently 
been remodelled and improved throughout. It 
has been used since 1840 as the County 
Moiiaghan Fever Hospital, but the county 
council took it over last year for the above 
purpose, and over £2,000" has now been ex- 
pended on it. All the new woik was carried 
out from plans and specifications prepared by 
Mr. J. J. Hannigau, B.E., county purveyor 
for Monaghan, who also supei-vised the work 
of the several departments during the recon- 


Boyle's latest patent " Air-Piuup " Venti- 
lators, supplied by Jlessrs. Robert Boyle and 
Son, ventilating engineers, 64, Holborn A^ia- 
duet, London. E.C., have been ado]>ted for the 
Board-room, Midhurst Rural District Council. 

Messrs. William Shepherd and Sons, Ltd., 
are laying with their Reli Tar Paving the 
whole of the surroundings of the new canteen 
which has been erected for the l>enefit of the 
employees at Motors. Crossley Motors, Ltd , 
Works, Openshaw, Manchester. 

The Cais!ialt<in Uihaii District Council have 
boon a.skwl by the Ixieal Government lioard to 
submit details and a formal application for 
sanction to a loan of £20,000 for a housing 

The Hawick Town Council proiwse to extend 
the Anderson Sanatorium at an estimated <ost 
of £1,350. A start will be made with the work 
as soon as the sjinction of the Local Govern- 
meiit Board and the Tiea'j.ury is obtained. 

Mr. Robert Williams, of 24, Harthill Avenue, 
Iiiverpool, builder, formerly of Berwyn. Wood- 
lands Road, .\igburth, I.iverjiool. who die<l on 
October 15 last, lest estate of the gross value 
of £11,184, of which £664 is net iwi-sonalty. 

Venice is about to erect a new monumental 
chuix-h. dedicated to Our lyady, on the Lido, to 
thank her for having so far preserved the city 
from grave disastei-s from air and sea attacks, 
and to beg her intercession for a continuance 
of the same favour. Considerable sums of 
money have already been ofTcred for the new 
building, which will be begun almost imme- 

(0nr ©ffire f abk. 

Some time ago the Edinburgh Town Council 
accepted the olTer of Sir Robert Maule to coni- 
jilete the decoration of the frieze panels in 
the Council Chamber. He commissioned 
.Messrs. George Dobie and Son, decorators. 
George Street, Edinburgh, to execute the 
work. The first portion has now been put in 
place. The frieze carries on the heraldic 
history of Scotland, the note for which was- 
furnished by the panel over the fireplace, on 
which are painted the arms <rf the Scottisli 
Kings. In eiich of the frieze panels there are 
two shields containing the arms of the Queens 
treated in subdued heraldic colouring on 
background of conventionally trcat«l thisiU 
in soft tones, with an intertwining ribbon, nn 
which are the respective names and dates. 

Ex]>OT:inenls have been conducted at I'm 
Lewis Institute in Chicago to determine the 
effectiveness of manure as a protective cover- 
ing for fi-e^hly-laid concrete to prevent 
disastrous results in cold weather. In thcs.- 
tests slabs of concrete exposed to outtloor ci 
ditions were c-ovcred with 2, 4 and 6 inches 
frosh manure obtained from a livery stabi' 
The results proved that the 4 and 6 inch lay< 
had high protective qualities and wei.- 
sufficient to afford the concrete a protection 
against a drop of 25 or 26 degrees in tem- 
perature. The 4in. layer seemed to be as 
effective as the 6-in., and appeared to be an 
ample protective covering against a temper • 
tare of 12 degs. F. The manure s^hould n 
be allowed to come in dh-ect contract with tiio 
freslily-laid cooicrete, but should be kept 
by the insertion of building paper, or ev.i. 
newspaper between the concrete and coverin- 

As a sample of the good work which t ■ 
Imperial Arts League is doing for membo! 
we are glad to note the following. An art i 
was commissioned in 1904 t<j produce a 
statuette to form part of a fountain erected 
in a public park. In 1915 it was foaind that 
reproductions of the statuette were being pro- 
duced and distributed for sale by an in- 
fluential firm of modellers. Tlie firm had 
act^ed in good faith, but after negotiations le- 
twcen solicitors the artist recovered sub- 
stantial damages and his costs and all exist ng 
reproductions were handed over to him. 

An experience of -Mr. Louis Raemackers i-- 
recalled by a prominent member of the Liver- 
pool Arts' Committ-ee. The cartoonist, well 
knowini; the hostilitv shown by the Germans 
tow,srds him, had approached with his usual 
san«-froid the sentries on the German fron- 
tier's, and, among other matters, inquired if 
they had ever 'heard of Raemaekers, the 
Dutchman. The answer was significant. 
'•We should think so, and it would be worth 
12.000 marks to any of us who could effect his 
capture, dead or alive, it would not mat'er. 
\\\A he calls himself a neutral." 

The London County Council extended 
for another voar the period of office of the 
undermentioned district surve.vois who have 
jxTsesd the retiring aije limit: — Mr. F. Ham- 
mond (district of HaJiipstead). Mr. H. Love 
grove (district of Islington. South, and Sliore- 
ditch), atid Mr. F. W. Hamilton (district <.t 
Paddington). Also for another year Mr. .1. 
Cniodchild, interim district surveyor for the 
district of Islington (North), and Mr. A. \V. 
■Tanner, interim district surveyor for the dis- 
trict of St. George-in-theEast. These two 
officials have pssetl the retiring age limit, 
but their services have been retained for 
several vears )>ast in a tem|KU-ary capacity. 
.\,Lso to 'Mr. E. A. Young, di.^trict surveyor 
for the district of Catford. and interim dis- 
trict surveyor for the district of Oamlierwell 
(Nortli). continuing to give lectures at the 
Camberwell Schoof of Art« and Crafts until 
.Tuly 31, 1917. Also to Mr. E. A. Ymiiis. 
district .Mirveyor for the district of Gatf(jrd. 
continuing to' act during tlie ]llea.'-^lre of the 
Council as interim <iistjict surveyor for Cani- 
lierwell (XorthV Also, luider Section 142 of 
the Ix>nd«ii Building Act, 1894, to the ap- 
pointment of nepuly district surveyors in 
thirteen ca,«i s. 


It is proposed to build a new t<iwn ball at 
Gcelong West, Victoria, at a cost of £8,834. 

Jan. 2-1:, 1917. 




Htadtiuarter.^. BuMertoa Street, O.xford Street, W. 

CLAY, V.D., COilll.iNDINU. 
■ OFFICER FOR THE WEEK.— Platoon Commander 
U. H. Parker. 

NE.\T FOR DUTY.— Platoon Commander C. H. 
C. Bond. 

MONDAY, January 29.— Teclinica' for Platoon No. 
9 at Regency Street. Squad and Platoon Drill, 
Platoon No. 10. Signalling Class. Recruits Drill, 
li,3ij — 8. 

TUESDAY, Jaiuuiry 30.— A Volunteer fatigue 
party i^ reoujrtd to as^ tlie Quartermaster. 

WEDNESDAY, January 31.— Imtructional Class, 
6.15. Platoon Drill, Platoon No. X. 

THURSDAY, February 1.— Platoon Drill, Platoons 
Nos. and 0. Ambulance Clas.s bv M.O., 6.30. 

FRIDAY. February 2.— Tedmical for Platoon No. 
10, Regency Street. Squad and Platoon Drill No. 9. 
Signalling Cass. Recruits Drill, 6.25 — 8.25. 

SATURDAY, February 3.— Commanding Officer's 
Parage. i;--15, Unilorm. 

SUNDAY. February 4.— Entreneliina at Otford. 
Parade Victoria (S.E. andC. Railway Booking Office) 
8.45 a.m. Uniform, haversacks, water-bottles. Mid- 
day rations t*:- be carried. Railway vouchers will 
be provided. 

JluoiiiiiKY.- all Companies, see Notice at 

NOTE.— Unless otherwise indicated, all Drills, etc , 
will take place at headquarters. 
By order, 

January i~. 1917. 



At the dnuual u eeting of the Bath Master 
Builders' Association it was decided to give all 
workmen a halfpenny per hour special war 

The Leeds Corporation propose to adapt 
Farfield House, Aniiley, as a training home 
for mentally defective women, at a total esti- 
mated cost of £324. 

Mr. Alphotiso Lambert, a Soutliport artist, 
died last Wednesday in his 100th year. He was 
a friend of President Faure, who visited hira 
on many occasions. 

The Newton-in-Makerfield Urban District 
Council have passed plans submitted by the -sur- 
veyor for the conversion of the offices of the 
old gasworks into a residence. 

At a mertal works near Deiisto, in Spain (says 
i> Bilbao t.elegram), a mass of reinforcefl con- 
crete collapst^l on top of a gang of workmen. 
Three dead and six injured have been extri- 
cated from beneath the debris, but there are 
still a number of men missing. 

The church which Father Ryan, O.M.I., has 
been building at the Leper Station outside Pre- 
toria (Transvaal) was formallj" opened on De- 
cember 12. For somev^■hat over £800 Father 
Ryan has put up quite a substantial building, 
to accommodate about 300 worshippers. The 
church is dedicated to the Immaculate Concep- 
tion. ' 

A Whit© Paper issued last Wednesday gives 
the final account of expenditure under the 
Land Registry (New Buildings) Act, 1900. In 
1915-16 there were no further issues from the 
Consolidated Fund, and the unissued balance 
remains at £18,500. The total expenditure of 
£242,676 is £22,323 less than was authorised by 
the Act. 

Mr. David Leslie, the oldest Freeman and 
pensioner of the Glaziers' Company, completed 
recently his 100th year. He was admitted to 
the freedom in 1839. The company, at their 
last meeting, passed a resolution of congratu- 
lation, and voted a gift of *' one hundred 
crowns." The Lord Mayor sent to Mr. Leslie 
a message conveying his good wishes. 

Mr. John Je^op Hardwick, an Associate of 
the Royal Society of. Painters in Water-Colours, 
has died at Thames Ditton at the age of eighty- 
five. Mr. Hardwick. who was elected an Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours in 1882. at one time assisted Mr. John 
Ruskin in his drawing classes at the Working 
Men's College. 

An interesting variety of subjects were in- 
■cluded in the Birmingham Archaeological 
Society's prograninie at the annual open meet- 
ing last Wednesday night. Mr. T. G. Barnett 
exhibited, and read a paper on, a dis|»lay of 
ancient finger-riugs ■. Professor Granville Ban- 
tock described the Melvill Book of Roundels, 
dat*<l 1612, and accompanied his description by 
illiLstrations on the harpsichord ; and Mr. T. 
.1. Davies read a paper on Stoneleigh Abbey, 
illustrated by lantern slides. In addition, there 
were exhibits of pencil drawings of old build- 
ings in the Midlands, primitive musical instru- 
ments, and Westley's copperplate of plan of 


We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions 
of our correspondents. -Ml communications should 
be drawn up as briefly as po.ssible, as there are 
many claimants upon the space allotted U> 

It is particularly requested that all drawings and 
all communications respecting illustrations or literary 
matter, books for review, etc., should l>e addressed 
to the Editor of the Building News, Efflngham 
House. 1, .\rundel Street, Strand, W.C., and not to 
members of the staff by name. Delay is not infre- 
quently otherwise caused. All drawings and other 
coinmunicatioJis are sent at contributors' risks, and 
the Editor will not undertake to pay for, or be 
liable for, unsought^ contributions. 

When favouring lis witli drawings or photographs, 
architects are asked kindly to state how long the 
building has been erected. It does neither them nor 
us much good to illustrate buildings which have been 
some time executed, except under special circum- 

***Drawings of selected competition designs, im- 
portant public and private buildings, details of old 
and new work, and good sketches are always wel- 
come, and for such no charge is made for insertion. 
Of more commonplace subjects, small churches, 
chapels, houses, etc^— we have usually far more sent 
tlian we can insert, but are glad to do so when apace 
permits, on mutually advantageous terms, which 
may be ascertained on application. 

Telephone : Gerrard 1291. 
Telegrams: '* Timest-rver, Estrand. London." 

Bnund Copies of Vol. CX. are now ready, and 
>!iould be ordered early (price 12s. each, by iiost 
12'. lOd.), as only a limited number are done up. 
.\ few bound volumes of Vols. XXXIX., XLI., 

xcviii.. xcix.. c, CI., cii., ciii., CIV., cv., 

CVI.. CVII., CVIII.. and CIX., may still be ob- 
tained at the same price; all the other bound 
volumes are out of print. 

Mf>st of the back issues are to be had singly. 
.All back issues over one month old will be charged 
Cd. each, postage Id. Subscribers requiring back 
numbers should order at once, as they soon run out 
of print. 

Handsome Cloth Ca«es for binding the Building 
News, price 2s., post free 2s. 5d., can be obtained 
from any Newsagent, or from the Publisher. 
Effingham House, 1. Arundel Street, Strand, W.C. 


The charge for C<">mpetition and Contract .Adver- 
tisements, Public Companies, and all official adver- 
tisements is Is. per line of Eight Words, the first 
line counting as two, the minimum charge being 5s. 
for four lines. 

The charge for .Auctions, Land Sales, and Mis- 
cellaneous and Trade .Advertisements (except Situa- 
tion .Advertisements) is 6d. per line of Eight Words 
(the line counting as two), the minimum charge 
being 4s. 6d. for 50 words. Special terms for series 
of six insertions or more can be ascertained on appli- 
cation to the Publisher. 

received.- E. J. and A. T. B.— C. P. and Co.— 
R. and R.— W. H. J. and Son— .1. C. and Son— 
Capt. D. G.— L. F. Co.. Ltd.— P. B. and P.— 
—J. C. S.— H. B. and Co.— N. and Co.. Ltd.— 
J. H. H. and Co.— H. W.— B. J. Co., Ltd. 

W. H. S— Yes. 

S. M.— Tiianks; no. 

P. T. W.— Received tco late. 

PVPIL.— The " diploma " is not worth the paper it 
is printed on. 

W. r. M.— We know nothing of either firm. Those 
to be relied on will be found in our " Direc- 
tory " pages. 


£6.698 was awarded by the War Losses 
Commission to a Gloucester firm of timber 
merchants whoso premises were requisitioned 
by the War Office, and who claimed £15.217. 

The Lady Emily Lutyens, National Repre- 
sentative of the Order of the Star in the 
Bast (Hampstead Centre), will deliver a 
public lecture at the Oriel Hall. Hampstead 
(close to Hampstead Tube Station), on Mon- 
day, January 29, at 8 p.m. Subject, " Behold 
I Shake all" Nations, and the Desire of all 
Nations Shall Appear." Collection to defray 
expe-nses. * 

Many will regret to learn that Mr. Edward 
Sweney, who for some years /held the post of 
plan examiner at the Ordnance Survey office 
at Bristol, died of fe<\-er at Seremban on the 
17th ult. Mr. Sweney severed his connection 
with the Ordnance Survey Department in 
August, lc98, on receiWng a Ckjionial Office 
aopointment as staff surveyor in the .State of 
iNegri SembUan, where he was subse<juently 
appointed chief surveyor and invested with the 
powers of a magistrate. The deceased gentle- 
man was 54 years of age. 







120. Bunhill Row, London, E.C. 


♦»♦ Correspondents would in all caseg oblige by 
giving the addresses of the parties tendering — at any 
rate, oi the aceepced tender: it ad,is i* thevaiue of the 

Boston (Li.vcs.).— For supply of about 8,637 tons 
of granite and 946 tons of slag, for the rural dis- 
trict council. 

Acceiited tenders :—Enderby and Ston.ey Stanton 
Granite Co., Ltd., Enderby. Leicester; Groby 
Granite Co., Ltd., Groby, Leicester; Holwell Iron 
Co., Ltd., A.shfojdby, Melton Mowbray. Various 

Great Yarmouth.— For work at Surrey Lodge, lor 
the guardians: — 

Carter and Wright £34 


Greeswich.— For additional steam, exhau.-t and 
condensing wat*r piping, etc., required in' connec- 
tion with the third new turbo-generator to be in- 
>t ailed at Greenwich generating station, for the 
London County Council ; — 

Briglit-tde Foundry and Eir- 
gineering Co., Lt<l., Victoria 

Street, S.W.« £5,527 6 

John Spencer, Ltd., AVednes- 

bury 7,055 

Babcock and Wilcox, Ltd., Far- 
ringdon St., E.C. (incomplete) 5 943 
'Accepted, with the addition of £140 for thicker 
plates for the large circulating water-pipes. Also 
sanctioned additional £235 for steam' pipes with 
riveted flanges, and for valves of a type different 
from that originially specified. 

HoiMFiRTH. — For laying new branch sewer from 
Dobb L:ine to Stanley Street, for the urban district 
council: — 

R. Turner and Co. (accepted). 
London, S.E. — For supply of stoneware ilraiii 
pipes, bends, etc., for the Camberwell Borough 
Council : — 

Addington Timber, Slate, and Cement Co., Ltd.. 
at standard list prices, less 10 per cent, net 
(recommended for acceptance). 
London.— Repair of roofs of 14 and 15, Lee Street, 
for the Shoreditch Borough Council :^ 

Messrs. Killby and Gayford, Ltd. £395 

Mr. H. Nelson 279 10 

Me-ssTs. R. Marshall and Son .. 263 
•Messrs. A. and T. 'Wilson, 5, 
York Row, Eingsland Road, 
N.E 208 10 

London. — For repairs to ICl, Haggerston Road, for 
the Shoreditch Borough Council : — 

*H, Nelson, New North Road, N. £112 15 

NeW'Haven. — For supply of broken flmts, for the 
rural district council : — 

Hudson's, Ltd. (per yard) .. . . 8s. 6d. 

Shepfield. — Painting work at the Corporation 
B:ith5, for the T.C. 

Tenders accepted. — Baths : Corporation 
Street, F. A. Tinker and Sons, £180; 
Bright.sid« : Simpson and Jlelling. £275 ; 
Glossop Road : Simpson and Melling, 
£12-2; Upperthorpe : E. Hudson, £28 10s.: 
Park, E. Hudson. £3S. 

SUNDERLAND. — .Alterations and repairs to the 
Thomas Street Scnoo', for the Education Com- 
mittee : — 

Joseph Huntley and Sou (accepted). 

WlMBORXE. — For rebuilding the kitchen chimney of 
tile workhouse, for the B.G. : — 

•C. H. Green £42 16 

WEST ASKFORD. — .Alterations and improvements at 
the Sanatorium, for the R.D.C. :— 

J. Dav and Son, Ashford .. £350 

S. Howland, Ashford .. .. £398 

Saunder and Co., Canterbury .. £315 16 8 

H. Knock, Ashford .. .. 379 14 9 

•E. J. MUes, Charing . . . . 222 15 6 

Weymouth.- For strengthening stone st*ps at 
the pile pier, for tlie town council : — 

A. E. Whettam £144 


> m»^ < 

A memorial window has been fix«d in Deep- 
ing St. Nicholas parisih church to the memory 
of the v'icar's son-in-law, Major W. L. Hawkes- 
ley. M.B.. of the R.A.M.C.. who was killed on 
the French front in April last. The window. 
which is the w-ork of Mr. T. Cui-tis, of Messrs. 
Ward and Hugihes, Fntlh St., Soho, 'VV.. has 
been placed above the altar. It depicts the 
dead officer om the battlefield assisting a 
wounded soldier, with the Great Healer hover- 
ing above waiting to place a crown upon his 



Jan. 24, 1917. 


March 3.— \Vat<?r Supply and Sewerajie Bcbeme 
(premium 5,000 pesetas — about £200), Manza- 
nares, Spain. — Sccretaria del Ayuntamicnto, 



Feb. 2 8. \fw h:ithroorns, lavatories, etc. at the 
Loiitih County Infirmary. — .1. \V. Turntr, J. P., 
Secretary, Louth County Infirmary. 


Feb. 2. — Supply luwl ereetion of fan dr.iupht cool- 
inp towers at Stuart Street station, for the 
Manchester Electricity Committee.— Cliairman 
of Uie Electricity Committee, Town Hall. 

Feb. 6.— Supply and erection of two 15-16 b.h.p. 
Has cnginc,< (Cr<issley, National, Stockport, or 
Tangye), ajwl two stereophat'U.s pumji.s at their 
eastern sewage works.— For the Woodford 
Urban District Council. — \V. Karrint:ton, Sur- 
Tcyor, Council Oflloee, Woodford Ureen. 

June 1. — Storm-wat<r Pumping Plant, CaJcutta.— 
For the Corporation.— The Indian and Eastern 
Sngineer, 50, Fenchurch Street, E.C. 


March 30.— Wrought-inm Gates and Fencing, for 
the Central Wharf and (Juay Street Limding, 
Auoklan<l. N.Z. — For the Harbour Board. — The 
Comtuercial Intelligence Department, 73, Basing- 
hall Street, E.C. 


Jan. 2 7~iFeb. 1.— Painting, cleaning, etc., to the 
launrlry and engine-house at the Newington In- 
stitution, Westmoreland lioad, S.E. — For the 
Southwark Board of Guardians.— S. Wood, Clerk, 
Guardians Offices, Utford Street, Blackfriars, 

Feb. 7.— For Painiting at vairious places.— For the 
l.ajicasbiT^ and Yorkshire Ilailway Compamy. — 
R. C. Irwin, Secretary, Hunt's B,^nk, Han- 


Jan. 27. — Completion of a new roail from Elles- 
merc Port to NeOreriKwI.- For the Elle.smere 
Port and Whitby Urban District Council.— T. 
W. Francis, Clerk, Council Ofilces, Ellesniere 

Jan. 2 9.— British Macadam, West End, Hants. — For 
the South Stoneham Rural District Council.— Mr. 
E. W.vnter Clerk, West End, Hants. 

Jan. 30.— Whinstonc (broken and unbroken) and 
limestone and also tarred slac and whinstone for 
macadamizing puriKwcs (One Year) in such (luan- 
tities as surveyor shall from time to time direct. 
—For the AIiddlepbroni;h Itural District Council 
— \V. Richardson, Clerk for highway purjuises, 

Jan. 31.— Broken Stone, Chippings, and Tarred 
Macadam (One Year).- For the Nestcn and Park- 
gate Vrb.m District Council.-HSurveyor. Town 
Hall. Xcston 

Jan. 31.— Setts. Kerbs, and Flags. Oranit* 
Maca<lani, Pitch and Tar, Slag Dust. Tar- 
Maeadam, Limcstoni; ^lacadam. Brushes (One 
Year).— For the Otiey Urban District Council.— 
O. Holmes, Surveyor to the Council. 

Feb. 1. — Materials (one year) jor the Canter- 
bury Roads and Survey Committ-ee. — A. C 
Turley, A.M.I.C.K., City Surveyor, Mnnicipa. 
Offices, Canterbury 

Feb. 1.— Ilaiid-pieke<l Field Stonesi and Portland 
<; ravel to the several jKirishes in tlie district. — 
For the Wcstbournc Rural District Comneil.— H. 
Norris, Surveyor, West Ashling, Chichester. 

Feb. 3.— About 4,043 tons of Granite (X, XX, 
and .\X.\), and about 1,607 tons of Slag, etc. (2i 
in .and Ij in.), to be delivered between -April 1 
and October 31 next, in quantities and at .sueh 
timi-s as the Council or their Surveyor shall 
direct— For the Homcastle (Lines) Rural Dis- 
trict Council.— J. E. CTiatterton, Clerk, Council 
Offices, UomcastJe. 

Feb. 5 — About 8,000 tons of Stone for macadamis- 
ing the main roads, to be delivered at the 
several railway stations and wharves in the 
Riding.— For the Highways and Bridges Com- 
inittee of the East Riding County Council.— 
Clerk of the County Council, County Hall 

Feb. 6.— Broken Granite, 4 by 5 Granit* Setts, 
Tar .Macadam, Granite, Linu^itone and Slag 
Chippings, Grit Kerbs, Stoneware Pipes and 
liullica. Cement, .Steam Road Rolling and Scari- 
fying, Disinfectants, Pitch and Oil, Hardware, 
Brooms and Tools.— For tlie Little Hulton 
I rl)an District Conneii.-J. H. Heve^s, Clerk 
Council Offices, Little Hulton, Bolton. 

Feb. 5 — Tar Macadam and Broken Slag.— For the 
button-in-Ashlield Urban District Council.— J 
p. !■ idler. Clerk, Forest Street, Sutton-in-Ash- 

Feb. 7.-Bl.ick Rock. Granite, Flint, or otlier ap- 
prrfwd, road stone (marked .samples to be 
deposited free of cost in Dog Lane Corporation 
\ard Bath); Black Rock Gravel* (marked 
sample required); Portland Cement (marked 
sample required); Fine and Sea Sand 
(marked sample required); Staffordshire bar 
iron; Lubricating Oils, etc.— (One year.)— For 
the Batli City Council.— City Surveyor's Offices. 

Feb. 7.— 7.,'iOO tons (more or less) of 2-in. and IJ-in 
hand-broken basalt for road construction, and 
Ml) tons (more or Ic.'^s) of ;-in. clean chippings, 
to be dehvered from the various stations in Mid- 
dlesLX.— For the Middle,se.T County Council — 
Clerk. County Counc.l, Middlesex Guildhall. West- 

Feb. 7.— Whinstonc. Slag, etc., according to order, 
<leiivered free at various railway stjitions, etc 
m and adjacent to the district.— For the Easing' 
Wold Rural District Council.— F. .T. H. Robin- 
son. Clerk, Board Room, Workhouse, Easingwold. 

Feb. 9 — About 5.Son tons of Granite, about 5,400 
tons of Slag, about 650 tons of Slag Chips, and 
about iOO tons of Tar-Macadam, to be delivered 
to various stations and whanas in the district. 
—For the Caister (Lines.) Rural Dbtrict Coun- 
cil.— A. A. Padley, Clerk, Council Offices, Caisto- 

Feb. 9.— Granite, Flint*, Kentish Ragstonc, Tar 
.Macadam, Gravel, Chalk, etc.; haulage of 
materials from Kiilway stations, etc.. cartage of 
materials from depots; team labour by tlu' day 
and hour; supply of tools, oils, etc., fuel, bricks, 
cement, iron and stoaiewaro pipes, etc., tar- 
washing surfaces of roads and paths (one .year). 
—For the Rcigate Rural district Council.— F C. 
Morrison, Clerk, 46, High St^e^■t, Reigatc. 

Feb. 9 — Granite. Tarred Granite and Slag. Gravel. 
Flints ami Hoggin, haiiliing and purchase of 
Road Sand and Sweepings (one year).— For the 
Uxbridge Rural District Council.— C. Wood- 
bridge, Clerk. 38, High Street. Uxbridge. 

Feb. 10.— Surface tarring approximately 1.2,i0,000 
squiupe yards of m.iin roads with refined tar 
during ensuing spring and summer.— For the 
Hertfordshire County Council. — J. S. Killick. 
Couirty Surveyor, Hatfield. 

Feb. 12.— Supplying, breaking, and carting stone 
r(ii|iiiri»d for the mainte.nance of the countv 
roads (one .year).— For the Nortlninibc -land 
County Council Bridges and Roads Committee. 
—County Surveyor, Mooth.all, Neweastle-on- 


Jan. 2 6.— Scavenging— For the Sedgefleld Rural 
District Council.— J W. Lodge, Clerk, Council 
Offices, Sedgefield, Fcrryhill. 

Jan. 27.— Scavenging (one year)— For the Holy- 
well Urban District (Jonneil.— J. K. Roberts, 
Clerk, Town Hall, Holywell. 

Feb. 6.— Emptying and Removing Contents of Ash- 
pits, etc., and Removal of House Refuse (One. 
Two, or Three Years), Old Hill, Stafls,— D- 
Wright, Clerk, Council House, Old Hill. 

Jan. 31.— Mild Steel or Iron Gates and Fencing 
fnr Quay Street Frontage, Auckland, N.Z.— For 
the Harbour Board —.Messrs. \V. and A Mc- 
Arthur, Ltd., Canberra House. lS-19, Silk Street 
Cripplegate, E.C. 

Jan. 2 7.— Sanitary piiRs, etc. (One Year) —For the 
Bishop Auckland Urban District Council.— J T 
Proud, Clerk, Town Hall Buildings, Bishop Auck 

Jan. 2 7.— Sundry stores (quantities asd particu- 
lars to be had on application to Borough 8ur- 
ve.vor) for period ending Ikcembcr, 1017 —A 
Robertson, Town Clerk, Douglas, Isle of Idas. 
Feb. 1 — Annealed Scoria; (broken); bricks, ca.'stings- 
concrete flags and kerbs ; Portland cement, pitch 
and tar; sanitary pipes, gullies, junctions, etc.; 
slag (broken); coal (for domestic use only), coke 
timber; -whinstonc and granite (broken); and 
whinstone and granite setts and kerbs.— For the 
Middlesbrou.^'h Corporation —P. Kitchen. Town 
Clerk, Municipal Buildings, Middlesbrough. 
^^'J: 2,— Gullies, Lamp Pillars, Lanterns, Pavin«, 
Kt-rbmg, Channelling and Pitching, Ditinfect- 
!iiit*, Broken Syenite, Broken Limestone, Chin- 
pmgs. Gravel, Tar M.acadam, RefiiK-d Tar, Man- 
hole Covers, Ventilating Gratings, Oiarcoal 
BiLskets and Step Irom, (one year).— For tile 
Swan-sea Town Council.— Boroueh Surrevor 
Guildhall, Svansea. 


Mr. Willivain Wilkinson, chief m,aitary in- 
spector at UeAy for the jxist twenty <'Kht 
years, and a president of fhe Sanitarv 
Insijcotiors' AssociiiatJon, 'T>ae died ali tiie aee of 
liftrj-aiine years. 

Tllie bronze statue of Mr. Gladstone was un- 
veilod in Kdiiiburgli last Thursd&y by Ijord 
Rtecbery. The work of Mr. Pittendni^i Mac- 
gillivray, R.S.A., it represents Gbulatone in hi» 
robes ais CJltainoellor of tiho ExcSioQuer. It stMid* 
in Gcorgo Street, facing tovrarde Praioro Street. 

Tlio new Cliaiinis and Record OfEco for Unem- . 
ployed Insurance which has beon erected on tie 
plot of market giardeiis between I>efoe Avenue 
a.nd the River "Thajiies at Kew is noarine oom- 
pletdon. The oflioes are one-storey hign, aind 
«>vor nearly two acres and a-iha-W. Swne of 
tile rooms are of immense size — one, liie lodger- 
room, ibeing 380 ft. long and 100 ft. wide. 

TheYstradgyjiluis Rural District Ojuncil's 
new council offices in Glanley Stroot heive been 
opened, tlie ceremony besiiig perforroed by Mr. 
Thos. Wiatldiie, vvlio has been surveyor to tihe 
oounoil and its prodeeessor, tlie Yetradgynlais 
District Highway Bixinl, for a period of iliirt> 
years. Tllio death is aiioiouno'd ol Mr. ,Iohn 
Edward Swift, surveyor to the Pemiatone Urban 
District Council. He wtts apj>ointed by the old 
local board in 1891. 

A strike of painters exists in Dundee iji rc- 
gVTpd to hours and wiagt-s. Tlio mem, who axe 
at pi-esoiit paid lOid. per hour, wish an increase 
of lid., making the wage Is. per hour, ami 
furtilier .isk that the allowance for country work 
be increased fixjiii 69. to IOr. ijier week, and that 
for overtime double time be paid instead of 
tame and ajhalf. They also request o.n eight 
hours' instwid of a nine hours' day. . 'The 
niustei^ offer to incroiiso the wage« ^<I. per hour 
land to subnKt the quctition geni>rally tt> arbi 
tration, but the men refuse to consider this, and 
200 are affected bv the strike. 


Flushing Tanks 


Frcdk. BRABY & CO., Ltd. 

352 to 364, EUSTON ROAD, LONDON, N.W. 

January 31, 1917. 

Volume CXII.-No. 3239. 




Effing-ham House, 

Currente Calamo 93 

Tbe Unity of the tuipiro 94 

The Property Owners' Association 95 

Concrete and Reinforced Concrete .. 95 

Our Illustrations 109 

Correspondence HO 

Professional and Trade Societies 110 

Trade Notes HO 

Lecal iBtelligenct; HO 

Our Office Table HI 

To Correspondent- 112 

To Arms! 112 

Latest Prices ix. 



Competitions Open 
List of Tenders Open 


University College of South Wales and Monmouth- 
shire, Cardiff. Mr. William D. Caroe, M.A., 
F.S.A., F.E.I.B..\:, Architect. 

Detail of .■Vrl>our Square front. Stepney Municipal 

Buildings. P?emiated design. Messrs. Ambrose 

Poynter, F.R.I. B..\., and George Wenyon, 
M.S.A., Architects. 

Strand, "W.C. 

The .lames Smith Memorial, Wallasey, Cheshire. 
Messrs. Briggs, Wolstenholme and Thornely, 
FF.R.I.B.A., Architects. 

The Eow of Almshouses, Marshfield, Gloucestershire, 
sketched by Mr. Maurice B. .\dams, F.E.I.B.A. 

Cottage at Longfield, Kent. Elevations, sections, 
and plans. Mr. Sidney K. Grcenslade. .\.R.I.B.A., 

Detail of New Premises, High Holborn. W.C. Eleva- 
tion and section. Mr. Leonard Martin, 
F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 

dnxventt Calamo. 

The waste in war is enormous, and 
the commandeering of liotels as temporary 
offices for the Government has become so 
patent that the Government has had to 
appoint a Committee to consider future 
demands for accommodation from any De- 
partment and determine its allocation. Vs 
all the members are moi-e or less interested 
in obtaining such, except the First Com- 
missioner of Works, we doubt whether i^s 
efforts will save much. So far, at anj 
rate, economy of space apparently has 
been little studied, or the possibility of 
finding quarters without the necessity of 
erecting new buildings on unoccupied land 
in the Whitehall area. .One wouJd have 
thought that on such a Committee a prac- 
tical architect and a competent surveyor 
might beneficially have been included, 
capable of estimating the capacity of 
buildings eoramandeere<l and their value, 
and also the cost of the structures which 
are being plumped down on the few 
stretches of green turf left in our midst. 
We shall be surprised if, when Parlia- 
ment meets next week, some early ques- 
tions are not asked about this matter. 
In one instance at least the building 
apjjropriated has been very scantily occu- 
pied — unless, of course, more " funk- 
holes " are wanted as refuges for the men 
it seems impossible to "comb out." 

Lady Drogheda has been mainly re- 
sponsible for the organisation of the in- 
teresting exhibition illustrative of the 
development of aeronautics at the Grosve- 
nor Gallery. Mainly pictorial, the exhi- 
bition includes an intact specimen of the 
Fokker aeroplane and a number of Zep- 
pelin relics. The pictures go surprisingly 
far back. They show that the possibilty 
of flying machines had occurred to the 
fertile mind of Leonardo da Vinci, who 
made sketches and plans. Another reve- 
lation is that while the difficulty of pro- 
pulsion remained unsolved until the arri- 
ival of the petrol engine, our forefathers 
anticipated with fair accuracy the'general 
design of the airship so long ago as 1834. 
and of the aeroplane in 1843. The first 
airship, the Eagle, exhibited at Kensing- 
ton in 1834, was 160 feet long, and was 
to carry twenty-five persons to Paris in 
six hours. In appearance it is an em- 

bryonic Zeppelin, but as it depended 
.solely on a favouring breeze, it never ful- 
filled the ambitions of its inventors. The 
aeroplane of 1843, which was to have 
been driven by steam, is not greatly dis- 
similar to the monoplane of these days. 
It is believed to have come to grief on its 
first trip. Pictorial evidence is given of 
the military use of balloons in the Battle 
of Fleurus in 1794, and to judge from a 
French print, Xapoleon, among his many 
schemes for the invasion of England, con- 
templated a simultaneous raid by balloons, 
by ships, and by a Channel tunnel. There 
is a good show of prints of the late 
eighteenth and early nineteenth century. 
From that date the record is both com- 
plete and contimious, down to the vivid 
contemporary drawings and photographs 
of present day aerial warfare, its methods 
and its efiects. 

The Registration of Business Names 
Act, 1916, is one of the first-fruits of the 
war. After being proposed for many 
years, in vain, it has now got through 
suddenly as part of our trade awakening. 
Though dated December 22, 1916, it begins 
working on February 32, 1917, and must 
be complied with by March 22. It requires 
the registration of the true names of all 
persons or partnei-s and companies carrj-- 
ing on business under other surnames. As 
"business" includes ''profession" it 
covers the many cases of solicitors, sur- 
veyors, doctors, etc., who practise under 
old firm styles. It does not touch those 
who are using their true surnanjes in their 
business, but it brings in all others for 
the whole United Kingdom. The par- 
ticulars for registration are both full and 
precise, including details of former names 
and also of nationality, original and 
acquired. There are fines and other 
penalties for omission or neglect to register 
properly old or new bu.siness names or any 
changes. One clause forbids the use of 
the word "British" in a business name 
where used by persons of other nationali- 
ties so as to be misleading. There will be 
an Index of the Registration, and all 
statements filed wiU be open to public in- 
spection for a shilling fee, with a further 
charge for copies required. Beyond all 
this publicity the Act provides that in 
every case where registration is to be made 
the jjerson or firm shall ' in all trade 
catalogues, trade circulars, show-cards, 

and business tettei-s " ulsed "within the 
British Empire give the full true names 
and nationality, etc., as registered, under a 
fine up to £5. The fee for registration will 
be 5s., by postage stamp, and special offices 
will be opened in London, Edinburgh, and 
Dublin. Rules and forms will shortly be 
issued by the Board of Trade. So, at long 
last, we shall bring our law as to business 
names into harmony with that of all other 
commercial countries, and do something 
towards defeating the projected peaceful 
penetration of this country by Germany, 
Ijegun before, but to be continued after, the 

We regret to notice Mr. Hodge's an- 
nouncement that he means to create some 
800 new Labour Exchanges, and not even 
his undertaking to have no "wooden 
images " in them rea.ssures us. These in- 
stitutions have failed to gain the confi- 
dence of those for whom they were in- 
tended. They may have proved useful in 
industries where there is much casual 
labour of an unskilled type, but skilled 
workmen regard them with distrust. So 
much has this been the case that an influ- 
ential joint committee of employers and 
workmen has been formed for the purpose 
of solving the labour problems on demobi- 
lisation with the minimum of State inter- 
vention, which has gained the adhesion of 
many large employers and of the leaders of 
the principal trade unions, who believe 
that they can replace most of the men 
returning from the war without the 
intervention of the Labour Exchanges. 
Possibly Mr. Hodge believes that he can 
make the offices more effective, but the 
prospect of adding some thousands more 
permanent! J- to the number of State ser- 
vants is not one to be accepted lightly if 
it can be avoided. 

An interesting find of old monument.-. 1 
brasses, says the Canterbury Diocesan 
Gazette, has been made in the north tran- 
sept of Barham Church. The transept, 
which is said by Hasted to be St. Giles' 
Chapel, belongs to Barham Court, and 
when the rest of the church was restored 
some years ago the then owner of the Court 
refused to allow any alteration to be made 
in it. The Court has now passed by pur- 
chase, and the present owner allowed the 
organ to be moved into this transept. As 
there were traditions of ancient brasses 



J.\x. 31. 1917. 

iM'ing in the church, the- site^ of which wen- 
iia h>nger known, advantage was taken of 
the opportunity afforded by the moving of 
tlie organ to overhaul thoroughly the floor- 
ing of the transept. Under the wood of 
the flooring the brasses were found. One 
is the i-omains of a large figure of a civilian 
soniL'what damaged, but of early date, 1376, 
and of extreme interest. Xo figure of tlie 
same date and style is remaining in Kent, 
and it is a notable addition to the fine 
series in the county. Tlie other brass con- 
sists of a man in armour and his widow, 
and both effigies are in good preservation. 
The widow's effigy is very like the fine 
liijure of Agnes Molyngfon, 1454, still re- 
maining at Dartfwd. The in.scriptiqns 
and shields of arms are missing, but part 
of the crest remain.s, consisting of ex- 
panded dragon's wings. Tliis is expressly 
noted as the crest of Digges. It is thus 
almost certain that one, and possibly both, 
the brasses are for members of the Digges' 
f.Tmily, who began buying property in the 
neiglilx>urliood as early as the reign of 
Menrv III. 

Not a little of the nonsense talksd and 
ivritten about the amount of land in 
T.ondon available for cultivation is ex- 
posed by the report of a London County 
Council Committee. The area has been 
stated as high as 14,000 acres. This esti- 
mate, it appears, was made in 1898. and 
much of the land has since been built 
ui)on. In reply to the allegation that the 
County Council have vetoed practically 
all schemes for cultivation, it is pointed 
Mut that the Vacant Land Cultivation 
Society has only api)lied in the whole of 
l^ondon for about 350 acres, excluding 
Hackney Marsh. When this figure is 
analysed, it is found that 50 acres of un- 
occu)jied land included in respect of plots 
'in the Dulwich College estate do not 
exist, nearly 190 acres are situated in 
biiroughs where other arrangements for 
cultivation have been made, the owners of 
29 acres liave arranged for the cultivation 
themselves, and 12 acres do not come 
within the Order. In addition, undefined 
areas of land outside the county are in- 
cluded, so that, after allowing for 
21^ acres which a society lias already been 
licensed by the Council to cultivate, 
there can be little suitable land left in 
the county in respect of wliich arrange- 
ments for cultivaliipii have not yet been 

Bonusless houselioldei-s, who fiiwl the 
fost of living on a limited income a 
IHoblem difficult to solve, liave discovered 
amusement, if 'not consolation, .in the 
notice issued by an insurance authority 
advising an enlargement of the war risks 
covered bi>cause of the enhanced value of 
furniture. The furnituiv might sell at an 
increa.sed price, but where can the money 
be found for the extra insurance, or in 
many oases for any inisurance at all? 
What, again, is tlie difference between 
damage to property by such explosions as 
tliat in East London and that caused by 
Zeppelin r.ilds that the State should cover 
the foi-mer, but coniiicl us to insure our- 
selves against the latter? 

It is pleasant to us to know, and to be 
able to say so without egotism, that 
nearly all the congratulations that have 
reached us on the j)roduction of our 
•• New Year's Number " of January 10 
specially compliment us on our reproduc- 
tion of the illustrations of the interiors 
decorated with Matone, which Messrs. 
Ix'wis Berger and Sons have produced, 
and which is finding such favour with 
arcliitects, buildere, and decorators. We 
can only say we should be glad always to 
have such facilities for good work as were 
entrusted to us by Messrs. I.,ewis Berger 
and Sons, and advise all who >vant to 
know more to send to them at Homerton, 
X.E. , for a copy of their last 'ssue of 
"Good Business News." The little story 
it contains, entitled " Three Men in a 
Boat," or the tale of a business trij) to 
America by a Berger trio, is as instruc- 
tive as it is amusing, and there are be- 
sides several valuable bits of information 
which will benefit all. Not the least 
timely is : — 

Property own rs : on you falLs the onus 
Interior walls to keep nicelv iiiaiutaJned. 

Let all the wall owners 

Ueeori'e good War Loan-ers 
And buy Matoned walls with the dve per cent, gained. 



In an interview last week with Mr. 
Keith Murdoch, of the Australian United 
Cable Service, Mr. Lloyd (ieorge is re- 
ported to have said: — "The war policy 
of the Empire will be clearly defined. And 
cf great importance is wliat I may call the 
preparation for peace. This will involve not 
only demobilisation but such other after- 
the-war questions em the miijrutioii of our 
oicH people to other parts of the Empire, 
the Sk'ttlement of soldiers on the land, 
commerce, and industry after the war." 
On the lieels of that utterance there came 
a Renter telegram to the effect that 3Ir. 
Hughts, the Federal Premier, had refused 
the request of 400 unemployed carpenters 
to enable them to proceed to England to 
look for work. What price that for the 
unity of the Empiiv in regard to the 
biggest of all problems before us when iiie 
war is over? oaiijenters, or most of 
thorn, were in all probability thrown out 
of work by the disastrous Australian coal 
strike, which we have but good reason ti> 
know prostrated all industry for a montli. 
■ T am seriously contemplating selling up 
my business," writes a reliable correspon- 
dent of ours, an employer in liis own trade, 
akin to ours, and a scrupulous observer of 
trade unicm obligations, "and going back 
to Si)uth .Vfrica, where, at any rate, thtww- 
wanton strikes would not be allowed, wliich 
are paralysing the country." Will he be 
given his passjiort if he carries out his 
intention? If the 400 Australian carpen- 
t^i-i-s had lan<led hei-e and sought work, 
would the British unions have struck in 
protest? I'robably, especially if British 
emplo.yers hail paid them higher wages. 
Yet till* Australian troops are paid con- 
siderably higher wages than the Britisli 
soldier, who is grousing alKUit it. but has 
not .struck yet. With all our genuine and 
W( 11-deserved admiration for the .\usfra- 
lians we shall not wound any susceptibili- 
ties by affirming that they have not more 
loyally sei-ved the Empiiv than the men 
of the Mothi rland. ' 

Incidentally the matter opens up. as Mr. 
Lloyd George is reported to Inve said, 
many other after-the-war questions. If. 
indi?ed, the Dominions have maile us really 
feel that we are all one p(X)ple- if there 
ami here the tnxio atmosphoiv of distrust! 

bet-ween labour" and the employer is to K- 
changed into one of mutual desire to 
cherish and cultivate the better relations 
between class and class and man and man. 
which the generous instincts common to 
the race have developed during the war, 
tlien there is indec*d hope for the future. 
But if it is onl}' a truce which employers 
or workmen may end at any moment, or 
if the politicians of any party are going to 
play into the hands of one side or the other 
in order to retain or buy its support of 
measures proposed simply for party pur- 
jioses, or to delaj' changes which the nation 
as a whole demands but is little likely to 
get, then we must bid farewell to all hopes 
of real unity, and may well dread the re- 
vival with intense bitterness of industrial 
strife which will be fanned to fever-heat 
by the demagogues of all parties. 

In our own trades it is a matter of com- 
mi>n knowledge that a national strike 
would in all probability have supervened 
on that strike in Iyon<lon which lasted 
during the first half of 1913 had war not 
iliverted the attention of all concemc-<l. 
The one thing that could have ended the 
quarrel satisfactorily then is the only 
thing that can prevent its renewal pre- 
sently, and that, as 5Ir. Neville Chamber- 
lain phrased it at Birmingham last Satur- 
day week, is ' a true alliance of capital 
and labour." That we shall never get if 
we have not leanit during the war how 
iinrvellously ])roduction can t;e increased 
by disregarding all talk about limiting 
output on the one side, and by the recog- 
nition on the other that with proper or- 
ganisation and really up-to-date methods 
and machinery it is the cheapest and best 
policy to pay good wages to the efficient 

If the trade unions make this impossible 
by insisting on equality of payment, pro- 
duction will 1h? limited and emploj^ment 
will diminish. Ti>day the neods of the 
nation are many, and it is being compelled 
to pay many unskilled workmen wages out 
of all proportion to their worth. It can- 
not afford to do that in onlinary times, 
and if tlie attempt is made to keep up the 
inflated wages that are being paid at the 
ii.unition factories we may as well give uj) 
the inilustrial battle witli the foreigner. 

Lastly, it is imperative that employei-s 
and the employed alike should recognise 
that the bigger profits and Ix'tter wagi-s 
of the last sixty or seventy years have not 
been due to harder work, but to the de- 
velopment of labour-saving machinery, 
and the consequent saving of time and 
human labour. There aiv many indica- 
tions that scienci> is likely to lielp along 
another Industrial Kevohition by tlie 
utilisation of fresh means of obtaining 
power, wliich may not fa%T>ur the aggrega- 
tion of Inbour fn huge and overcrowded 
centres. l/.^t us all see to it that this is 
ni«t forgotten by either side, but that ci-ery 
pcssible effort is made to improve our 

■ ^>-»«»— < ■ 

Mr. f. ^^trlN»t•*. for i^ixT<'4»n years deputy 
s;niitury inspector to the Lincoln Corporation. 
Iia.'. Iwon appointwl sanitarj' inspeetor to tho 
\\'oixi"!-tor CVirporatioii. 

Richard G-reso. Gravesend builder, attri- 
Initid liis faihii-o last W^iiiosday to tho fact 
thai he had !iii|>pl<ii><l the Government witji 
material at 50 per ceat^ undor oost. 

" A few tlavs ajro." «> Ix>ni Kniitsford told 
I he ^harelu»ld<srs of Ba.i>e!iays Bank. " I was 
trying to explain the woixl * moratorium ' Ut a 
fri*'n<l. who fcurnol to nio ajid aaiid. ' Why. 
iMi"t there a jfootl oiio at (lold-er's IJreen? 

Mr. Fred<^ic WiJUajn Majriioll*'. head of 
A. and F. Mantiollo. frranite niorohants. 
ltit.lm(Kigfato Street, E. (_"'.. and of Aberdeen, 
(Iiiernsey, aiul Norway, left £100 each to 
Chairijijj Cro«* Hospntal, a hospitaJ In Abcr- 
ileon. and a hospital in Guernsey. His will 
waa proved at £79,389. 

Jan. 31, 1917. 




The Senefelder Club. whose co- 
operation at Burlington House has lent 
very much of the interest attaching io the 
winter exhibition this year of the Roval 
Academy, has a very good show of its 
own at the Leicester Galleries, including 
lithographs by its own members, and 
some good examples of the liest-known 
works of French artists of the last cen- 

There are also some lithograplis whicJi 
were specially exhibited some twenty 
years since, made by Alfred Gillx?rt, 
G. F. Watts, Lord Leighton, and others, 
including some heads, a study, and two 

Among the lithographs by the club 
members, Mr. A. S. Hartrick's " Xied- 
path Castle, Tweed" (95). is one of the 
best; and 'Dandelions" (103), by Miss 
Lily Blatherwiek, is fully up to her 
usual efforts. There is also a very effec- 
tive night scene (118) by Mr. Daniel A. 
Veresmith. Among the works by the 
French artists and their contemporaries 
are some fine drawings by Corot. E. Car- 
riere, Toulouse-Lautrec, E. Manet, 
Felicien Rops, Fantin-Latour, M. Strin- 
len, M. Lepere, and othei-s. 

In the next room is a collection of pic- 
tures and drawings by M. Leon de 
Smet, the Belgian artist. We liked his 
flower-pieces best. One or two decorative 
subjects are of intei'est, such as the 
•Girl and Parrot" (10) and the 
■'Russian Ballet." 


The fifteenth annual meeting of the Pro- 
perty Owners' Association was held at the 
Cannon Street Hotel on Thur.sday evening. 

Mr. Geo. Billings proposed the re-election of 
Mr. Evans as President, Mr. G. A. 
Gale seconded, and the motion was carried. 

The fifteenth amiual report stated that in 
the year 1915 over three hundred new mem- 
bers had been added to the roll. The Council 
had appointed local agents in numerous dis- 
tricts, and had dealt with two thoimand in- 

On the motion of Mr. W. M. Bradbear, 
seconded by Mr. .J. G. Wright, the following 
retiring Vice-Presidents were re-elected : — 
Messrs. James Boyton, M.P.. Harold Griffin, 
Arthur Grover, A. B. Coulsell, Alfred Moore, 
W. F. Nokes, W. A. Raikes, and H. Marsden 

Mr. H. Coates proposed, and Mr. W. Lee 
seconded, that Messrs. Ben Andrews, W. Fox- 
ton, Wm. Hammond, J. P., .J. H. T. Keeves. 

A. J. H. Prevost, .J. C. Piatt. E. H. Wright, 
J. Edmondson, and Montagu Evaii.> be elected 
members of the Council, and the vote was car- 
ried. Among the new members of the Council 
elected were Messrs. H. Coates, Alex. Robert- 
.«on, R. J. Lang (Woolwich), and Alderman C. 
Pinkham (Willesden). On the motion of Mr. 

B. G. Evans, seconded by Mr. R. J. Lester, 
the auditors were re-elected. 

At the public meeting which followed, in 
his Presidential address, Mr. Edwin Evans 
ventured to siy that the time was coming when 
there would be, and indeed was now, a great 
eagerness to promote the building of small 
houses for the people. Speaking upon the War 
Rent Restrictions Act, he said he desired to 
enter a solemn protest against the action of 
borough councils who had chosen such t'mes 
as these to reduce or abolish compounding; 
allowances. In reference to the warning issued 
by the new President of the Local Government 
Board, Mr. Evans said the Association were 
the fir.«t to take up the position against raising 
rents and to direct into reasonable channels 
the provisions of that Bill. So far as they were 
concerned, they had c'.ean hands. Much of the 
trouble in London had arisen through the 
action of some of the borough councils, who, 
durins the time of war, when landlords were 
restricted and making great sacrifi-'-es, had in-, 
terfered with compounding allowances given 
for work which the councils could not do 

themselves. He only complained as to this 
action being taken durmg war-time. He was 
not sure that compoundnig was good at all, 
but he asked the councils to act fairly and 
adopt a regular system. Mr. Evans next com- 
mented upon dilapidations notices being served 
during war-time, where the length of lease had 
nine iiundred years to run, and considered 
action of that kina must he deplored. He was 
glad to tell them that, on behalf of several 
of their members, the Association had found 
reasonable means of coming to terms to secure 
postponement of these notices until six months 
after the declaration of peace. He believed 
the Association would be more required than 
ever during the anxious period now coming. 
In one quarter a tax on property of 6d. in the 
pound on the capital value, representing 5s. 
in the pound on the rental, was advocated, 
and nothing short of a great association was 
needed to warn off Socialistic kind of 

ilr. Harold Griffin gave an interesting ad- 
di-ess on the progress of the Association, and 
said they had credit for having pursued an 
enlightened and common-sense policy. AMiat 
must the little tin gods in the boroughs think 
of themselves now, after years of harrying the 
poor by paving over their gardens and pre- 
venting them from having a rabbit to amuse 
the children ? The Government proclamation 
to grow potatoes on every available inch of 
land and to keep as many fowls and rabbits as 
each individual could find room for outside his 
back door, or perhaps even on the first-floor 
landing, must have sounded to them like the 
crack of doom. 

An address in support of " Property Owners' 
Defence " and of the necessity of" property 
owners combining was given by Mr. ^i. 
Cheverton-Brovvn (President of the National 
Federation of Property Owners and Rate- 

Mr. A. W. Shelton (President of the Not- 
tingham Property Owners' Association) said 
there was a shortage at present of halfa-mil- 
hon working-class houses, and that shortage 
was increasing at the rate of 200 per day, 
chiefly due to Part I. of that Act. 

The meeting unanimously voted against 
Part I. of the Act. 

»••— e- 


Chapter III.— (Continued from patje 89.) 
(b) Coar.'ie Aijyrei/ate should consist of 
gravel or crushed stone which is retained on 
a .screen having ^-in. diameter holes, and 
should be graded from the smallest to the 
largest particles ; it should be clean, hard, 
durable, and free from all deleterious matter. 
Aggregates containing dust and soft, flat, or 
elongated particles should be excluded. The 
committee does not feel warranted in recom- 
mending the use of furnace slag as an 
aggregate, in the absence of adequate data 
as to its value, especially in reinforced con- 
crete construction. No satisfactory specifi- 
cations or methods of inspection have been 
developed that will control its uniformity 
and ensure the durability of the concrete in 
which it is used. 

The aggregate must be small enough t<j 
produce with the mortar a homogeneous con- 
crete of sluggish consistency which will pass 
readily between and ea.sily surround the re- 
inforcement and fill all parts of the forms. 
The maximum size of particles is variously 
determined for different types of construc- 
tion from that which will pass a j-in. ring 
to that which wUl pass a Ij-in. ring. 

For concrete in large masses the size of the 
coarse aggi-egate may be increased, as a large 
aggregate prodiices a stronger concrete than 
a fine one : however, it should be noted that 
the danger of separation from the mortar 
becomes greater as the size of the coarse 
aggregaie increases. 

Cmder concrete should not be used for re- 
inforced concrete structures, except in tloor- 
slabs not exceeding 8 ft. span. It also may 
be used for fire protection purposes where not 
required to carry loads. The cinders used 
should be composed of hard, clean, vitreous 
clinker, free from sulphides, unbumed coal, 
or ashes. ' 

3. WATER. 

'The v.-ater used in mixing concrete .should 
be free from oil, acid, alkali, or organic 


The Committee recommends as a suitable 
material for reinforcement, steel of structural 
grade filling the requirements of the specifi- 
cations for billet steel concrete reinforce- 
ment bars of the American Society for 
Testing Materials. 

For reinforcing .slabs, small beams, or minor 
details, or for reinforcing for shrinkage and 
temperature stresses, steel wire, expanded 
metal, or other reticulated steel may be used, 
with the unit stresses hereinafter recom- 

The reinforcement .should be free from 
flaking, rust, scale, or coatings of any charac- 
ter which would tend to reduce or destroy 
the bond. 

Ch.\pter IV. 

MiXIXCi .^ND Pl,.\CING. 

The materials should be carefully selected, 
of uniform quality, and proportioned with a 
view to securing as nearly as possible a ma.xi 
mum density, which is obtained by grading 
the aggregates so that the smaller particles 
fill the spaces between the larger, thus re- 
ducing the voids in the aggregate to the 

(<r) Unit of ifeasuri'. — ^The measurement of 
the fine and coarse aggregates should be by 
loose volume. The unit of measure should be 
a bag of cement, containing 94 lbs. net. which 
should be considered the equivalent of 1 cubic 

(6) Jtflnlion of Fine and Coarae .Agip'tgalea. 
— Tile fine and coarse aggregates should be 
used in such proportions as will secure maxi- 
mum density. These proportions should 1* 
carefully determined by density experiments, 
and the grading of the fine and coarse aggre- 
gates should be uniformly maintained, or the 
proportions changed, to meet the varying 

(c) Itelalion of Cement and Aggregates. — 
For reinforced concrete construction, one part 
of cement to a total of six parts of fine and 
coarse aggregates measured separately should 
generally be used. For columns, richer mix- 
tures are preferable. In massive masonry 
or rubble concrete a mixture of 1 : 9 or even 
1 : 12 may be used. 

These proportions should be determined by 
the strength or other qualities required in the 
construction at the critical period of use. 
Experience and judgment based on observ.i- 
tion and tests of similar conditions in similar 
localities are excellent guides as to the proper 
liroportions for any particular case. 

In important construction advance tests 
should be made on concrete composed of the 
materials to be used in the work. These 
tests should be made by standardised methods 
to obtain uniformity in mixing, proportion- 
ing, and storage, and in case the results do 
not conform to the requirements of the work. 
aggregates of a better quality or more 
cement should be used to obtain the desired 
quality of concrete. 


The mixing of concrete should be 
thorough, and continue until the mass is 
uniform in colour and homogeneous. As 
the maximum density and greatest strength 
of a given mixture depend largely .)n 
thorough and complete mixing, it i' e,s.sential 
that this part of the work should receive 
special attention and care. 

Inasmuch as it is difficult to determine, by 
visual inspection, whether the concrete is 
uniformly mixed, especially where aggregates 
ha\dng the colour of cement are used, it is 
essential that the mixing should occupy a 
definite period of time. The minimum time 
will depend on whether the mixing is done 
by machine or hand. 

(a) Men.'urinij Ingredients. — Methods of 
measurement of the various ingredients 
.should be used which will secure at all times 
separate and uniform measurement of cement, 
fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water. 

{h) yiarhinp Mixing. — Tlie mixing should 
be done in a batch machine mixer of a type 
which will ensure the uniform distribution of 



Jan. 31, 1917. 

tlie materials tlirougliout the mass, and sliould 
continue for tlie minimum time of 1^ min. 
after aU tlie ingredients are assembled in the 
mixer. For mixers of two or more cubic 
yaids capacity tflie minimum time of mixing 
should be 2 mins. Since the strength of the con- 
<Tete is dependent upon thorough mixing, a 
longer time thiui this minimum is preferable. 
It is desirable to have the mixer enuipiied 
with an attachment for automatically locking 
the discharging device so as to prevent the 
i-mplying of the mixer unitil all the materials 
liave been mixed togotlier for the minimum 
time (required after they are assembled in the 
mixer. Means should be provided to prevent 
aggregatas being added after the mixing has 
'•omrnenced. The mixer sliould also be 
equipped with water storage, and an auto- 
matic measuring device which can be locked 
IS desirable. It is also desirable to equip the 
mixer with a device recording the revolutions 
of the drum. The number of revolutions 
.should be so regulated as to give at the peri- 
phery of the <lram a uniform speed : about 
200 ft. jier minute seems to be the best speed 
in the present state of the art. 

{r.) Hand Mixinrj. — Hand mixing should 
be done on a water-tighi platform, and 
eispeoial precautions taken after the water has 
been a<Ided to tum all the ingredients to- 
gether .T.t least six times, and until the mass 
IS homogeneous in appearance and colour. 

(d) ConnUloiri/.—The materials should be 
mixed wet enough to produce a concrete of 
such a consistency as will flow .sluggishly into 
tlie forms and about the metal reinforcement 
when used, and which, at the same time, can 
be conveyed from the mixer to the fonns with- 
out separation of the coarse aggregate from 
the mortar. Tile quantity of water is of the 
greatest import-ance in securing concrete of 
maximum strength and density : too much 
water is as objectionable as too little. 

(e) Relent pcrinfi. — The remixing of mo' tail- 
or concrete that has partly set should not be 


(a) Methods. — Conci-ete after tlie comjile- 
tion of the mixing should be conveyed lapidly 
to the phuie of final dejwsit ; luider no cir- 
ciunstances should concrete be used that has 
partly set. 

Concrete should be deposited in such a 
manner as will permit the most thorough com- 
paoting, such as can be obtained by working 
with a straight shovel or slicing "tix)l kept 
moving up and down until all the ingredients 
are in their proper place. Special care should 
Ibe exercised to prevent the formation of 
laitajice ; where laitance has formed it should 
be removed, since it lacks strength and pre- 
vents a proper bond in the concrete. 

Before depositing concrete, the reinforce- 
ment sliould be carefully placed in accordance 
with the plans. It is essential that adequate 
meiins be provided to hold it in its proper 
position until the concrete has been deposited 
and compacted ; care should be taken that the 
forms are substantial and thoi-oughly wetted 
(except in freezing weather) or oiled, and 
that the space to be occu))ied by the concrete 
is free from debris. When tlie placing of oon- 
crotc is suspended, all necessary grooves for 
joining future work should be made before 
the concrete has set. 

When work is resumed, concrete previoiusly 
placed should be roughened, cleansed of 
foreign material and laitance, thoroughly 
wetted, and then slii.shed with a mortar con- 
sisting of one i>art Portland c^-ment and not 
more than two i>aTt« fine .aggregate. 

The surfjtees of concrete exposed to prema- 
ture drying should be kept covered and wet 
for a period of a.t lea^it seven days. 

Where concrete is conveyed by spoutiug, 
the plant should be of such a size and design 
as to ensure a practically continuous stream 
in the spout. Tlio angJe of the sjiout with the 
ht)rizontal .should be such as to allow the con- 
cret* In (low without a sepai-ation of the in- 
gredients : in general an angle of alx>ut 
27 deg. or one vertical to two horizxintal is 
good pmctice. The sipout should be thor- 
oughly flushe<l with waf<>r before and 
afteir eaoh run. The delivery from the spout 
should bo ,Ts clase .is possible to the point of 
deposit. Where the discharge must l>e inter- 
mittent. ,T hopper should be provided at the 
bottom. Spouting through a vertical pipe is 

sati.'>lacUiiy wflien the flow is continuous ; 
when it is unchecked and discontinuous it is 
highly objectionable, unless the flow is 
checked by baffle plates. 

(I)) Fieezintj Wealher. — Concrete should not 
be mixed or depo.sited at a freezing tempera- 
ture, unless special precautions are taken to 
prevent the use of materials covered with icv 
crystals or cont.iining frost, and to prevent 
the concrete from freezing before it has set 
and sufficiently hardened. 

As the ooaree aggiegate forms the greater 
poi'tion of the concrete, it is particularly im- 
portant tiliat this material be warmed to well 
above the freezing point. 

The enclosing of a structure and the warm 
ing of the .space inside the enclosure is recom- 
mended, but the use of salt to lower the freez- 
ing jx)int is not recommended. 

(c) Itubble Concrete. — Where the concrete i.< 
to be de]X)sited in massive work, its value may 
be improved and its cost materially reduce<l 
by the use of clean stones, .saturated with 
water, thorougflily embedded in and entirely 
.surrounded by concrete. 

(rf) Under Water. — In placing concrete 
under water, it is essential to maintiiin stil! 
water at the place of depo.sit. WiUi caieiul 
inspection, the use of tremies, properly de- 
signed and operated, is a satisfactory method 
of placing concrete through waiter. The 
concrete .should be mixed very wet (more 
so than is ordinarily permissible) so that it 
will flow readily through the tremie and into 
place with practically a levt'l surface. 

The coarse aggregate should be smaller 
than ordinarily u.sed, and never more than 
1 in. in diameter. The use of gravel facili 
tat-es mixing and assists the flow. The mouth 
of the tremie should be buried in the con- 
crete so that it is at all times entirely sealed 
and the surrounding water prevented from 
forcing itself into the tremie; the concrete 
will then discharge without coming in con- 
tact with the water. The tremie should be 
suspended so that it can be lowered quickly 
when it is necessary either to choke off or 
prevent too rapid flow ; the lateral flow pre- 
ferably should be not over 15 ft. 

The flow should be continuous in order to 
produce a monolithic mass and to prevent the 
formation of laitance in the interior. 

In case the flow is interrupted, it is im- 
portant that all laitance be removed before 
)iroceeding with tlie work. 

In large structures it may be necess.iry to 
divide the mass of concrete into several small 
compartments or units, to permit the con- 
tinuous filling of each one. With proper care 
it is possible in this manner to obtain as good 
results under water as in the air. 

A less desirable method is the use of the 
drop-bottom bucket. Where this method is 
used, the liottom' of the Inicket should be 
released when in contact with the surface of 
the place of deposit. 

Chaiteu V. 


Forms should be substantial and unyield- 
ing, in order that the concrete may conform 
to the design and be sutliciently tight to pre- 
vent the leakage of mortar. 

It is vitally importiuit to allow sufficient 
time for the proper hju'dening of tlie con- 
crete, which should be determined by care- 
ful inspection before the forms are removed. 

.Many conditions affect the hardening of 
concrete, and the proper time for the re- 
moval of the forms should be determined by 
simie competent and responsible person. 

It may be stated in a general way that 
forms «.hould remain in place longer for re- 
inforced concrete than is lequired for plain 
or massive concrete, and longer for hori- 
zontal than is required for vertical members. 

In general, it may be considered that con- 
crete h.13 hardened sulhciently when it has a 
distinctive ring under the blow of a hammer, 
but thie test is not reliable if there is a pos- 
sibility that the concrete is frozen. 

Chapter VI, 


(a) In Concrete. — It is desirable to cast an 
entire structure at one operation, but as this 
is not always possible, especially in large 
structures, it is necessary to stop the work 

at some convenient point. This should be 
selected so that the resulting joint may have 
the least possible effect on the strengUi of 
the structure. It is therefore recommended 
that the joint in columns be made flush with 
the lower side of the girders, or in flat slab 
construction at the bottom of the flare of 
the column head ; that the joints in girders 
be at a point midway between supports, unless 
a l>eam intersects a girder at tliis point, in 
which case the joint should be offset a dis- 
tance equal to twice the width of the beam ; 
and that the joints in the members of a floor 
system should in general be made at or near 
the centre of the span. 

Joints in columns should be perpendicuiar 
to the axis, and in girders, beams, and floor- 
slabs jierpendicular to the plane of their sur- 
faces. When it is necessary to provide for 
shear at right angles to the axis, it is per- 
missible to incline the plane of the joint as 
much as 30° from the perpendicular. Joints 
in arch rings should be on planes as nearly 
radial as practicable. 

Before placing the concrete on top of a 
freshly poured column a period of at least 
2 hours should be allowed for the settlement 
and shrinkage. 

.Shrinkage and contraction joints may be 
necessary to concentrate cracks due to tem- 
perature in smooth even lines. The number 
of these joints, which should be determined 
and provided for in the decign, will depend 
on the range of temperature to which the 
concrete will be subjected and on the amount 
and position of the reinforcement. In mas- 
sive work, such as retaining walls, abut- 
ments, etc., built without reinforcement, con- 
traction joints should be provided at in- 
tervals of from 25 to 50 ft., and with rein- 
forcement from 50 to 80 ft. ; the smaller Uie 
height and thickness the closer tlie spacing. 
The joints should be tongued and grooved 
to niaintain the aligimient in case of un- 
wiual settlement. A groove may be formed 
ui the surface as a finish to vertical joints. 

Shrinkage and contraction joints should be 
lubricated by an application of petroltum 
oil or a similar materi,-il to permit a free 
movement when tlie concrete expands or con- 

The movement of the joint due to expan- 
sion and contraction may be facilitated by 
the insertion of a sheet of copper, zinc, or 
even tarred paper. 

(6) In litinforcement. — Wherever it is 
necessary to splice tension reinforcement the 
length of lap should be determined on the 
basis of the safe bond stress, the stress in the 
bar and the shearing resistance of the concrete 
at the i)c)int of splice ; or a connection should 
be made between the bars of sufBcient 
strength to carry the stress. Splices at 
points of m.iximiim stress in tension should 
bo avoided. In columns, bars more than J in. 
in diameter not subject to tension should 
have their ends properly squared and butted 
together in suitable sleeves ; smaller bars 
may be lapped, as indicated for tension rein- 
forcement. At foundations bearing pintes 
should be provided for supporting tSe bars, 
or the bars may be carried into the foot ng 
a snflicient distance to transmit the stress ii 
the steel to the concrete by means of the 
bearing and the bond resistance. In no case 
should reliance be placed upon the end bear- 
ing of bars on concrete. 


The stres.se8 resulting from shrinkage due 
to hardening and contraction from tempera- 
ture changes arc important in monolithic ci>n- 
stnietion, and unless cared for mi the design 
will produce objectionable cracks ; craclis 
cannot be entirely jjrevented, but the effects 
can be minimised. 

Large cracks, produced by quick hardeniii_- 
or wide ranges of temperature, can be broken 
up to some extent into small cracks by 
placing reinforcement in the concrete : in 
long, continuous lengths of concrete, it is 
V'etter to provide shrinkage joints at points 
in the structure where they will do little 
iir no harm. Reinforcement is of assistance, 
.uid permits longer distance between shrink- 
age joints than when no reinforcement is 

Provision for shrinkage should be made 
when small or thin masses are joined to larger 

Jan. 31, 1917. 



•or thicker masses ; at such places the use of 
fillets, similar to those used in metal castings, 
but proportionately larger, is recommended. 
Shrmkage cracks are hkely to occur at 
points where fresh concrete is joined to that 
which is set, and hence in placing the con- 
crete, construction joints should be made, as 
described in Chapter VI., Section 1, or, if 
possible, at points where joints would 
jiatiirally occur in dimension-stone masonry. 


Concrete, because incombustible and of a 
]ow rate of heat conducti%'ity, is highly 
efficient and admirably adapted for hre- 
proofing purposes. This has been demon- 
strated by experience and tests. 

The dehydration of concrete probably be- 
gins at about 500° Fahr. and is completed at 
about 900° Fahr., but experience indicates 
that the volatilisation of the water absorbs 
heat from the surrounding mass,' which, to 
gether with the resistance of the air cells, tends 
to increase the heat resistance of the concrete, 
so th,at the process of dehydration is very 
much retarded. The concrete that is actu- 
ally affected by fire and remains in position 
affords protection to that beneath it. 

The thickness of the protective coating 
should be governed by the intensity and 
duration of a possible fire and the rate of 
heat conductivity of the concrete. The 
question of the rate of heat conductivity of 
concrete is one which requires further 
study and investigation before a definite rate 
for different classes of concrete can be fully 
established. However, for ordinary condi- 
tions, it is recommended that the metal be 
protected by a minimum of 2 in. of concrete 
on girders and columns, Ij in. on beams, 
and 1 in. on floor-slabs. 

Where nre-proofing is required, and not 
otherwise provided in monolithic concrete 
columns, it is recommended that the concrete 
to a depth of I5 in. be considered as protec- 
tive covering, and not included in the effec- 
tive section. 

The comers of columns, girders, and beams 
sliould be bevelled or rounded, as a sharp 
corner is more seriously affected by fire than 
a ix>und one; experience shows that round 
columns are more fire-resistive than square. 

Many expedients have been resorted to for 

rendering concrete impervious to water. 
Experience shows, however, that when mor- 
taj or concrete is proportioned to obtain the 
gret«st practicable density and is mixed to 
the proper consistency (Chapter IV., Sec- 
tion 2 d), the resulting mortar or concrete is 
impervious under moderate pressure. 

On the other haijd, concrete of dry con- 
sistency is more or less pervious to water, 
and, though compounds of various kinds have 
"been mixed with the concrete or applied as 
a wash to the surfaoce, in an effort to offset 
this defect, these expedients have generally 
■been disappointing, for the reason that many 
of these compounds have at best but tem- 
porary value, and in time lose their power of 
imparting impermeability to the concrete. 

In the case of subways, long retaining 
walls and reservoirs, provided the concrete 
itself is impervious, cracks may be so re- 
duced, by horizontal and vertical reinforce- 
ment properly proportioned and located, that 
they wiU be Ux> minute to permit leakage, 
or will be closed by infiltration of silt. 

Asphaltic or coal-tar preparations -'lolied 
•either as a mastic or as a coating on felt or 
cloth, fabric, are used for water-proofing, and 
should be proof against injury by liquids or 

For retaining and similar walls in direct 
contact with the earth, the application of one 
or two coatings of hot coal-tar pitch, follow- 
ing a painting with a thin wash of coal tar 
dissolved in benzol, to the thoroughly dried 
surface of concrete is an efficient method of 
preventing the penetration of moisture from 
the earth. 


Concrete is a material of an individual 
type, and shou'.d be used without effort ac 
imitation of other building materials. One 
of the important problems connected with its 
u.<;e is the character of the finish of exposed 
surfaces. The desired finish should be deter- 

mined before the concrete is placed, and the 
work conducted so as to facilitate securing it. 
The natural surface of the concrete in most 
structures is unobjectionable, but in others 
the marks of the forms and the flat, dead 
surface are displeasing, making some special 
treatment desirable. A treatment of the sur- 
face which removes the film of cement and 
brings the aggregates of the concrete into 
relief, either by scrubbing with brushes and 
water before it'is hard, or by tooling it after 
it is hard, is frequently used to erase the 
form markings and break the monotonous 
appearance of the surface. Besides being 
more pleasing in inmiediate appearance, such 
a surface is less subject to discoloration and 
hair cracking than is a surface composed of 
the cement that segregates against the forms, 
or one that is made by applying a cement wash. 
The aggregates can also be exposed by wash- 
ing with hydrochloric acid diluted with from 
5 to 10 parUs of water. The plastering of 
surfaces should be avoided, for even if care- 
fully done, it is liable to peel off under the 
action of frost or temperature changes. 

Various effect.' in texture and in colour can 
be obtained when the surface is to be 
scrubbed or tooled, by using aggregates of the 
desired size and colour. For a fine-grained 
texture a granolithic surface mixture can be 
made and placed against the face forms to a 
thickness of about 1 in. as tlie placing of 
the body of the concrete proceeds. 

A sjiiooth, even surface, without form 
marks, can be secured by the use of plastered 
forms, which, in structure.s having many 
duplications of members, can be used re- 
jieatedly : these are male in panels of ex- 
panded metal or wire mesh coated with 
plaster, a^nd the joints made at edges, and 
closed with plaster of Paris. 

Ch.^pter VII. 
1. massive concrete. 
In the design of massive or plain concrete, 
no account should be taken of the tensile 
strength of the material, and sections should 
usually be proportioned so as to avoid tensile 
stresses except in slight amounts to resioc 
indirect stresses. This will generally be ac- 
complished in the case of rectangular shapes 
if the line of pressure is kept within the 
middle third of the section, but in very large 
structures, such as high masonry dams, a 
more exact analysis may be required. Struc- 
tures of massive concrete are able to resist 
unbalanced lateral forces by reason of their 
weight ; hence the element of weight rather 
than strength often determines the design. 
A. leaner and relatively cheap concrete, there- 
fore, will often be suitable for massive con- 
crete structures. 

It is desirable generally to provide joints 
at intervals to localise the effect of contrac- 
tion. (Chapter VI.. Section 1.) 

Massive concrete is suitable for dams, re- 
taining walls, and piers in which the ratio of 
length to least width is relatively small. 
Uunder ordinary conditions, this ratio should 
not exceed four." It is also suitable for arches 
of moderate span. 

2. reinforced concrete. 
The use of metal reinforcement is particu- 
larly advantageous in members such as beams 
in "which both tension and compression 
exist, and in columns where the principal 
stresses are compressive, and where there also 
may be cross-bending. Therefore the theory 
of design here presented relates mainly to 
the analysis of beams and columns. 

3. general assumptions. 
[fi) Lnnds.— The forces to be resisted are 
those due to : — 

1. Tlie dead load, which includes the 

weight of the structure and fixed loads 
and forces 

2. The live load, or the loads and forces 

which are variable. The dynamic 
effect of the live load will often require 
consideration. Allowance for the 
latter is preferably made by a propor- 
tionate increase in eit'-°r the live load 
or the live-load stresses. The working 
stresses hereinafter recommended are 
intended to apply to the equivalent 
static .stresses thus determined. 

In the case of high buildings, the 
live load on columns may be reduced in 
accordance with the usual practice. 

(6) Lengths oj Beams and Columns. — The 
span length tor beams and slabs simply sup- 
ported should be taken as the distance from 
centre to centre of supports, but need not be 
taken to exceed the clear span plus the depth 
of beam or slab. For continuous or restrained 
beams built monolithically into supports, the 
span length may be taken as the clear distance 
between faces of supports. Brackets should not 
be considered as reducing the clear span in 
the sense here intended, except that when 
brackets which make an angle of 45 deg. or 
more with the axis of a restrained beam 
are built monolithically with the beam, the 
span may be measured from the section where 
the combined depth of beam and bracket is 
at least one-third more than the depth of the 
beam. Maximum negative moments are to be 
considered as existing at the end of the span 
as here defined. 

When the depth of a restrained beam is 
greater at its ends than at mid-span, and the 
slope of the bottom of the beam at its ends 
makes an angle of not more than 15 deg. witH 
the direction of the axis of the beam at mid- 
span, the span length may be measured from 
face to face of supports. 

The length of columns should be taken as 
the maximum unstayed length. 

(c) Stresses. — The following assumptions 
are recommended as a basis for calculations : 

1. Calculations will be made with reference 
to working stresses and safe loads, 
rather than with reference to ultimate 
strength and ultimate loads, 

2. A plane section before bending remains 
plane after bending. 

3. The modulus of elasticity of concrete in 
compression is constant within the 
usual limits of working stresses. The 
distribution of compressive stress in 
beams is therefore rectilinear. 

4. In calculating the moment of resistance 
of beams,' the tensile stresses in the 
concrete are neglected. 

5. The adhesion between the concrete and the 
reinforcement is perfect. Under com- 
pressive stress the two materials are 
therefore stressed in proportion to 
their moduli of elasticity. 

6. The ratio of the modulus of elasticity of 
steel to the modulus of elasticity of 
concrete is taken at 15, except as modi- 
fied in Chapter VIII., Section 8. 

7. Initial stress in the reinforcement due to 
contraction or expansion of the con- 
crete is neglected. 

It is recognised that some of the assump- 
tions given herein are not entirely borne out 
by experimental data. They are given in 
the interest of simplicity and uniformity, 
and variations from exact conditions are 
taken into account in the selection of for- 
mulas and w-orking stresses. 

The deflection of a beam depends upon the 
strength and stiffness developed throughout 
its length. For calculating deflection, a 
value o( 8 for the ratio of the moduli will 
give results corresponding approximately 
with the actual conditions. 

4. t-beams. 

In beam and slab construction an effective 
bond should be provided at the junction of the 
beam and slab. When the principal slab re- 
inforcement is parallel to the beam, transverse 
reinforcement should be used, extending over 
the beam and well into the slab. 

The slab may be considered an integral part 
of the beam, when adequate bond and shear- 
ing resistance between .«lab and web of beam 
is provided, but its effective width shall be 
determined by the following rules ; 

{a) It shall not exceed one-fourth of the 

span length of the beam ; 
(b) Its overhanging width on either side of 
the web shall not exceed six times the 
thickness of the slab. 
In the design of continuous T-beams, due 
consideration should be given to the compres- 
sive stress at the support. 

{Continued on vage 108.) 



























A«P T, 

jIITM Y \W^ 






)Vii J )i\( •) : 


.» IH1. ' Ifii' 1 11 

)IFF.— Ml. William D. CARiiE, M.A, F.S.A., F.F.I.B.A., Architect. 
;5lJ| ED DESIGN. — Messrs. Ambrose Povntf.k, F.R.FP>.A., and George Wexyon, M.S. A., Architects. 



Stewart Bale, P/lolo.] 


Messrs. Briggs, Wolstenholme and Thornely, FF.R.I.B.A. Architects. 


Mr. Leonard Martin, F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 


THE BUILDixNG AEWS. .No. 3239. 

Jan. 31, 1917. 

(Continued from page 07.) 
Beams in which the T-form is used only 
for the purpose of providing additional com- 
pression area of concrete should preferably 
have a width of flange not more than three 
times the width of the stem and a thickness 
of flange not leas than one-third of the depth 
of the beam. Both in this form and in the 
beam and slab form the web stresses and the 
limitations in placing and spaciii" the longi- 
tudinal reinforcement will probably be con- 
trolling factors in design. 


Floorslabs having the supports e.xtending 
along the four sides should be designed and 
reinforced as continuous over the supports. 
If the length of the slab e.xceeds one and one- 
half times its width, the entire load should 
be carried by transverse reinforcement. 

For uniformly distributed loads o'n square 
slabs, one half the live and dead load may be 
used in the calculations of moment to be re- 
sisted in each direction. For oblong slabs, 
the length of which is not greater than one 
and one-half times their width, the moment 
to be resis(,<'d by the transverse reinforcement 
may be found by using a proportion of the 
live and dead load equal to that given by 

the formula, ^ = -r ~ ^-^i '^^^''6 ' = length 

and b = breadth of slab. The longitudinal 
reinforcement shcmld then be proportioned to 
carry the remainder of the load. 

In placing reinforcement in such slabs ac- 
count may well be taken of the fact that the 
bending moment is greater near the centre of 
the slab than near the edges. For this purpose 
two-thirds of the previously calculated 
moments may be a.«sumed as carried by the 
centre half of the .slab and one-third by the 
outside quarters. 

Loads carried to beams by slabs which aie 
reinforced in two directions will not be uni- 
formly distributed to the supporting beams, 
and the distribution will depend on the rela- 
tive stifTne.<is of the slab and the supporting 
beams. The distribution which may be ex- 
pected ordinarily is a variation of the 
load in the Ijeam in accor.lance with 
the ordinates of a parabola, having its vertex 
at the middle of the span. For any given 
design, the probable distribution ishonld be 
a.<icertained and the moment* in the beam, cal- 
culated a<'cordin;;Iy. 


When, the beam or slab is continuous over 
its supports, reinforcement should be fully 
]irovjdpd at points of negative moment, and 
the st.resses in concrete recnnimenilc<l in 
Olia-pter VIII., Section 4, .'Oiould not be ex- 
ceeded. In conijiutng the positive and nega- 
tive m/>ments in beams and slabs continuous 
over several supports, due to uniformly dis- 
tributed loads, the followijig rules are recom- 
mended : — 

(o) For floor slabs the bending momenta at 

centre and at support should be taken at 

for both dead and live loads, where w repre- 
sents the load per linear unit and I the span 

(b) For beams the bending moment at centre 
and at support for interior spans should be 

taken at . and for end spans it should be 


taken at "l^ for centre and interior support 

for both dead and live loads. 

(c) In the case of beams and slabs continuous 
for two spans only, with their ends restrained, 
the bending moment boih at the central sup- 
port and near the middle of the span should be 

taken as . 

(d) At the ends of continuous beams the 
amount of negative moment which will bo 
developed in the beam will depend on the con- 
dition of restraint or fixedness, and this will 
depend on the form of construction used. In 

the ordinary cases a moment of - — may be 

taken ; for small beams running into heavy 
columns this should be increased, but not to 

HI i^ 



For spans of unusual length, or for spans 
of materially unequal length, more exact cal- 
culations should be made. Special considera- 
tion is also required in the case of concen- 
trated loads. 

Even if the centre of the span is designed 
for a greater bending moment tlian is called 
fo.- by (a) or (b), the negative moment at tiie 
support sliould not be taken as less tlian the 
values tliere given. 

Where beams are reinforced on the com- 
pression side, the steel may be assumed to 
carry its proportion of stress in accordance 
witih the ratio of moduli of elasticity, Chap- 
ter VIII., Section 8. Reinforcing baj-s foi- 
compression in beams ehould be straight and 
should be two diameters in the clear from 
the surface of tJie concrete. For the positive 
leiiling moment, such reinforcement should 
not exceed 1 per ceiit. of the area of tlie c<m- 
crete. In the case of cantilever and con- 
tinuous beams, tensile and compressive rein- 
forcement over supports sliould extend suffi- 
ciently beyond the support and beyond the 
point of inflection to develop the requisite 
bond strenrgth. 

In construction made continuous over sup- 
j)onts, it is important that am,ple foundations 
should be provided, for unequjil settlements 
are liable to produce unsightly if not dan- 
gerous cracks. This effect is more likely to 
occiw in low statictures. 

Girders, such as wall-girders, wliich have 
beams framed into one side only, should be 
designed to resist toreional moment arising 
from the negative moment at the end of the 


Adequate bond strength should be pro 
\i,led. The formula h-;reinaf', :i' '.'i\cn for 
bond stresses in (beams is for straight longi- 
tudinal bat's. In beams in whicli a portior. 
of the reinforcement is bent up near the enl. 
the bond stress at places, in both the straight 
bars and the l)ent bars, will be considerably 
greater tiian for all the bare straight, .xud tlie 
stress at some point may be several times as 
mucJi as Uiat found by considering the stress 
to be uujfoi'mly distributed along the bar. 
Iiv restj'.ained and cantjlever beams, full 
tensile .stress exists in the reinforcing bars at 
the point of support, and the bivrs should 'o 
anchored in the support sufficiently to 
develop this stress. 

In case of ajichorage of bare, an additional 
length of bar sJiould be provided beyond that 
found on the assximption of uniform bond 
stress, foi- the reason that before the bond 
resistance at the end of the bar can be de- 
veloped the bar may have begun to slip at 
anotiier point, and "running" resistance is 
less than the resistance before slip begins. 

Where high bond resistance is required the 
deformed bar is a suitable means of supply- 
ing the necessaiy strength. But it should 
be recognised that, even with a deformed bar, 
initial flip occurs at early loads, and that the 
ultimate loads obtained in the usual tests for 
bond resistance may be misleading. Adequate 
bond .^ti-engt.h tlu-imghout the length of a bar 
is preferable to end ancJiorage, but, as an 
additional safeguard, such ancliorage may 
properly be used in special cases. .^\nchorage 
ftirnished by short ben .Is at a right angle is 
less effective than by hooks ivmsisting of 
turns through 180 degrees 

The l.^teral spacing of parallel bars should 
be not less than tJirec jiameters from centre 
to ce^ntre, nor should tJie distance from the 
side of the beam to tlie centre of the nearest 
bar be less than two diameters. The clear 
spacing between two layers of bars sliould 
bo not less than 1 in. The use of more than 
two layers is not recommended, unle.'ss the 
layers are tied together by adequate metal 
connections, ]iarticularly at and near points 
where bars are bent up or bent down. 
Where more than one layei' is used, at least 
all bars above the lower layer sihould bo bent 
up and anchored beyonl the edge of the 


When a i-ein forced concrete beam is sub- 
jected to flexural action, diagonal tensile 
stresses are set up. A beam without web 
reinforcement will fail if these stre^ses 

exceed tlie tensile strength of the con- 
crete. When web reinforcement, made up 
of stirrups or of diagonal bars secured to the 
longitudinal reinforcement, or of longitudinal 
reinforcing bars bent up at several points, is 
U£ed, new conditions prevail, but even in 
tliis case, at the beginning of loading the 
diagonal tension developed is taken princi- 
l>ally by the concrete, the deformations which 
are developed in the concrete permitting but 
little stress to be taken by the web roinforce- 
ment. When the resistance of the concrete 
to the diagonal tension is overcome at any 
point in Uie depth of the beam, greater stress 
is at once set up in the web reinforcement. 

For homogeneous beams, the analytical 
treatment of diagonal tension is not very 
complex — ^the diagonal tensile stress is a func- 
tion of the horizontal and vertical shearing 
stresses and oi the horizontal tensile sti-ess 
at the point considered, aiud as the intensity 
of three stresses varies from the neutral 
axis to the remotest fibre, the intensity of the 
diagonal tension will be different at different 
points in the section, and will change with 
different proportionate dimensions of length 
to deptli of beam. For the composite struc- 
ture of reinforced conci-ete beams, an analysis 
of the web stresses, and particularly of the 
diagonal tensile stresses, is very complex ; 
and w hen the variations due to a, change from 
no horizontal tensile stress in the con- 
crete at remotest fibre to the presence of 
horizontal tensile stress at some f>oint below 
the neutral axis are considered, the problem 
becomes more complex and indefinite. Under 
Lliese circumstances, in designing, recourse is 
hai to the use of the calculated vertical 
shearing stress, as a means of comparing or 
nieasui'ing the diagonal tensile stresses de- 
veloped, it being understood that the vertical 
sheai'ing stress is not the numerical equiva- 
lent of the diagonal tensile stress, and tliat 
there is not even a constant ratio between 
them. It is here recommended tha;t the maxi- 
mum vertical shearing stress in a section be 
used as tlic means of comparison of the re- 
sistance to diagonal tensile stress developed 
in tlie concrete in beams not having web re- 

Even after tlia concrete has reached its 
limit of resistance to diagonal tension, if 
the beam has web reinforcement, conditions 
of beam action will continue to prevail, at 
least through Uie compression area, and the 
web reinforcement will be called on to resist 
only a part of the web stresses. From ex- 
periments witJi beams it is concluded that 
it is safe pi-actice to use only two-thirds of 
the external vertical shear in maJcing calcula- 
tions of the stresses that come on stirrups, 
diagonal web pieces, and bent-up bars, and it 
is here i-ecommended for calculations in de- 
signing that two-thirds of the external verti- 
cal slieai- be taken as producing stresses in 
web reinforcement. 

It is well established that vertical mem- 
bers attached to or loi>ped about horizontal 
members, inclined membei-s secured to hori- 
zontal members in such a way as to insure 
against .slip, and the bending of a part of tie 
longitudinal reinforcement at an angle, will 
increase the strength of a beam against 
failure by di.Tgonal tension, and tJiat a well- 
desigiied and well-distributed web reinforce- 
ment may, under the best conditions, increase 
the total vertical .shear carried to a value as 
miioh as three times that obtained when the 
bars are all horizontal and no web reinforce- 
ment is used. 

When web reinforcement comes into action 
.as the principal tension web resistance, the 
bond stresses between tJie longitudinal bars 
and the concjiete are not distributed as uim- 
formly along tJie bail's as they othenvise 
would be, but tend to be concentrated at and 
near stirnips, and at and near the points 
where bars .are bent up. When stirrups are 
not rigidly .attached to tlie longitudinal bars, 
and tiic proportiondng of bars and stirrup 
spacing is sucJi that local slip of bars occur 
at .stiiTups, the effectiveness of the stirrups 
is impaire.l, though the presence of stirrups 
still gives an element of toughness against 
diagonal tension fiiilure. 

Sufficient bond resi.stance between the con- 
crete and the stirrups or diagonals must be 

Jan. 31, 1917. 



provided in the compression! area of the 

Tbe longituddnal spacing of vertical stir- 
rups "should not exceed one-half the depth of 
beam, and that of inclined members sliould 
not exceed three-foui'ths of the depth of 

Bending of longitudinal reinforcing bars 
at an angle across the web of the beam may 
be considered as adding to diagonal tensiou 
resistance for a horizontal distance from the 
point of bending equal to three-fourths of the 
depth of beam. \\ here the bending is made 
at two or more points, the distance between 
points of bending should not e.xceed three- 
fourths of the depth of the beam. In 
the case of a restrained beam, the 
effect of bending up a bar at the 
bottom of the beam in resisting diagonal 
tension may not be taken as extending 
beyond a .section at the point of inflectiu.i, 
and the effect of bending down a bar in tlie 
region of negative moment may be taken o.s 
e.xtending from the point of bending down 
of bar nearest the support to a section not 
more than three-fourths of the depth of beam 
beyond the point of bending down of bar 
farthest from the support, but not beyond 
the point of inflection. In case stirrups are 
used in the beam away from the region in 
which the bent bars are considered effective, 
a stirrup should be placed not farther than a 
distance equal to one-fourth of the depth of 
beam from the limiting sections defined above. 
In case the web resistance required through 
the region of bent bars is greater than that 
furnished by the bent bars, sufficient ddi 
tional web reinforcement in the form of 
stirrups or attached diagonals should be pro- 
vided. The higher re.sistance to diagonal 
tension stre'sses given by unit frames having 
the stirrups and bent-up bars securely con- 
nected together both longitudinally and latei- 
ally is worthy of recognition. It is necessary 
that a limit be placed on the amount of shear 
which may be allowed in a beam ; for when 
web reinforcement sufficiently efficient to give 
very high web resistance is used, at the 
higher stresses the concrete in the beam be- 
comes checked and cracked in such a way as 
to endanger its durability as well as its 

The section to be taken as the critical sec- 
tion in the calculation of sliearing stresses will 
generally be the one having the maximum 
vertical shear, though experiments show that 
the section at which diagonal tension failures 
occur is not just at a support, even though 
the shear at the latter point be much greater. 

In the case of restrained beams, the first 
stirrap or the point of bending down of bar 
should be placed not farther than one-half of 
the depth of beam away from the face of the 

It is important that adequate bond strength 
i.r anchorage be provided to develop fully the 
rssumed strength of all web reinforcement. 

Low bond stresses in the longitudinal bars 
are helpful in giving resistance against 
diagonal tension failure^;, and anchorage of 
longitndinal bars at the ends of the beams or 
ill the supports is advantageous. 

It should be noted that it is on the tension 
side ef tlie beam that diagonal tens'on 
develops in a critical way. and that proper 
connection should always be made between 
stirrups or other web reinforcement and 'he 
longitudinal tension reinforcement, whetiiir 
the latter is on the lower side of the beam 
or on its upper side. Where negative moment 
exists, as is the case near the supports in a 
continuous beam, web reinforcement, to be 
effective, must be looped over or wrapped 
around, or be connected with, the longitudinal 
tension reinforcing bars at the top of the 
beam in the same way as is necessary at the 
bottom of the beam at sections where the 
hending moment is positive. 

Inasmuch as the smaller the longitudinal 
deformations in the horizontal reinforcement 
are, the less the tendency for the formation of 
diagonal cracks, a beam will be strengthened 
against diagonal tension failure by so arrang- 
ing and proportioning the horizontal reinforce- 
ment that the unit stresses at points of large 
■shear shall be relatively low. 

It does not seem feasible to make a complete 
ranaljBis of the action of web reinforcement. 

and more or less empirical methods of cal- 
culation are therefore employed. Limiting 
values of working stresses for different types 
of web reinforcement are given in Chapter 
VIII., Section 5. The conditions apply 
to cases commonly met in design. It 
is assumed that adequate bond resistance or 
anchorage of all web reinforcement will be 

When a flat slab rests on a column,, or a 
column bears on a footing, the vertical shear- 
ing stresses in the slab or footing immediately 
adjacent to the column are termed punching 
shearing stresses. The element of diagonal 
tension, being a function of the bending 
mornent as well as of shear, may be small in 
such cases, or may be otherwise provided for. 
For tills reason, the permissible limit of stress 
for punching shear may be higher than the 
allowable limit when the shearing stress is 
used as a means of comparing diagonal tensile 
stress. The working values recommended are 
given in Chapter VIII., Section 5. 
(To he continued.) 

•nr EfUttstratinns. 


The drawing illustrated shows the portions 
of the whole scheme still to be completed. 
It includes the great hall, the refectories for 
students and technical buildings which flank 
it, including the laboratories of the public 
health department. These lie upon the op- 
posite side of the courtyard to the ranges of 
buildings already finished. Mr. W. D. Caroe, 
M.A., is the architect. The perspective now 
reproduced was sliown at the Royal Academv 
Exhibition, 1916. 

This detail is reproduced from the big 
drawing which was prominently placed at 
the Royal Academy last summer. The 
general drawings of this design were pub- 
lished, small scale, in The Building News 
for .July 7, 1915. We reviewed the competi- 
tion designs the week previously, when the 
chosen scheme by Messrs. Briggs, Wolsten- 
holme and Thornely was illustrated in our 
pages. The authors of this design are Messrs. Poynter, F.R.I.B.A.. and George 
Wenyon, M.S. A. They were awarded a 
premiimi of £75. Owing to the war the work 
of erecting these buildings had to be post- 
poned for the present. 

This small clock tower was erected by public 
subscription to the memory of the late James 
Smith, who was a generous benefactor to the 
borough of Wallase}'. It forms an entrance 
from the street to the Quarry Recreation 
Ground, which lies several feet below the 
.street level. The quarry site was itself a 
trift to the borough bv the late Mr. Smith. 
The tower is built of local cream-coloured 
sandstone and roofed with small stone slates. 
Messrs. Thomas and Sons, of Oxton, Birken- 
head, were the contractors. Messrs. Briggs, 
Wolstenholme and Thornely, FF.R.I.B.A., 
of Liverpool, are the architects. 

This undisturbed old historic village in 
Gloucestershire is about a mile long, and the 
hamlet has a geographical peculiarity which 
is mo.'^t unusual owing to three separate coun- 
ties touching within its limits. The place 
went, in fact, by the name of Boundaryfield 
in Saxon times because of this odd conjunc- 
tion of Wilts, Somerset and Gloucestershire. 
Marshfield lies about eight miles from Bath 
and possesses a srpacious Late GotTiic church 
with a western tower of good scale, built by the 
.\bbot of Tewkesbury in the reign of Edward 
IV. Compared with the church towers of 
this neighbourhood it cannot claim excep- 
tional distinction, particularly in juxtaposi- 
tion with the steeple at Cold Ashton, some- 
what nearer to Trowbridge. The parish church 
at Marshfield stands at one extremity of the 

uncommonly long street, and this row of 
almshouses terminates this main thoroughfare 
at the other end. The forecourt-enclosing 
wall, with the rather imposing middle 
gateway, adds greatly to the hospitable effect 
of this suggestive block of tenements. The 
stone-built tower and spire in the midst of 
the group capped by the broached roof, 
supplies an unusually notable feature by 
being thus solidly constructed. Masonry on 
such a scale must necessitate a considerable 
foundation in the centre of the plan. The 
rigid simplicity of the skyline gives charm to 
the extreme picturesqueness of the whole com- 
position, which is becomingly relieved by 
the short solid-looking chimneys. Enhance! 
repose, due to the long line of otherwise 
unbroken ridge, adds point to the unassuming 
row of dormers. The bigger frontispiece gable 
is relieved by the armorial bearings of the 
founder's family, a good effect being obtained 
without any semblance of ostentation. These 
heraldic enrichments add a richness as well 
as a permanent interest to the building and 
a perpetual record. There are several old 
stone houses in JIarshfield Street, and if few 
are of any special merit individually, all are 
marked by the Gloucestershire manner of 
building tradition. The cottages are quaintly 
gabled with skew-stones, " corbie set-offs 
and mullioned window openings. The roofs 
are stone slated and for the greater part are 
eminently plain and grey-looking, with stone- 
framed doorways, such as often distinguish 
the domestic buildings of the Cotswolds. On 
Beck's Down, in Marshfield Parish, may be 
seen some Druidical remains, and in the 
church are some ancient stone bench seats 
forming part of the chancel, quite worthy 
of note, such like not often being met with. 


This sheet of working drawings, lent us 
by the architect, Mr. Sidney K. Greenslade, 
A.R.I. B. A., of Gray's Inn and Exeter, shows 
a cottage lately erected in Kent near by the 
Poultry Fann-house which appeared in our 
issue for the 10th inst. In general character 
and materials both buildings nearly corre- 
spond, but in planning they are very unlike. 
Mr. G. W. Bishop's house is long in its 
proportions with a roomy hall and staircase 
in the centre, the kitchen and service being 
to the right and a living room, 19 ft. by 12 ft. 
6 in., set on the left hand, witli the dining 
room, facing west, between, and communicat- 
ing the service by two doors, one at either 
end. There are three bedrooms, a dressing- 
room and a bathroom upstairs, spaciously con- 
trived for so moderately-sized a house, .''nd 
all very carefully worked out in detail. The 
windows are fitted with '■asements. In the 
living-room there is a double fitment for the 
display of china bv side of the chimney-piece, 
also space for a fixed dresser in the dining- 
room. A covered way leads to the wash- 
house and coal place, beyond the larder. 

This block of business premises is now in 
course of erection in High Holborn at the 
corner of Little Turnstile. The war has 
interfered with the progress of the work, 
which is in an advanced stage. The elevations 
are faced in Portland stone, and fire-resist'ng 
construction is employed. The accompanying 
illustration was reproduced from the contr.T'ts 
detail of the fa<;^ades. Messrs. Wallis and 
Sons, of Maidstone, are the builders, and Mr. 
Leonard Martin, F.R.I.B.A., of Seymour 
House. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, S.W., is 
the architect. 

In the Ohianjoery Division on January 23 \fr. 
Justice A'afcbury made the usual windinic-up 
order in the case of the Northern Qua.rrirs 
Com.pany, Ltd. 

The valuers and estate agents in Sleaford 
district have, within a fortnight, completed the 
\^nd survey in accordance with the wishes of 
the War Agricultural Committee. 

Mr. DoiLglas T. Thring. Fellow of the Sur- 
■^eyors' Institution, member of the Council of 
the Land Agrenis' Society, and formerly of 
Winchester Collofre, has been appointed 
Estates Bursar oi Merton College. Oxford, in 
.sucoeasion to the late Professor Esson. ^Tr. 
Thring was elected out of 160 candidates. He 
will enter on his duties at Lady Day. 


THE BUILDliNG NE\\^S: No. 3239. 

Jax. 31. 1917. 



To the KdilOT of The Building News. 

Sm,— The accidental rediscovery of tlie 
JJritish 5-link or 39.6-iiich metre gives us a 
lU'W point of dejjarture. We liave fonnd 
once more, having apparently abandoned 
"decimals" in the fifteenth century, a 
Smetre rod, pole, or perch, a 20-metre Gun- 
ter'.s chain, a 200-metre furlong ; and in area 
units, a square rwl of 25, a rood of 1,000, 
and an acre of 4,000 square inetre.s. lu 
weights wo have a metric ton <>f 2,240 Ihs.. and 
the cwt. of 100 half-kilograms (British). 
With little correction and revision, our 
capacity units are metrically gowi and ser- 
viceable without any correction at all, as 
shown in my book "British Trade and the 
Metric Sy.stem." 

The question before the British public, 
therefore, boils down to this : Shall we, as 
ail Empire, adopt the French metric .system, 
and scxap or alter ail native units ; or, shall 
we re-establish our native British metre, aiul 
keep everything else we have? The first can 
(mly be done at the most serious inconveni- 
ence possible to our.selves and to the subject 
races ; and the second will, compar.itively 
speaking, cause neither us nor them any in- 
convenience at all. 

A further point to be considered is, that in 
adopting the French metric sj'stem, we shall 
benefit Germany and Austria more than our 
friend.s whose manufactures have been 
ruined in Belgium. Poland, Roumania, and 
North France. If our .Allies would only agree 
to accept the British de(-imal or metric system 
for trade and manufacture, while retaining 
the French metric system for science and 
purely nation.-il purposes, it .seems to me we 
might establish an interna.tional scheme with- 
jjiit any delay. We should not upset the 
.Allies, who have to begin anew : and we 
our.aelves should not be upset either. 

As r.igards our own system, niv book shows 
bow. when simplified, it becomes prolwblv 
the best in the world, and the easiest to 
leani .^nd apply. 

I am -no longer afraid of the Decimal 
Association Some of their arguments are in- 
valuable .18 ibeirtg equally a^jplicable to the 
British Decimal system. A perfect system of 
weights and measures, sucin as our own. is 
svmbolised by the human hand. The four 
fingers of one haiui. 8 in the two Jiands, 16 
when duplicated by adding the feet, re- 
present the fractional scale. The fint^ers and 
thumb together make a "bunch of five." 
,^'ul we get 10, and later 20, the Decimal 
.Association illustration. If we now add-in 
tlw wrist, we get six radials to each palm, ami 
ultimately 12 .and 24, repre.sentins; the du"- 
d>>c'mal scale. I have shown that the British 
.system is composed of three scales, decimal, 
frax;tional, and duodecimal, and that we have 
producer) the " distracting jumble " com- 
l)!ained of by metric advocates by onr own 
carelcsaness and mis-use of tables and s<'a]es. 
We persist in saying 5^ yards (not 5 metresl 
makn .iTod. thus mixing up the fractional and 
dt«imal scales. We sell wheat bv tihe bushel 
at so many pounds weight, mixine np tablrs 
of capacity and weight. We used to quote 
for cotton (and may still do so for all I know) 
in poniuls weight and dtvimals of a p<'Tniy, 
both iinsuit:iblv low units for the coinnKxlitv. 
Sttmes of 14 lbs. .and florins and decim.als 
would give more convenient results. We can 
just as easily mis-use the metric system, and 
dis-cred-t it in the same wavs. 

We have also to get rid of all stray local 
units not included in the regular tables, or 
else we must Btandardise them. 

As regards currency, it is sufficiently deci- 
mal in reason already. Reckoning tlie florin 
as lOO cents of account (not coined), the shil- 
ling is 50. the sixpence 25. and the three- 
penny bit 12^ cents. With the aid of suitably 
hieb measures of all kinds, according to the 
mercliandise, we should never have to 
lesser coine in wholesale trade than cents of 
account in rat*s, and threepenny bits in the 
cash columns. 

For the convenience of retail trade, the 
wage-earner and the middle-class consumer. 

we divide the threepenny bit into 12 farthings. 
Since 100 half-kilos (British) are equal to 
1121bs., we see at once that the wholesale 
dealer can supply cwts. of 100 half-kilos at so 
much a cwt., which rate divided by 100 gives 
a .lecimal rate per half-kilo. The retailer turns 
this into the nearest fractional currency, and 
knows he can sell each pound weight of the 
commodity for that amount, and clear 12 per 
cent. — 10 per cent, of profit and 2 per cent, 
for waste. 

The great point I wish to make is this : We 
already have a metric system and do not need 
another. It is easy to destroy, and terribly 
hard to rebuild. By reinstatnig our native 
metric system we can get back, and out of it, 
whenever we, or find it healthy, to do 
so. If we adopt the French metric system it 
must be for gocxl aud all, and there can be 
no turning back. — I am. Sir, yours, etc.. 
E. A. W. Phillips, M.Inst.C.E. 

Hove, January 29, 1917. 



Master Painters' Association in Scot- 
LANU. — The retiring president (Mr. Joseph 
Thomson, Dundee) occupied the chair at the 
.annual meeting of the Association of Ma.ster 
Painters in Scotland, which was held last 
Friday in the Masonic Hall, 19. Hill Street, 
Edimburg'h. The annual report by the Coun- 
cil stated that the mem,bership of the Asso- 
ciation at the end of year was 304. 
showing a decrease of 25 on the total of 
the previous year. There were 13 affiliated 
Associations. " Like other departments of tJie 
building trade, there was no doubt that 
the painting trade had suffered severely 
again dnring the past year owing to the war. 
—The new president "(Mr. J. T. M'Arthur. 
Edinburgh), then took the chair. Mr. .lames 
Scllars, Glasgow, was elected vice-|)re.sidcnt, 
and Messrs. Cameron and A. S. Calder. 
Ediniburgh, were reappointed general secre- 
tary and organising .se<T6tary respectively. It 
was agreed to hold next year's meeting in 
Glasgow. — Mr. Calder, reporting on the con- 
dition of the trade in Edinburgh. Leith. 
and vicinity during 1916. said it had shown 
no improvement on that of the previous 
yea,r. — The new president then addressed 
the gathering. After referring to the war 
and trade troubles, he said in their craft. 
with its varied treatment and finishing of 
other tradesmen's work, he did not think 
they flattered themselves in the least when 
he held that a good painter must l>e a crafts- 
man of no mean ability, and well worthy of 
his hire. Tliev were oftimes -served with 
tliose who painted, but could never be 
"painters." Yet the men demanded that 
they should receive the san^e standard r,^te 
as the qu.alified tradesman, leaving the em 
plovers to tike the only remedy, of dis- 
pensing with their .services at the earliest 
o])]>ort.unity. Personally, he would prefer 
to be free to p.ay the men according to their 
qualifica.tion.s, with a minimum instead of 
a stajidard rate, which most as.suredly 
would encourage the study of tHie higher 
branches of the craft, and make for greater 
efficiency all over. 

■ »-«•*>-< 


Bovle's Iratest mateiit " ;iir-i>uniiP " ventilators, 
supidiied % Mc."srs. Robert Boyle niul Ron. 
v»>ntilatin« engineer. 64, HollKinn Viaduct, 
I>»>ndon, E.C., have been employed W the 
Wilts United Dairies Oamiwny, LimitMl, Wilts, 

M."ssrs. I^cwis Bergcr and Sons, I/td., of 
Hoinerton. N.E., have puMisrticd an art folder 
of special interest to architects enlitkvl " Air. 
Borp-or Se«« it Through." 11 is i]lns1.^atc^l with 
T^hotou-ruphs of somo of tlie biiildi»n;s which 
have been V-aulified wit/h Matone, luid -mW be 
sent to you on application. 

In tli<-ee dajT? when all metals are scarce and 
exi)ensive. the use of reinforced concrete can 
ibe substituted with advantage in the buildlTig 
of tanks. We hear that several hir(fo concrete 
tanks hftve been eonstructc<l on the roof of n 
biscuit factory at Fnlhani. and that as a pre- 
ivuition aeninst leakaet- I'udlo has been <isod 
Xo waterproof the <'ement. 

>— M»v-( 

The <leath is aiinouiiceil on the 27th inst., at 
Moscow Court, W.. of Mr. Fxlwin Henry 
Lingen Barker, architect, of heart failure. 
The funeral took place at Hereforii. 


Rri;LROii) Company's Lii.ii. .\ciios against 
iiiE "Irish Bvilder and Kncineeb " ANt> 
.Messrs. Rowley and Co., Auvertising 
.\GENis. — Farthing Damages against the 
" Irish Blilder and Engineer."— Verdict for 
Me-srs. Rowley and Co. — In this action, 
which was tried on Monday aJid 1 ucsday in 
last week in llie Kin*^*s Briuih Division, before- 
.Mr. Justice Rowlutt and a siMxial jury, the 
Ruberoid Company, Limited, sued Mccredy. 
Percy, and Co., Limited, jiroprietors and 
publishers of the Irish ISuildir and Knrjineer, 
Dublin, and Messrs. Rowley and Co., adver- 
tising asients, of Avenue Chambers, South- 
ampton Row, to re<over <lamages for alleged 
Wh'A imputing that the con.jKiny had German 
lonniK-tions. and for an injumaion. The dc- 
fi^ndunls denied thai the .statenientB oom- 
jjlained of were libellous, and said that in 
their ordinary meaning they were true in 
sutetance and' in fact.— Mr. Rose Inncs, K.C., 
for the plaintiffs, said several years before 
the war broke out an Ann rn\in c^impany. 
known as tijo Standard Paint Company. 
iiianufactuie<l and sold ruberoid. a material 
which was U5<'d for rooting huts and other 
slight buildings, and which was being sup- 
plied by the plaintiffs to t)ho Government of 
this country at the presi'iit time. The 
.\merican company had a capitol of a 
million sterling, and its businfc.-.s was a great. 
success. They resolved to establish in Europe 
<»niipanies or agencies for the sale of ruberoid. 
and one of the companies was formed in 
Hamburg. In 1906 a con.iwuiy was started 
in this country with the modef.t capital of 
£6,000. Three" ye:irs later it was dc-cided to 
establish a factory in this country, and the 
capital of the English company was increasej 
to £20.000. A factory was cr«<c«l at Brims- 
down. Middlesex, and the manufac-ture was 
carried out by British workmen. At one 
time Mr. Gustav Meyer, who carried on busi- in Germany, was a dire<-tor of tiio Eng- 
lish company ami held a lonsiderable number 
of shares. That Kciitleman ilixl in October. 
1912, and his brotlier. .Mr. RolxTt Otto Meyer, 
was a.ppointed as a director. When hostilities 
commenced between this country and Germany 
Mr. Robert Otto Meyer was removed from 
the d;re<* orate, ami Air. Davis L. Irwin wa.s 
appointed in his place. From that tim« the 
dire<!tors were either American or 
subject*. On January 29. 1916, there ap- 
peared in the lri$h Uuitdtr and Engineer tlie 
following letter: — 

" Sir. — .\t a time when it behoves flll of us 
to be careful that wo are not trading with 
firms that are of ene<ny oriirin. tiie constitu- 
tion of limitcil liability companies is a mattir 
of some importance. May I (>all >x)ur atteii 
tion to the fact that, according to tho pai- 
ticulars filed at the Compani*«' Registration 
Office at Somerset House, relating to thi- 
RulxToid Company, Limil«xl, the postion a* 
in .\pril last was as follows: The directors 
of the lomoanv were: Rjuph Shainw:a.ld. 100. 
William Street, New York; Robert Otto 
Mever, 93. Durnliof. Hamburg ; Gustav 
Meyer. Durnhof. Hamburg. Tlie principal 
shareholders were: .Stamlard Paint Company. 
New York, 12.698 shares; K<igo.r B. Jame-. 
Knightrider Street. 3.4C0 diar.ii: Ruboroid 
Company. Davenhof. Hamburg, 3,399 shares: 
Davis T/. Irwin. Bromley, 600 shares. — Yours. 
etc.. Scrutator." 

In :i.n e<litorial comment at the foot of tlic 
letter it was admitted that the allegation that 
the company was of German origin was not 
a fact; and in a later ianie the defendants 
ex;pressed roglret that they had iriyen pub- 
licity to the statement. Maltere miifht have<Hl there. b:it the defendants jvuhlighed a 
further letter from "<M-." with refer- 
ence to the dire<^torate of tJie company in 
1915. Counsel su.hmitte<l that there was no 
ground for the allegation that the oomjvijiy 
was of (Jcrman origin or fchnt Mr. Robert Otto 
Mover was a <lirector of tJie orviti>any Ik 
.\pril. 1915. and that the plaintiffs were en- 
title<l to moderate damag»«. — Mr. Edirar B. 
James, manaiiiug dinx-tor of the plaintiff 
comixiny. state<l. in an.swer to Mr. Justice 
Rowilatt, that nuberoiil won not a patent, but 
a secret article. — .\t the adjournment on Tiios- 
dxiy Mr. lidigar B. James. m.ijiti.>,nini.' dir<-c1or 
of the plaintiff comi>any, was cr<iss-cxamine<I 
Hv Mr Hume Willi:im.s. K.C. Ho enid that 
Mr. Shainwald. of New York, was <ihairman 
of the Encliish <x>mpany. but he had not been to 
Ihis eountrj- since the war Ix-gaii. Mr. Robert 
Otto Meyer, when he director of the 
Enrfish company, was man:if,"inK direotor of 
the Hamburg company. — Do ■\-ou still think it 
unfair to say that the Fjifflish (xjmpany was 
of German origin ?— Certainly. I deny it 
absolutely.— Mr. Robert Otto Meyer oease<l 

Jan. 31, 1917. 



» be a, director in 1915?— In 1914, seven 
weeks after the outbreak of war. — Re- 
^'.va.mined, witness said he had never heard 
of Mr. Max Drey. Mr. Robert Otto Meyer 
was still a shiarehokier of the English com- 
'pany, and his dividends were paid to the 
Puihlio Trustee. — Mr. Rose Innes : la the 
British Gover-nn.ent still dealing with you 
for ruberoid? — Yes, and the Frenoli Govern- 
anent. — I do not suppose you are doing much 
■with GennanyV — No. — Mr. Justice 
They are getting it from the Hamburg oom- 
Ijany. (I^aughiter.) — Mr. Rose Innes : Do any 
of tJie patents or trade marks stand in tlie 
name of any Gernran or German company? 
— No. — Was any controller ever aipipointed by 
the Board of Trade? — Certainly not.— Mr. 
Clarence Ron4ey, one of the defendants, 
denied that ho had any arrangement with his 
co-defendants to sell or publish their journal 
in London. Witness obtained copies of the 
paper fer the purpose of oibtaiiiing advertise- 
ments, and the copies sold by his employee to 
representatives of the plaintiffs were his own 
private property. He had no reason to 
believe tliat the paper contained any libel. — 
Mr. Hume Williams, addressing the jury for 
the defendant*, contended that Mr. Rowley 
■was not the puiblisher of the journal, that he 
had been guilty of no negligence, and that 
he was entitled to a verdict. As to the pro- 
prie.t-ors of the Irish Uiiililcr and Engineer. 
<'Ounsel submitted thiat it had been /proved 
beyond doubt that tlie plaintiff company was 
of German origin. It was formed to sell 
German gooda and was contro'lled from Ger- 
many, and if that was not a comipany of Ger- 
man origin he did not know what was. It 
•was said that the plaintiff oomipanv was 
started by the Standard Paint Company, of 
New York, and that Mr. Shainwald, who was 
largely interested in that company, was the 
rhairm/an of the plaintiff company. Were 
there no Germans trading in New York? 
Were there no American citizens of German 
origin in New York? No doubt it was a 
mistake to say that Mr. Rdljert Otto Meyer 
remained a director of the comipany in 1915, 
and if tlie jury thought that the plaintiffs 
wera entitled to a verdict on that ground 
the smallest coin of the realm would amply 
compensate them for the damage they had 
sustained. — Mr. Rose Innes, K.C., in reply, 
urged that the defendants had failed to 
justify the allegation that the plaintiff com- 
pany was of German origin. The tenm 
"■ Germian," he said, 'was one of opprobrium, 
and he hoped it would be so for ever. — Mr. 
Justice Rowlatt, in summing up. said the 
question for the jury was whether the defend- 
ants were right in saying that the plaintiff' 
com'pany "was in substance of GeiTnan origin. 
There was no evidence that the gentlemen 
■connected with tlio American company had a 
German taint, but there was evidence that 
the plaintiff company when it was started 
became a subsidiary company of the Anieri- 
can and Ge'i'man companies for the sale in 
Kniirland of goods manufactured in Germany. 
— The jury found a veixliot for Mr. Rowley. 
a:id for the pliaintiffs against MeSisrs. Meoredy, 
Percy, and Company for a farthing damages. 
— Judgment was entered accordingly, with 
costs against the latter defendants. 

>» c 

The effect of the war on the Cornish chiiia 
clay industry has resulted in a rredoctfon on 
the assessable value of the county of £17,610. 

The death is announced of Pixjfessor Tom 
Parry, land agent, in the employ of the Car- 
diganshire County Council, who twenty-five 
years ago held the post of director in agricul- 
ture at -^he University College of Wales, 

Pirogress with tlie scheme of the gradual 
decopa-t'on of the interior of Westminster 
Caithedral has aigain been intenrupicd by war. 
T^ie marbles for the monoliths supporting the 
vault of the north and rsouth aisles were ob- 
tained at great trouble and cost from ancient 
quarries at Thessaly. As they were being 
lirougiht down to thie coast they were captured 
by the Turks in the Gi-eco-Tuirkieh Wair of 
1394 and held for some time. 

Mr. Anthony White, churchwarden of All 
Saints', Galley Hil'l, Swanscombe, Kent, has 
recently presented several gifts to that church 
in memory of Earl Kitchener. One is a picture 
of " The Message of the Angel to St. .Toseph," 
painted by Marcello Venusti, a pupil of Michael 
Angelo. and the others are four pla.ster casts 
of British saints — St. Columba. St. Ninian, St, 
Bridget, and St. Margai^et — the work of the 
late Mr. Stirling Lee. The originals of these 
.ire m.-irble bas-relief figures in Westminster 

(Bnr ©fita Olabk. 

A meeting of the London and Middlesex 
Aichieological Society was held at the Bish- 
opsgate Institute last Wednesday afternoon, 
when Mr. Mervyn IMacartney gave a lantern 
lecture on St. Paul's Cathedral. Referring 
to the threatened subsidence, he said he 
tnought that the Cathedral would be all right 
till someone built an underground restaurant 
about 90 A. deep, and then there would be 
trouble. Mr. Macartney also spoke of the 
inaccuracies in various acounts of the Cathe- 
dral, and especially in the " Parentalia." This 
e.xlremely unreliable -A'ork began by saying 
that Wren laid the foundations from the west 
end to the east end before he had any diffi- 
culty, but it was the fact that the west end 
of the old Cathedral was not pulled down for 
fifteen or twenty years after he started work 
from the east end, and it was not possible 
that he could have cleared the site from the 
west end. Another statement was that Wren 
" digged " a pit 40 ft. deep and built therein 
a pier 10 ft. square to support a corner of 
the building, but modern investigation, had 
failed to reveal any evidence of this structure. 
The only way of accounting for these errors 
was to suppose tliat Wren gave his assent to 
them when his age made him unce'iain of 
facts and dates. 

Owing to the London County Council rule 
with regard to age, Mr. Leonard C. Nightin- 
gale is leaving the Clapham School of Art, 
)f which he has been Principal since its 
foundation in 1885. During these thirty-one 
yeari the school has been highly successful, 
in the twenty-nine National Competitions 
(none was held in 1915) it has obtained eight 
gold medals, thirty-si.x silver medals, seventy- 
three bronze medals, and six Princess of 
Wales's Scholarships. The new Principal is 
Mr. T. McKeggie, who is transferred from 
the Lambeth School of Art. 

The report of the Committee on Ancient 
Earthworks and Fortified Enclosures, issue i 
b\ the Congress of Archseological Socie ic^, 
states that early last year attention was 
drawn to the fact that the ancient right-of- 
way track -.hrough the earthwork ring en- 
closure of Stonehenge was being constantly 
enlarged by military traffic. The small 
baiTovv against the northern side of the bank 
had already been effaced, and a large seg- 
ment of the ring on the north-west was 
threatened with clestruction. It was found 
also that the stability of the stones -was en- 
dangered by bomb practice in their immediate 
neighbourhood, to wihich a fresh crack in one 
of the .smaller recumbent stones might have 
been due. When the matter was brought 
to the notice of Lieutenant-General Sir H. C. 
Sclater he at once gave orders to stop the 
bomb-practice and to divert the traffic 
through the enclosure, and his action was 
endorsed by the War Office. 

The work of the U.S. Bureau of Soils 
has resulted in the investigation and map- 
ping, either in detail or reconnaissance sur- 
veys, of 571,463,680 acres, or 892,912 square 
miles, of soils. During the past year 
24,749,440 acres, or 38,671 square miles, in 
32 States, were mapped in detail. In every 
Slate of the Union several areas have now 
been surveyed, and one survey has been com- 
pleted extending the island of Porto 
Rico. A special undertaking of the past year 
was field work for the study of the trucking 
soils in certain typical areas in New Jersey. 
Similar work has been begun in the vicinity 
of Norfolk, Va. In 19 States the work of 
the bureau is carried on in co-operat'on with 
the State authorities. It is expected this work 
will augment farming acreage. 

For many vears a number of American 
cities, say's '"Engineering News" (New 
York), have suffered from the nuisance of 
abandoned canals — not only obnoxious as 
open sewers, but even worse than useless be- 
cause their boatless waters took up useful 
ground in the busy areas of the town. It 
goes on : " Now several of these communities 
are finding, or hone to find, a use for 
deep water-filled cuts by draining the canal 
and usina the bed for rapid transit or railway 
lines. In Cincinnati the proposed inter- 
urban entrance is on the Miami and Erie 

Canal there ; in Syracuse the old Erie Canal 
bed will certainly in time become the route 
of the New York Central through the city 
to replace the tracks which now are the 
most disgraceful example of municipal dis- 
figurement in, the country ; in Rochester the 
Erie Canal will soon be turned into new 
channels, permitting the use of its bed for a 
street raiLvay route. The combined advaiv 
tages of ridding the city of a muisance and of 
obtaining ready made a deprest railway ter- 
minal or rapid transit route are of such im- 
portance as to recommend the procedure to 
any city now saddled with an uaiused canal." 

Mr. Walter Leaf, Deputy Chairman, who 
presided at the annual general meeting of the 
London County and Westminster Bank, held 
last Thursday, in moving the adoption of the 
report, said that the state of affairs shown in 
it 'Was one of which the bank might be proud. 
So far as the internal affairs of ihe bank were 
concerned, the year 1916 had been one of 
steady and very profitab'e prosperity. The 
net result was that they had not only written 
down their investments to a point at which 
they stood that day well under the market 
price, and paid the same dividend as last 
year, but they had also been able to resume 
their practice — a very sound rule — of writing 
a large amount, £100,000, off their premises 
account, which now stood at almost the same 
sum as two years ago. In July, iJ14, jctt 
before the outbreak of hostilities, the'r de- 
posits were eighty-seven million Pvui.ds ; 
they had now risen to 117 million jjj.ias by 
steady growth— a wonderful sign of t'le re- 
sources of the country. Acceptance fo' cus- 
tomers were then a little over £4,000. OuO, .-rd 
they had now risen to 5^ millions. K .1 tins 
amount now included very little of the old 
commercial acceptances, and it was mostly 
made up of obligations and acceptances un- 
dertaken at the request of the Government, 
and guaranteed by them. In the same way 
the item of bills discounted, on the opposite 
side of the account, contained but little com- 
mercial paper, the place of which had been 
taken by Treasury Bills. There was here a 
diminution of about four millions, which had 
gone, of course, into investments. There was, 
moreover, a large diminution in the advances 
to customers. These stood at 465 millions in 
June, 1914, and they were now reduced to 
about 36 millions. The internal affairs of the 
bank gave him little to say, and nothing 
which was not satisfactory. They must not 
forget that their prosperity was due to cir- 
cumstances which were wholly exceptional 
and transitory, and they must never leave 
out of sight the changes -which must follow 
upon that victorious peace which they all 
meant to have, and which might, perhaps, 
come in the end with little warning. With re- 
gard to the War Lean, the idea seemed to have 
got about that success was already assured, 
and that the small investor, therefore, need 
not trouble himself about what was suffi- 
ciently dealt w-ith by the big men. .Such an 
idea was completely baseless. The loan -was 
not already an assured success : far from it. 
It had got to be made so in the next three 
weeks, and everyone in the United Kingdom 
had got to put his back into the task, or 
therewould be no success at all. Of course, 
one could very well understand the feeling 
of the man who says : " I have never been in 
debt to my banker, and it is a point of honour 
with me not to be." Such an attitude of 
mind was in ordinary times highly laudable, 
but was it too much in the hour of the 
country's need to ask such a man to sacrifice 
this little piece of pride when by so doing 
he -would help to bring nearer the day of that 
victorious peace we were determined to have? 
If all their customers, according to their 
means, w»uld come to them ready to lend 
not only their savings in the past, but, -with 
the bank's assistance, their savings in the 
future, and above all determined to increase 
those future savings to their uttermost power, 
then, and then only, would the loan be an 
assured success. It all lay in the hands of 
the small man. It had been well said, and 
he did not hesitate to repeat it, that what the 
country wanted was not hundreds of millions 
but millions of hundreds. ' He moved the 
adoption of the report, -R'hich -ivas carried 
unanimously. The I'etiring directors were re- 



J.-vN. 31. 1917. 

i-Lected and the auditors re-ap]X)inted. Cor- 
dial votes of thanks to the Chairman and the 
directors and to the officers and staff were 
inianimously passed. 

"The Value of Drawing to the Scientific 
Worker " wa."! the subject of a lecture by 
Dr. F. A. Bather, at the .January Conference 
of Kducational Association.s, on the invitation 
if the Royal Drawing Society. As a means 
'if expression, said Dr. Bather, drawing is 
no less useful than writing to the scientific 
worker. It is also an imporUmt method of 
scientific work. In tlie descriptive branches 
ul science the reseacher should bo able to 
ilraw because he alone understands the jioints 
I hat are to be brought out. Even if he em- 
liloys a drauglitsman, he must make sketches 
for the artists's guidance, and must have suflfi- 
I ient knowledge of the craft to be able to 
<ontrol the result. The act of drawing direcU 
lii» attention to features that niiglit otherwise 
fscape notice, and forces him to consider 
structural relations and meanings. In formu- 
lating and checking hypotheses, a drawing 
nr model is of the greatest a.ssi.stance. This 
is exemplified in such diverse fields as the 
restoration of extinct animals and the pre- 
sentation of crystal structure. Accuracy of 
ipbsorvation and an understanding of struo- 
lurc arc more important in professional illus- 
tration than the skilled conventional technique 
of the pictorial artist. 

In a recent article in the Canadian Engl- 
rirrr, it is pointed out that the principal 
ciHiscs for decay in building limbers fall. 
n>ughly, under the six following lieads :— (1) 
Phioing non-durable timber in moist, ill- 
ventilated baseiments or encloiures beneath 
the first floor, or laying .siills in direct contaxH 
with the grouiiid. (2) Embedding girders 
ajid joisits in bri<'k or concrete wiiUiout box- 
ing the ends. (3) Placing laminated flooring 
in unihea.ted buildiings in a green or wet con- 
ditirwi. (4) Covwi'ng girders, posts, or 
lainiiiiated flooring with jjlaster or similar 
ooating before being thoroughly dried. (5) 
(Jenenil use of non-durable gi-ades of timber 
in a greon or only partially seasoned condi- 
tion. (6) Use of even dry timber of low- 
natural durability in baildimgs artificially 
humidified to ;i high degree, as in textile 
iniCils. A further clement of danger lies in 
t'h<' use of timber inf(vte<l during storage or 
wl'.ioh ha-s iM^^ome infet^ted tlirough neglect 
after purt^h;Lse ,^nd delivory. 

Mr. William Andrews. Watford, Heipts, 
buiilder, who left estate of the gTo.s« value 
<^f £37,877, be<]ueathed small annnitie.s to 
various churches, adding : — " I, William 
Andrews, being of opinion that the sm.all 
iiurx;es.i attending Christian work in this town 
and elsewhere is oau.<<e<l through ininist*^rs 
and others having cliaige of tlie chui-diee 
failing to observe the teaching and example 
sei forth in the Now Testament and Our 
Saviour's words (,Iohn xii. 32), and 
(juently worldliiuvsa and form.-ility is in- 
creasing inside the ohurches, 1 therefore direct 
my trustees to pay tlie sums mentioned above 
only to siK^h c.hurclies, mis.<;i<)ns, or oom- 
inittees who do not luso cliaiits, anthems, 
ameiis, vespers, etc., in any of their congre- 
gational services, or use the new un.scriptural 
' Sunday-school Hymnary,' or resort to con- 
certs, bazaars, entertiuiiments, or any .such 
things in connection with any part of the 
Ijord'a work." 


Mr. ,T. Trevor, whose West Kiid brnnoli was 
rei-ontly at 17, SlKiftesbury Atvenuo, has moved 
to more spncioii.i jiremisesat 231. Itegent Street. 

'I'ho pliK3t<>r bust of ■Lf»r<l Kitchener by Mr. 
R. C. Belt, wihiiiJi h;iK bi>en prcwonted to the 
Nutional MomoriaJ CoiiMiiittoo, was sent to 
I'arin liast W<xlm\'«la.y tx> be cast in bjron?/^ by 
thi- firm of Ilujrl>odieiin)e, to whom tile Ord- 
iKanoe Doiuurtmont, by order of the Army 
Council, have aJlroady sent a captured cannon 
to Ix- molte<l down for the purpose. 

By the enlarpement of the main dock at 
Tilbury, berfclia/g<> has Iven provided f'*r three 
a.(!irl itional ocoan-Koing st<>amei's of 60C ft. or 
700 ft. in leng-tli. topohheir with tilie nccossaa-y 
equipmont in tlie of railway lines, 
tiiansit sheds, amd ohictric cranes. This now 
<h'vclopment at Tilluiry is p.a.rt of a larger 
Kh'>m<^ of dock extension wliich the Port 
Aurhi«ritv ht\t> in view wli<>n tli-- w.ti- i« ovit 


We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions 
of our eorrespon<ients. .\11 comnmnicationa ehould 
tie drawn up as briefly as possible, as tliere art 
many claimants upon the space allotted t« 

It is jiurticularly requested that all drawings and 
all communications respecting illustrations or literary 
nialter, books for review, etc., should be addressed 
to the Editor of the Building News, EOlngham 
House. 1, Arundel Street, Strand, W.C, and not to 
members of the staff by name. Delay is not infrc- 
(juently otherwise caused. .\11 drawings and other 
coinmunicitions are sent at contributors* risks, and 
the Kditor will not undertake to pay (or, or be 
liable for. unsought contributions. 

When favouring us with drawings or photographs, 
architects are asked kindly to state how long the 
building has been erected. It iloes neither them nor 
us much good to illustrate buildings which have been 
some time exc-cuted, except under special circum- 

***Drawings of selected competition designs, im- 
portant public and private buildings, details of old 
and new work, and good sketches are always wel- 
come, and for such no charge is made for insertion. 
Of more commonplace subjects, small churches, 
chapels, houses, etc.— we have usually far more sent 
than we can insert, but are glad to do ?o when space 
permit<^, on mutually advantageous terms, which 
may be ascertained on application. 

Telephone: Gerrard 1291. 
Telegrams: " Tiineserver, Estrand, London." 


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ItLCEivED.— F. E. P.. Ltd— R. W. C— G. A. W. and 
Son— v., LUL— .M. and Co., Ltd.— H. and G.— 
.1. (i.— S<r W. X. B. and Co., Ltd.— L. B.— T. 
C. J.— T.. Ltd.— G. A.— K. B. and Co., Md.— 
I. Co., Ltd. 

A.R.I.B.A.— No. 

Capi. S. p. — Please s*nd. 

O. J.— Very unrelinble peoiile. 

.MORTGAGE. — The ease is not coverid by the Act. 

T. C. P.— We fear any attempt* of the kind would 
be fruitless just now. or woulil willingly help. 
Tlie matter has always had our support, and 
will iigain when time and opportunity favour. 
Meanwhile wc must all et^ntinuc to idoogti our 
lonely furrows, we suppose. 

tarn < 


— I ♦ I — 


Headquarters, Balderton Street, Oxford Street, W. 



mander C. H. C. Bond. 

NKXr KOK DL'TV.— Platoon Commander V. C. 
a>r.;li.'S Hallett. 

.MONDAY, February 5.— Technical for Platooa No. 
'.I at Regency Street. Si|uad and Platoon Drill, 
P!:ttoon No. 10. Signalling Class. RecruiU' Drill, 
i;,:iO— ^. 

TUESDAY, February C— A Volunteer fatigue 
partv is required t*> aa-^ist the Qiiarte-rmaster. 

WKliMvSDAY'. February 7.— Instructiona* Class. 
G.i:.. Platoon Drill, Platoon No. 1. 

THl'RSDAV. Fibruary S.— Platoon Drill, Platoon 
No. 7. Ambulance Class by .M.O., 6.30. 

FRIDAY', February 9.— Technical for I'latooa Ko. 
10 KegelKV .Street. Squad and Platoon Drill, No. 0. 
.siiinalling Class. Recruits' Drill, 6.30—8.30. 

SAri'RUAY. February 10.— N.C.O.'s Clae. «.30. 
under Company Commander Fleming. 

SUNDAY, February 11.— Entrenching at Otford. 
Parade Victoria (S.E. and C. Rly. B<viking Office) 
.S.45 a.m. Uniform, haversacks. ». iter bottles. Mid- 
day r.ition to be carried. Railway vouchers wlU bt 

MU.sKETRY'.— For all companH-s mo noUce at 
luaibiuartcrs. . 

Ml IE— Unless otherwise indicated, all Dnlls, otc , 
will take place at headquarters. 

Al'l'OlNTMENTS— Corporal C. W. Smith to be 
ivction Udmman.Ier of No. 1 .Section, .'^apper H. 0. 
Wood t*> be Cxjriioral, both in No. .S Co. (dated 
.lanuary 19. 1917). Thi- appointment of Section 
Commander P. V. is eaneclli-d at his own 

Bv order, 
M.\CLE0b YEARSLEY. Adjutant. 

February 3, 1917. 


Mr. \V. H. Hor.sley. auctioneer, has beea co- 
opteei to the Clielteiiham Council for the Ka«t 
Ward in pUoe of the late Councillor W. J. 

The house famine in HuddersBeld was em 
pliasiscd last week, when a sohcitor applied 
for the enforcement of an ejectment order. 
The defendant said she had a family of fiTC 
children, and she had tried to get another 
house, but failed. Houses smtablc were re- 
fused on account of her five children 

Lieutenant \V. Gerald Martin, King's Roval 
Rillcs, who was killed on January 14, in his 
28th year, wa.s educated at Hazelwood, Limp- 
tield. and at Eton. Afterwards he studied witli 
scvtvral laud jii;ent.s. and wlicn the war broke 
out was assistant agent at Ockham Park. 
Surrey. In November, 1914, he was given u 
(■omniission in the King's lioyal Rifli-s, and last 
May was •ji-omoted he.itcnant. At the time of 
his death he was acting captain in that regi- 

.\ " Builder ' writes to the Lircrpool I'ost 
t.. express his hoix> that componsabion to 
brewers will lie aci-omiainieil Ivy o>mpenaation 
lo (builders. He point* out how hie buoiDev. 
one iv. the north of Liverjiool. is closed dawn 
ihrouK'h the restrictions imixised by the Go»©ni- 
nient. Init he ttiinks he might have ocwitinijed 
active for a longer (>ori<Kl, if tlie considerable 
at>sorption of transix>rt aiui laUnir by the brew- 
ing trades had been ourtailed on the outibreak 
of war. 

The Publin Castle authorities have received 
£100.000 as an instalment of the Gorern- 
nicnt's exgratia grant for the rebuilding of 
house property destroj-ed in Dublin during the 
rebellion. The property-owners complaia of 
the delay in making the advance. In the ab- 
sence of information as to the amount of com- 
pensation, building work has not yet been com 
nienced in the principal thoroughfares. Two 
or three houses have l>cen rebuih in the side 
streets, but while the number of wooden shop* 
in the main streets is being constantly In- 
creased, there is no sign of the erection of. 
any pcrnianent structure. 

February 7, 1917. 

Volume OXII.-N0. 3240. 



Effing-ham House, 

Current*" Calanio 113 

The Failure of Private Euterprise 114 

Notes on Efflorescence ou Buildings .imi Struc- 
tures, Togetlier with the Means of Com- 
bating it 115 

The Main Drainage System of London .. ..117 

Our Illustrations .. 128 

Statues and Memorials 131 

IVade Notes 131 

Correspondence 131 

Obituary 131 

Building Intelligence 1.32 

Legal Intelligence 132 


Competition ^ 132 

Professional and Trade Societies 132 

Our Office Tabic 132 

To Correspondents 133 

Competitions Open 134 

List of Tenders Open 134 

Tenders xi. 

To Arms xi. 

L,itest Prices xii. 


Xn Entrance Hall and Furniture. DesiL'ued b.v .Mr. 
Murray A.dams-Acton. 

Strand, W.C. 

Moniingside Branch Ijbrary, Corporation of Eddn- 
burgh. Detail of elevation and plans. Mr. 
James A. Williamson, .4.E.I.B.A., City Archi- 

An Architect's, Long Wittenham, near 
Abin.sdon, Berks. Four photo^aphic views of 
house and grounds. Mr. E. Orey Dawber, 
F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 

G.H.Q. Troops" Exhibition of Art.— 'Grand PiUi 
Diploma Sketches in France by Lance-Corp. 
A. E. Poley, Silver Med;illi.<t, P,.I.B.A., Le 
Matherin, St. Omer, Church of Huby St. Leu, 
North and South Porches, Cathedral, St. Omer. 

dnxxtntt dalamo. 

The recommendation by the Royal In- 
stitute of British Architects of the award 
this year of the Royal Gold Medal to the 
able French architect, M. Henri Paul 
Nenot, of 17, Rue de la Sorbonne, Paris, 
will be hailed with enthusiasm not only 
by all British arclutects throughout the 
Empire, but by all friends of civilisation, 
of which the mistress art was the earliest 
nurse and is its chief support. It is one 
of the consolations, at any rate, in this 
time of trial and anxiety that the alli- 
ance betwen Britain and France, the joint 
guardians of liberty in Europe, will be 
further cemented by this tribute to our 
French colleague, of whose career we shall 
have later on the honour of giving further 
particulars, and when, we' trust, we may 
find it convenient personally to acknow- 
ledge the esteem in w'hich he is held by 
all of us. 

We have dealt on another page with 
The present alternatives in regard to the 
existing house famine. Additional proofs 
of its growth were given by Mr. A. W. 
Shelton to the Nottingham Property 
l)wners' and Ratepayers' Federation of 
that city. As he pointed out, there is a 
1 resent shortage of half a million working- 
class houses, and it is growing at the rate 
of 200 a day, and will grow till tlie 
Finance Act of 1909-10 is rationally 
amended. A contemporary writes that 
" he and his friends want a monopoly in 
the remunerative grades of house building, 
with no legislative restrictions." There is 
rn)t a word of truth in that statement. All 
the builder asks for is a free hand. Any- 
how, continues his critic, "private enter- 
prise cannot build because there is a 
Finance Act. Clearly the only alternative 
is the Stat© or the municipality. With 
money at present prices, the local autho- 
rity cannot build with the prospect of 
obtaining i-emunerative rentals, even if 
the Government will allow it to build at 
all, and everything, therefore, points to 
State subsidies for municipal liou.sing. 
We have never liked the idea of a State 
housing subsidy, and we do not like it 
T.ow ; but if such a subsidy has to be given 
in order to get houses built it should be 
given to the local authority rather than 

iho private builder." Curious logic that! 
No one yet has ever seen houses built by 
municipalities .except at rentals of from 
10 to 20 per cent, in excess of those pro- 
vided by the private builder, and the 
State, as at Woolwich, builds at far 
heavier cost, although it flagrantly ignores 
Acts of Parliament which bind municipal 
and private builders alike ! 

As will be seen elsewhere, the London 
County Council is beginning to look after 
some of the metropolitan boroughs which 
are slowing down unpleasantly as regards 
the removal of house refuse ; beginning — 
and not before it was time — with St. 
Pancias, which is to be " named " to the 
Local Government Board. What the 
consequences will be we do not know, but 
if suspension followed, as in the case of a 
recalcitrant M.P., some of us would not 
be son-y, especially if the L.C.C. could be 
empowered to take over the work through- 
out the metropolis, except in the City, 
where it is always well done. And if 
the scavenging could be transfeii'ed from 
the control of the somewhat supiiiB 
satraps of the boroughs to Spring Gardens 
most of us would rejoice, especially those 
who live in boundary roads. Last Mon- 
day, after the not very severe snowfall, 
was a time of tribulation both for vehi- 
cular and pedestrian trafiic throughout 
London — except, again, in the City, 
where by midday east 01 the Griffin a 
well-swept roadway contrasted brightly 
with the slushy morass west thereof 
throughout Westminster. Not that West- 
minster is quite asleep throughout its 
area, or Holborn either. In the latter 
thoroughfare the dashing onslaughts 
throughout the middle of the roadway of 
the " Tanks," which charge through the 
traffic \vith all the abandon of their pro- 
totypes at the front, are striking testi- 
monies to the will that must be taken 
for the deed, if it intenses the terror of 
the foot passenger, whose beplastered gar- 
ments take a month of Sundays to brush 
clean when he reaches home. 

Inventors have lately been busy in the 
building trades, and, pressed by the high 
prices of materials, etc., much has been 
done in this way as to reinforced concrete 
work. Many great improvements in 
machinery have been discovered by 

workmen, who, by their very working, 
know best what is wanted. Sometimes, 
where an employee has a new idea arising 
out of the plant and materials hi uses 
in his employment, it is a question 
whether the inventor or his employer 
should have the benefit of the resulting 
profitable patent. Many contracts of 
service specially provide for this point. 
Where there is no such clause, the law 
has to decide between the parties. This 
occurred in the recent case of "The 
British Reinforced Concrete Engineering 
Company. Lta., v. Lind," before Mr. 
Justice Eve. There the plaintiff company 
employed the defendant as assistant 
engineer. It was a part of his duty to 
draw plans and design the best method 
for carrying out work. Upon his em- 
ployers' instructions, acting for a colliery 
company, he so designed a form of rein- 
forced concrete block for lining the head- 
ings of mines, for wliich he obtained a 
patent. The present action by the em- 
ployers was for a declaration that the 
invention, as the subject of the patent, 
was their sole property, and that the de- 
fendant held it as trustee for them. In 
his judgment Mr. Justice Eve said that, 
the defendant, while working for the 
plaintiffs, had discovered a method 
which would obviate concreting within 
the mine, and yet do what the colliery 
required, which he disclosed to the plain- 
tiffs' chief engineer, and then got out his 
patent for the invention. X decision was 
now given in favour of the plaintiffs upon 
the broad ground that it was inconsistent 
with the good faith binding as between 
employer and employed that the de- 
fendant, as employee, should retain the 
benefit of this invention, discovered by 
him while working in the employment. 
The defendant will therefore have to hold 
his own invehtion and patent as trustes 
for the plaintiff company. But it is prob- 
able that the whole important question 
will be brought before the Court of 
Appeal and gone into more fully. 

Mr. Donald Maclean, M.P., chairman 
of the London Appeal Tribunal, last 
Thursday severely criticised the methods 
of Government depai-tments who, one after 
another, had declined to avail them- 
selves of the services of a qualified sur- 
veyor. The surveyor informed the tri- 



Feb. 7, 1917. 

Iiunal that one ofTiccr at the Hotel Cecil 
told him that il 300 jobs were open, as 
many as 3.000 applications were usually 
leceived. " The n'al fact of the matter," 
said Mr. Maclean, " is that heads of de- 
partments do not want to be botliered 
more than they can lielp ; but if they 
have men lit for service they hold on to 
them. What is the good of talking about 
vast schemes of national service when we 
see here a little bit of the machinery at 
work. What they want is not vast new 
(establishments, but some common sense, 
and that they lack very badly." In 
granting a month's adjournment Mr. Mac- 
lean said, " We will give Government de- 
partments another opportunity to utilise 
a really useful man." 

The bursting of a kitchen boiler at 
Ipswich, with serious results to four per- 
son.s, unpleasantly emphasises tlic tooc.Mu- 
mon neglect of all concerned in regard to 
this matter. Kitchen boilers are outside 
tile scope of the Boiler Explosions Acts, 
and accidents to such are not investigated 
by judicial authorities unless someone is 
kilkd by an explosion. During the severe 
frost in the winter of 1894-5 more than 
fifty kitchen boilers exploded, in many 
cases with fatal results, and none of these 
boilei-s was subject to the provisions of the 
Boiler Acts regarding inspection. In the 
absence of such compulsoi'y inspection, all 
kitchen boilers should be fitted with safety 
valves, which would permit the otherwise 
iiiilirisoned steam to escape and by the 
hissing sound produced give warning that 
the pipes were choked. Such sio,, 
^^hould be borne in mind, may v.^ry well 
happen in the summer also as tlie result o. 
incrustation or the Mccidcntnl tinning tff 
of a tan. 

Most architects and builders have 
leason from time to time to regret the lack 
of knowledge on the part, of painters of the 
reasons why work done by them is unsatis- 
factory, even wlien what should be skilled 
labour is emjiloyed. We wish, therefore, 
the widest jxjssible circulation to a verv 
Jiiactical booklet published, at fourj)ence, 
by the Trades Papers Publisliing Com- 
pany, T,imited, 365, Birkbeck Bank Cham- 
bers, High Holborn, W.C, entitled "The 
Fundamental Principles of Plain Paint- 
ing," comprising notes from lectures 
delivered by Mr. James Lawrance, Acting 
In.strnctor of I'ainters' and Decorators' 
Work at the LAW. School of Building. 
First, the auth<ir deals lucidly with essen- 
tial ingredients of paints ; next, with the 
functions they fulfil, then with priming, 
jiainting on zinc, the repainting of ine- 
viously piiinted wo(rk, the sequence of 
coats in painting, concluding with some 
not<»s on paint brushes. Not an unneces- 
sai-y word is wasted in either chapter, and 
tlie information is conveyed in a manner 
which at once bears witness to the really 
inactical knowledge of the writer and lii.s 
capabilitj- of conveying the same to men of 
the most ordinary intelligence. A free dis- 
tribution of the booklet to his workmen, 
with a kindly word or two, by any em- 
ployer would, we are sure, be appreciated 
and profitable. 


In the •' Welsh Housing and Develop- 
ment Year Book" for 1917, just issued, we 
have yet another indictment of the D'ivafe 
builder. The volume is the official record 
of an amalgamation of two associations, 
of whose achievements in the past we are 
ignorant, viz., the Welsh Housing Asso- 
ciation, and the South Wales Garden 
Cities and Town Planning Association, 
into one lx>dy, hereafter to be known as 
the Welsh Housing and Development 
Association, to which we wish more ac- 
tivity. At present it is waiting the ex- 
pected advent of the golden shower which 
i.s to refresh the Principality into vigor- 
ous growth. Meanwhile we are told tliat 
" the uncertainty as to the amount and 
the price of capital that will be available 
is, of course, a deterrent to extensive ])re- 
paratory action. It is probablv '•:ifc to 
assume! however, that at least £20.000.000 
of State money will be forthcoming on 
fairly generous terms, and the Welsh 
Housing and DeveloiJinent Association is 
[mttins forward a strong demand for the 
allix-atlon of not less than £5,000.000 for 
ex])enditure on housing in Wales and 
Monmouthshire alone." 

And may quite possibly get it if Mr. 
fjloj-d George remains Prime Minister, 
and Englishmen and Scotsmen are con- 
tented to be taxed for the benefit of their 
Welsh and Irish brethren, if it will stave 
off more Sinn Fein rebellions and Welsh 
colliers' strikes and riots. Then we shall 
see what we shall see — in AVales, at any 
rate. Drastic and far-reaching proposals 
might be formulated. " such as the single 
tax on the nationalisation of the building 
industry " ; but, after all, it is admitted 
tliat '• Perhaps the first step to Ix' taki'U. 
however, is to I'emove the chief restrictions 
on private housing enterjjrisc, for it must 
not he forgotten that, althougli such en- 
terprise is hopelessly inadequate, never- 
theless it has been and still is responsible 
for the provision of well over ninety ])er 
cent, of all available accommodation." 
Ninety per cent, done of the work wanted 
in the past is not a bad percentage, esjx'ci- 
ally wlien builders have been working for 
seven years and more with their hands tied 
behind their backs. That, of course, will 
be called " exasigcration." We are told 

" It i.< el.Timod by biiiUlois ami projiovty- 
owners that the failure of private enterprise is 
due to the Finance Act of 1909. This, of 
coui'se. is an exaggerated statement, for in 
that same jear it was found necessary to pass 
the Housing and Town Planning Act, con- 
fc'iring extended jewel's on local authorities 
to enable thoni to sui)ply the shortage of 
cottage aocomnioil.-itinn <Uip to the faihive of 
private entui'prise during previous years, Tlieie 
can be no doubt, however, that the ' i^eople's 
■Riulffct ' did have a very unsettling elTpct on 
the iiiopcrty market, with a con.scquent 
al.iniiing <liinimiti(>ii in the number of new 
dwellings erected. The necessity for amend- 
ing the" Act by means of a. clause providing 
that no inereiiiout duty slwiU be charged on 
land used solely for working-class dwelling.* is 
now very generally admitted, and It ;.s itn- 
portant that such amending legislation should 
b passed before building activity is resumed 
after the war." 

Why increment duty should only be re- 
mitted on land solely used for working- 
class dwellings we do not know, or tihat it 
is at all likely to facilitate access to 
cheap land for building sites. It is 
candidly admitted that " the crux of the 
l)roblem is erne of finance," but it is added 
tliat cajiital is not available from 
private sourees and therefore the Slate 
must step in and — take twenty millions 
out of the pockets of the taxpayers to 
spend on building houses for sonif of 
thrm. with what is left after the good kind 
gentlemen wlio will get snug berths undor 
a new " Ministry of Housing," have had 

their little pickings, at rentals of twenty- 
five per cent, and upwards over those of 
the housis put up by the grasping i>riv ite 
builder before Mr. Lloyd George made it 
impossible for him to borrow sixpence ! 

Now the State assists to-day in three 
ways ; by advancing loans to private in- 
dividuals, companies, and societies; by 
lending to local authorities ; and by 
Itself through Government departments, 
as for example, the Ministry oi 
Munitions, undertaking tlie erection 
of dweliiings. As regards the last 
mentioned method the dwellings put 
up at Woolwich are, no doubt, bright and 
shining examples of fitness and economy! 
And the more temporary stru it.ires 
rushed up elsewhere will probably prove 
bargains presently to shrewd buyei-s of 
material ; but we doubt wlieth<-r any such 
course of action Ls likely to prove per- 
manently successfuL The second alter- 
native is a better one, but its com- 
paratively infrequent .adoption by local 
autlioj-ities is due pi"oof that it is seldom 
likely to be ti-ied. The firi?t means 
jobbery, and the almost certain result that 
in many cases huge blocks of buildings 
would be thrcwii on tlie Government's 
hands by bankrupt societies and com- 
panies. For tlie private builder we have 
never asked facilities wliich are net open 
to any other man of equal enterprise and 
character. If the State will lend him 
money on fair tenns he will bon-ow it. 
lAll he asks and has asked for several 
years is that he shall not be taxed over 
and beyond his fellow citizens, and that 
he shall not be hampered by out "l dile 
local by-laws. 

We have given many instances in the 
I)ast of the different results obtained by 
employing the decent jirivate builder and 
invoking indirect or direct State aid, and 
they have always proved tlmt in nine 
cases out of ten neither the State nor the 
municipality can beat him. (Ine of the 
most recent will be found on page 581 of 
our issue of December 27, whereon we con 
trasted the houses built at Saltley at or 
under 6s. 9d. per week by a private 
builder, and the total and lajnent,-ible 
stoppage of the erection of manv much 
caused by the disastrous East Birming- 
ham Town Planning Scheme, suuirested by 
Mr. .lohn Burns on November 25, 1913. as 
a model 1(, the eislity Greater LHm<lon 
•\_utliorities. AVe hone at any rate the 
AVelsl, Honsini; and Development .Associa- 
tion will not spoil sport in that fashion. 

There is one article in the year-boik 
which we jiave read with great pleasure, 
and that is the plea made bv Professor 
Eraser Storey, F.R.S.E.. of" Universitv 
College, Bangor, for afforestation in 
Wales. If his statistics are reliable, ami 
we see no reason to question them, Wales 
might, with liel]), supply us with no small 
part of the thirty-five millions' worth of 
timber we imjiort annually in ordinary 
times, and for want of whicli we are iii 
sore straits to-day. Professor Storey gives 
soine very useful hints on the best 
varieties to plant, and he reminds us that, 
in considering the suitability of Wales as 
1 district for afforestation, it must always 
be remembered that we have a great asset 
ill the small holdings which are such a 
feature of Welsh agriculture, (^n the Con- 
tinent, wliere forestry has so long been 
[iractisejl with success, most of the labour 
employed in the forests comes from small 
holdings, and much the same svstem 
would work very well in Wales. 
Foresti-y jirovides the small-holder with a 
means cd increasing his income by 
remunerative labour during the winter 
season, when work on the farm is not at 
full pressure. The forester, on the other 
hand, cannot jdant and does not care to 

Feb. 7, 1917. 



fi 11 trees during the suminer. At the con- 
rlusion of the winter's operations he, 
thei>efore, gladly releases most of his men 
for work in the fields. It is highly im- 
1 robable that any consideraible addition to 
the present number of small holdings can 
be made successfully without the support 
of forestry. Now forestry is most cei-- 
tainly one of the very few things which 
might be taken in hand by the Stat? with- 
out injury to private interests. The 
jiresence of State forests managed 
systemaLioally has a steadying effect on 
the timber trade of the district, local in- 
dustries are encouraged to spring uj) 
where regular supplies of the raw mate- 
rial are assured, and owners of private 
woods in the locality benefit from their 
■-•bservation of new methods and obtaii! advice from the forest officers in 
charge. We quite agr-ee that it would be 
a great mistake for the State to do any- 
thing which would alienate the sympathies 
of the private owner. Those who are will- 
:ng to afforest should receive eveiy con- 
sideration and assistance. Buying and 
selling of timber is no part of the duty of 
a Government. Even when buying for 
itself, one recent instance proved that it 
was an unwise thing to do. But to fosler 
the addition to the national capital and 
revenue which the re-establishment of an 
adequate home timber supph- would prove 
would be a refreshing piece of tiiie 
finance, and a solid and satisfactory con- 
trast w'ith that of recent years. 

Mr. G. Prout, surveyor to tlie Wiivelisctwnbp 
('Somerset) Urban District Oauncil, ihas resigned 
owing to ill-hetaltih. 

Captain Prior, R.E.. inspector and suiTeyor 
to tho Sevenoaks Rural District Council, has 
been a^warded the Militai'j' Cross. 

It has been decided 'by the St. Ives (Hunts) 
Town Council th^at the inclusive salary of 
the toorougth sun-eyor (Mr. H. J. Softly) shall 
in fch-o future be at the rate of £125 per 

The St. Pancra.s Borough Council liave 
pa.ssed a resolution offerin.g their heartiest 
congnatulafcions to Mr. W. N. Blair, tlieir 
borougih engineer and surveyor, on his 25 
years' service with them in that capacity. 

Miss Amy Edith Clarke, of Newton Road. 
Bayerwiater, W., wlio died on December 23. 
daughter of Mr. Joseph Clarke, architect, 
left estate of the gTos.s value of £19,372. of 
which £19.170 is net personalty. 

As a result of .a conference in Glasgow 
between the local Master Painters' Associa- 
tion and the District Committee of the Scot- 
tish Painters' Society, it hns been a,gr?e<l to 
advance the men's wages in the district by 
Id. per hour, making the rate Hid., as from 
Fdbruary 1. 

Twenty women carpenters, who have gone to 
build soldiers' huts in France, are but an 
advance party for the many other women 
who are anxious to help the Army in this 
manner. The women, who have lieen trained 
by Mr. W. G. Tarrant, of Byfleet, left C!bar- 
ing Cross on January 30. 

In the latest meeting of the Budget Com- 
mittee of the Pru.ssian Diet precautionary 
measures were rei-Onmiended with regard to 
rile safety of art monuments against enemy 
.■lir attacks, and more particularly facilities 
for the speedy removal in case of iiecd of tiie 
irreplaceaible treasures of the Cathedral at 

The death is announced of Mr. Thomas 
Wharrie, formerly of the firm now known as 
Messrs. Wharrie and Colledge. civil en- 
gineers and land sur\-eyoi-s, 109. Bath .Street. 
Glasgow. On the formation of Billhead into 
a bui|g1i he was apiiointed burgh surveyor, 
a position whicili he held until the ibuu'g'h was 
amalgamated with Glasgow. 

The E-xeter Road, which is to ibe improved 
and in part ^rebuilt by German prisoners of 
ivar, rooalfe the fact that ^tlie road was 
previously imjprovexi about a hundred vears 
ago, also by prisonei-s of war intemed at 
Uie oamrp in Dorset. Thev made the masni- 
hcent stretch of road from Dorchester" to 
Weymouth, with its avenues of chestnut trees. 
and also the section of blie main road between 
Wareham and Bridport. 


Ill' C. S. WAITE. 

Trouble due to efflorescence on buildings of 
all kinds is not an uncommon thing in" the 
Punjab and Northern India, and if^the evil 
can be cured by improvement in the manu- 
facture of materials, or counteracted, once it 
has appeared, by taking special precautions 
or adopting preventive measures, we shall be 
practising true economy by reducing the 
ahnual e.xpenses of mamtenance. The facts 
narrated in this paper are based on e.xperi- 
ence of a dwelling house in Lahore, where 
the experiments have now been carried on 
at intervals over a period of twelve months. 

The house stands well, in that it has a 
plinth of a'oout two feet, while the- sur- 
rounding compound is well drained. The 
walls are of considerable thickness; the 
house was built some forty years ago, and 
the bricks vary in size from" the old-fashioned 
Lahore brick 2 in. or so in thickness, to 
the ordinai-y brick 9 in. x 4i in. x 3 in. 
The proportion of mortar used was liberal, 
and the thickness of the plaster on the walls 
and floors varied from | in. to IJ in. This 
great thickness of plaster made the applica- 
tion of remedial measures a task of some 
difficulty, owing to the liability to crack; 
and extraordinary care had to "be taken in 
applyi".!,' "ew plaster. The floors of,- one or 
two of the rooms which gave further trouble 
last rains were recently taken up in places, 
and it was found that there was no concrete 
under the bricks, which had been laid flat on 
the earth filling. 

The house was put into thorough order 
during the autumn of 1913, when the old 
plaster -.vas removed from the floors as well 
as from the walls to a height of five to six 
feet, and was replaced by fresh plaster of 
kunkar lime and sand, except in the drawing- 
room, where the new wall plaster was of 
cement and sand, as it was intended to paper 
this room, and the efflorescence has been 
strongly marked. 

During the rains of 1914, which were fairly 
heavy in Lahore, it became evident that the 
repairs of the previous autmnn had not im- 
proved matters, particularly in the drawing- 
room, where the wall paper was ruined, and 
large brown patches appeared over the greater 
part of the area which had been treated with 
cement. In this room the floor also gave 
such trouble that eventually it was found 
necessary to remove carpets and drugget, 
and as after every heavy shower of rain 
there were patches of moisture almost amount- 
ing to pools, the room was, perforce, 
abandoned for the time being. 

The author was asked to remedy this un- 
desirable state of affairs in October, 1914, 
and after the winter and spring rains further 
remedial measures in certain ^larts of the 
house were tried in April, 1915. These, again, 
were partly successful, and the weak apots 
disclosed have recently been treated in other 
ways, which are now to be described. 

It will be understood that the work carried 
out has been experimental, less drastic 
methods being tried first, to save expense, if 
possible, and the more radical measures 
being only adopted wdien the first had failec. 
It is evident that, if the disintegration due 
to the efflorescence so commonly seen on the 
surface of structures of all kinds is to be 
successfully combatted, we must obtain full 
knowledge of its composition by chemical 
analysis, and this again entails analysis of the 
brick clay and the constituents of the mortar 

The clay from which bricks are made in 
the neighbourhood of Lahore contains potas- 
sium nitrate, soda, magnesium salts, and 
other impurities. Owing to the fact that 
bricks are generally buimt at too low tem- 
perature, and that there is a slight deficiency 
of silica in the clay, the brickwork develops 
efflorescence whicli has a destructive action 
on bricks and plaster. The object of the ex- 
periments now to be described was to counter- 
act this destructive action. 

* Paper read at the Punjab Engineering Congress 


The brickwork in the plinth and floors of 
the verajidahs (which were unplastered) was 
washed with dilut^? hydrochloric acid (lto3)— 
three coats being applied over the whole sur- 
face^but before applying the wash all joints 
were pointed with a mortar made of two and 
a-half parts by volume of freshly slaked stone 
lime, two and a-half parts of well washed drv 
sand, one ajid a-^half parts of boiled linsee'd 
od, prepared as stated below. This work wa< 
done in October, 1914, and up to the prese it 
time (November, 1915) there are no traces 
of efflorescence, nor have the bricks disi.i- 
tegrated. The pointing, too, is very hard, 
and as good as on the day it was put in. 

Washing the bricks lea'ves a thin film con 
sisting of chlorides of various sorts, includ- 
ing magnesium chloride. As fresh efflorescence 
reaches the surface the magnesium oxife 
carried with it combines with the magnesium 
chloride already formed, and an oxychloride 
cement is produced as a thin film on the sur 
face, as well as to some depth in the capil- 
laries of the bricks, thus preventing the ac- 
tion of moisture and the rising of fresh salt 
to the surface. 

The mortar used in pointing was a lime 
soap mixture, i.e., slaked lime and free oil. 
resulting in a reaction taking place betwee:: 
the efflorescing salts and the lime soap, when 
corresponding salts of lime were produ"?d. 
and the salts converted -nto soap. 

As the potassium and sodium salts in brick, 
are convei-ted into caustic alkalis in the pro- 
cess of burnings they wwdd at once forr-i 
soaps on applying the mortar, a proporti mate 
part of the soap lime being converted anto 
caustic lime, which, again, is slaked by tho 
free water in the mortar before it has set. 
The free oil protects the work from atmo- 
spheric moisture, and prevents further caoii- 
lary action in the brick. 


Preparation of the Plaster.— The sand man 
be washed and very thoroughly dried before 
being mixed witli the requisite quantity i.i 
freshly-slaked lime. After thorough mixing, 
boiled linseed oil is added, and the compouiid 
again well mixed before being put into a pan 
on the fire for twenty minutes, by the end i f 
which time the mixture should' be on tl e 
point of boiling, and of a consistency suit- 
able for spreading. During this process iiit 
fire should not be too fierce, and the mixtu- 
should be constantly turned Kiver with ;. 
trowel so as to ensure the eradual absoqy.on 
of the oil by the lime and to prevent any ; ni ■ 
tion sticking to the bottom of the pan. 

The Drawing-room Floor. — In the 
drawing-room floor. the original state 
of which has already been described, the 
method adopted consisted in removins all 
old lime and plaster (the latter about j in. 
thick), raking out and cleaning all joints i.i 
the brickwork, and pointing with a mortar 
of lime, sand, and linseed oil. After the 
pointing was completed, a plaster t in. thick, 
made of lampblack, sand, and cotton-seed 
oil was applied in the ordinary way. the 
surface being worked smooth "with floats. 
The plaster was made by adding five parts of 
lampblack _and seven parts cif cotton-seed 
oil to thirty parts of dry, screened and 
w-ashed sand. These ingredients, having 
been well mixed, were cut in a nan and 
placed on a fire for forty minutes, care 
beinj taken to stir the "mass continually 
whilst it was being heated, and that an even 
heat -was »,pptied — the temperature beintr 
about 2800° F. 

This has been found to be verj' effective, 
forming a hard slate-like surface," and since- 
it has been laid the former trouble has en- 
tirely vanished. The probable action is prin- 
cipally, if not entirely, mechanical, the oil 
and lampblack filling" the capillary pores 
in the bricks, thus preventing salts and mois- 
ture from rising to the surface. Over this 
was laid another coat of plaster similar in 
composition to the mortar used for pointing 
the brick. 

The Drawing-room Walls. — To remedy the 
trouble on the drawing-room walls, the 
plaster was entirely removed to a height of 
six feet from the floor, whilst all the joints 
in the brickwork were also raked out to a 
depth of half an inch. The walls thus ex- 



Feb. 7, 1917. 

posed were washed with a solution of gum 
shellac and soda crystals, composed of 2 lb. 
<if soda trystiils and 7 11). ol gum shellac to 
12 gallons of water, which was heated in a 
pan over a fire, but not allowed to boil. The 
solution, when ready, must be kept in a 
well-closed can. When applied as a final 
outer coating, one gallon of this solution is 
mixed with one gallon of any ordinary paint 
and applied as .=uch, but in the case of the 
drawing-room walls the mixture was applied 
without any paint. 

The probable action consists of an entirely 
mechanical closing of the capillary pores — 
thus preventing the formation of efHorcscence 
on the surfae* — the soda -forming a solvent 
for the shellac. 

The brickworU thus having been protected, 
plaster was applied in thickness of half an 
inch at a time, each layer being thoroughly 
beaten in the usual way. 

This plaster was compose<l of 42 lb. of 
ordinary rosin, 2^ gallons of raw liiiseed oil, 
10 lb. of paraffin wax, and 38 lb. of freshly 
slaked lime, mixed and boiled for fittecn 
minutes before being applied. After it had 
thoroughly set— i.e., in about four days— the 
.-surfaces were faced with a coating of burnt 
gypsum (calcium sulphate) and fresh slaked 
Time in the prt>portion of three parts of lime 
to one of gypsum, and it is of importance 
that this plaster should not set too quickly. 
To ensure slow setting, the suiface should l)0 
brushed over with a weak solution of (-itric 
acid (1 ito 9). The surface will sweat for at 
least five davs, and the damp, as it appears, 
should be removed with pads of muslin or 
some soft substance. When the plaster is quite 
dry. a highly poli.^hed surface can be pro- 
duci<d by rubbing it with powdered pumice. 
Artificial Rubber Solution.^ In dealing with 
the floors of four other rooms, it was decided, 
for the .sal<e of economy, to apply the plaster 
of rosin, raw linseed oil, paraffin wax, and 
slaked Ume for a width of 12 ins. from the 
walls, and over the whole floor surface of the 
room to try an "artificial rubber" solution, 
which the author had used in many other 
cases with complete success. 

The recipe is as follows ;— 2 lb. boiled lin- 
seed oil, 1 lb. cotton .seed oil, 2 lb. petroleum. 
2 lb. raw turpentine, 2 lb. sulphur. These 
ingredients should be mixed in a can, and 
must be boiled for two hours. Owing to the 
inflammable nature of the contents, care must 
be taken to use a can which will hold at least 
eight times the quintily to be boiled. The 
mixture, as it approaches boiling point, rises 
very rapidly in the vessel, hence the necessity 
for "this pre-;aution. When ready, the mixtuie 
should be applied as a paint. 

While there are no signs of damp or cfflores- 
oeiice on the width of 12 ins. next the walls, 
the rubber solution on the rest of the floors 
has been destroyed, and the efflorescence is as 
bad as before. It is evident, therefore, that 
the rubber solution does not prevent the mois- 
ture from penetrating, and the floors have 
since been treated in a manner similar to the 
drawing-room floor, tlie whole of the existing 
plaster being remove*!. 

IJados.— All the walls to a height of 6 ft. 
from floor level were rendered with a plaster 
of rosin, raw linseed oil. etc., similar t<i 
used in the drawing-room, and were finally 
finished with a wash of different colours. The 
basic wash is of stone lime, which must be 
slake with boiling water in a covered vessel. 
to retain all vapours. When ready, six <)uarts 
of the slaked lime are jjassed through a very 
fine sieve, and to this is added one quart of 
rock salt .and one gallon of water. The mix- 
ture must then be boiled and skimmed. To 
every five gallons thus prepared is added, by 
sitrw degrees, one pound of powdered aliun 
and half a pound of copperas (sulphate of 
iron), also till ree- quarters of a pound of; to this any colour can be added. 

TlhG object an keeping the vessel covered 
is to prevent any lowerimg of temperature 
which would check the slaking of the lime 
and thus we.aken the prodiiot. It also pre- 
vents the loi^s of a considerable quantity of 
finoly divided lime, which would otherwise 
be carried away by the vaixiur. Nearly 
e%ery lime contains an appreciable quantity 
of magnesia. The add't-.on of sodium 
chloride (rock salt) causes the gradual forma- 
tion o^ magnesium oxychloride. and ]->o«sili]y 

oilier oxychl'orides wliioh greatly strengthen 
and harden the wash. The addition of 
powdered a<lum causes a precipitation of 
gelatinous alumina, and this precipitate is 
subsequently partly or wholly dissolved by 
the addition of potasli, forming a glutinous 
" size." The addition of copperas is oliieUy 
for the purjioee of putting . colour into the 
wash. It is also probable, however, that 
some chemical action is evolved — the alum 
and copperas parting with a portion of their 
sulphates and combining with the lime to 
form sulphate of lime, which, it is known, 
improves time, plaster, and washes, and pro- 
ti-ots them from the destructive action of 
outside agency. 

Alternative Treatment. — In one snuilJ 
room which was in a very bad condition, 
both a« to the floor and the walls, a slightly 
different method was adopted. The old 
plaster on the wal'ls was not removed, but 
was entirely rubbed down from ceiling to 
floor with wire brushes so as to get rid of all 
deciyed plaster. A wash of green vitriol 
(sulphate of iron) — one part of green vitriol 
dissolved in three parts of water— was then 
api'lied to the surface in two coats, with 
twenty-four hours between each application. 
Forty-eight houii's after the second coat had 
been given, two coats of tlie artificial rubber 
solution were applied, and the room was 
finally treated with the same colour wash as 
the other rooms. 

Tine floor was of brick laid fla,t. All joints 
were raked out and two coats of vitriol solu- 
tion were applied, after which two coat* of 
the rubber solution were used. This treat- 
ment has been enitirely successful, and there 
are no signs of damp or efflorescence. In 
considering tlie probable action of the greeji 
vitriol wash on tlie brick floor, the author is 
of opimion that tiliie caustic salts, on meeting 
the eolutioiv, are conveiiled iiuto sulph.ates, 
and a fihn of hydrated oxide of iron is 
foi-med. Tliiis film evidently acts as a p'lx)- 
tective coating, and prevents further cajtil- 
liary action. 

With regard to the lime plaster on the 
walls, the aiuitihor is of opinion that sulphate 
of lime is foi-med. with a protective co,itiiig 
of hydrate of iron. 

Fiii-ther experiments are being made with 
a wash of ammoiiiium c^irbonnte to l>e ap- 
plied to lime plasters immediately aftei- tlio 
plaster starts setting. The solution of c.iir- 
bonate of lime, which is the natural harden 
ing process, and thus renders it more quickly 
impervious to destructive agencies. 


The follow ing notes may be of use to 
anyone deciding to apply the i-emedies 
herein discussed to new buildingis during 
the course of construotion : — 

On completion of the concrete in the 
foundation, a half-inch layer of lime .soap 
plaster should l>o spread over the top sur- 
face. While this jilaster is fresh a layer of 
brickwork sliould be laid on it, rare being 
taken to see that the bricks are fairly dry 
so as to ensure cohesion. When tJie walls 
reach floor level, a layer of concrete should 
be spread over the w-hole area of the build- 
ing to foi-m the floor, the idea being to luvve 
a coiitiiviKnis floor, without breaks at every 
di\iding wall, as any joint which cracks 
may lat^^r prove a source of trouble. The 
concrete should be about four inches thick. 
Over tJiis lime soap plaster should be spread 
to a thickness of about ha.lf an inoli. If it 
i.s intended to have a brick floor, then the 
p'.;.st<sr should be spread over the bricks, 
care being first taken to thoroughly rake out 
all the joints. The final jilaster of lime soap 
can be laid on walls and floor at one and 
the same time. Before fixing the door and 
window rlioirh-nis, the side.s of the openings 
should be plastered with lime so.ap, taking 
care to rake out all joint® in the brickwork 
before appl.vnng the plaster. 

AM the walls for a height of about four 
feet .should h.ave the joints well raked out 
,Tnd pointed with lime sixip mortar, and 
when tills lias set, they should be washed 
with a solution of hydrochloric acid or sul- 
nhate of iron. About halt an inch of the 
lime soap plaster can then be applied to tbe 
height treated. Great care mnst be taken 

when joining on the ordiuarx hnie plaster 
l-j the lime soap plaster^aji overiap of 
about three inches is advisable to avoid the 
possibility of a crack developing. 
The author has hitherto been ohiefly con- 
sidering tlie case of a building airaswiy in 
e.vistence, but it would obviously be 
better, if possible, to do away witli the 
presence of deleterious salts in the brick itself, 
and with that object in view he would offer 
the following remarks : — 

Among all the phenomena giving rise to the 
imperfect products which makes the manufac- 
ture of a good brick difiicult, the most trouble 
.some are the saltlike efflorescences so hard to 
remove, even when present in very small quaii 
titles. They are found chiefly in places pro- 
moting rapid evaporation — that is, on the 
coiners and edges of walls. They make the 
manufacture of a weather-resisting brick more 
difficult and uncertain, since they cannot be 
detected by the unaided eye before burning, 
and only become visible later on, especially 
in the case of clays which are not highly 
coloured in their raw condition. Not only 
does the water which is used for the softening 
of brick clay contain, without exception, a 
varying quantity of mineral constituents in 
solution, but the clay itself has the power tu 
retain substances soluble in water, which are 
fornie<l by the never-ending decomposition in 
the brick clay, and the more plastic a clay is 
the more will it. If the clay has been allowed 
to weatlier during the winter, further oppor- 
tunity is afforded for the formation of addi 
tional soluble salts, especially when iron sul 
phate is present as well as potash, soda, mag- 
nesium .salts, carbonate of lime, or calcium 
sulphate. The removal of these salts is not 
affected to any appreciable extent by atino 
spheric precipitates (though this is presumed 
by maiiyl because the moistening of clay 
niakes it impervious, preventing " leaching " 
of any kind," and, secondly, because the pro 
cess of formation of the salt goes on for years. 
The formation is specially faci'itated by the 
exposure of clay in cold weather, and becomes 
most energetic when the clay has been bronchi 
to a workable condition suitable for manufac 
tuie. The removal of the soluble salts formed 
n t'-' 'er or during the rains by washinr; 
can therefore be only very sii])erfirial. and 
tlier industi-ies have shown the impossibi'itv 
of removing even approximately soluble com 
oouiids from subst;inces possessing physical 
piopertie.; similar to clay. The effect of s<du 
blc salts becomes the more deleterious sinci- 
the process of formation goes on during the 
working of the clay and the drying of the 
bricks. Such varieties of saline clays have 
also a special tendency to give rise in the kiln 
(during technically called the " water smok 
ing process." which invariably starts in the seven lines of bricks ahead of the firing 
lines) to saUlike efflorescences. Since the 
evaijoration of the water on drying can take 
place only at the surface, or to a very slight 
depth in" the case of sandy or porous clays. 
all tlie moisture must firs.t iie taken to 
the siu-face by capillary attraction before 
it can be evaporated, and thus the salts 
taken into solution are brought to the 
surface, where they remain. The denser 
tlu' solution of the salts, the closer to 
the surface will they be deposited. The 
salts thus segregated, after the removal 
of the water, form a dusty coating of 
crvstals of microscopic size, which are very 
difficult in observe with the eve. especially 
when their colour is similar to that of the 
cl.av, because they enclose a clayey substance 
within their aggregations. 

Such salts are by no means easy to remove 
either mechanically or chemically. Mechani- 
cal means may be employe*! in the case of ; 
efflorescence oi- d'.scolniations which do not 
adhere very firinlv, but chemical means imply ! 
an exact knonledse of the chemical composi- ' 
tion of the deleterious salts, which are at i 
times visible after burning— being usually of : 
a greyish colour — but they are then fii-mly 
burnt into the brick. 

Owing to the slight consideration which has- 
Uitherto been eiven to the soluble salts con- 
tained in brick clay, probably due to their 
volume being so small, the chemical composi- 
tion of this pirt of the day has never received 
proper attention, though it is of gieat im- j 

Feb. 7, 1917. 



poitauce, inasmuch as it is only by the appli- 
cat.on ol sucii Juiowiedge that tne salts can 
either be converted anto soluble and harm- 
Jess compounds, or decomposed in the process 
ut burning. 

Careiui examination has shown that the 
soluble salM contained m bricke are concen- 
trated on the surface. The author had two 
samples of clay from the vicinities of existing 
fains m Lahore treated, and sent for analysis • 
one was a grey and the otner a blackish ciav 
After exposure to the au- for some time in the 
raw condition, both showed a distinct salt- 
like efflorescence on the comers and edges 
of the lumps. ^ 

In order to determine the nature of this 
efflorescence a quantity of the clay was boiled 
in distdled water, and. after settling, the 
perfectly clear liquid was evaporated to dry- 
ness, and the salts obtained sent for analysis. 
Ihe salt obtained from the grey coloured cla.v 
was crystalline, darkened by organic matter 
and was slightly deUquescent-that obtained 
Irom the blackish clay wae yellowish green 
extremely hygroscopic, deliquescing in short 
time to a syrup-Hke tiiud in the presence of 
moisture. Tlie composition of these salte was 
found to be, in the first case, lime, potash, 
magnesiiim, feme oxide salts, and- alumina 
and in the other, calcium sulphate, potash 
soda, lime, magnesium, iron sulphate and 

It is thus seen that aU the salts in the 
^rey clay possess a decided tendency to 
crystaUise, and we might therefore expect that 
in a bnck made from this clay there would 
be an undesirable tendency to produce 
efflorescence, with consequent injury to the 
brickwork. In the darker coloured clay the 
deliquescent salts of iron and alumina pre- 
■ omiuate. These crystallise themselves with 
difhcuJty while they interfere with the crys- 
t:i:l;savon of other salts, and are thus less 

The samples analysed, however, were re- 
turned together with fresh samples for further 
investigation, as the author did not feel quite 
satisfied with the results of the first analysis. 
All the salts can be decomposed by burninc 
^t a temperature of about 700 degs. F. : and" 
when decomposed, they will combine with the 
silica in the clay to form a compound solu- 
tion of hme and the different alkaUs 

rbe author would suggest that chemical 
. cones (S^ers for preference) be used for test- 
ing the degree of heat in the kiln, as, with 
these cones a registered temperature can be 
kept in each chamber of a continuous kiln 
and thus the decomposition of soluble salts 
present m the clay can be ensured during 
the process of brick burning. 

By George Willum Humphbets 
IVo papers dealing with the Itain Drain- 
age System of London are to be found in 
the Proceedings of the Institution. Sir 
Joseph Bazalgette in 1865 described the crea- 
tion of intercepting sewers which had been 
oonst.ruct«d shortly before that date, and 
-Messrs. VI orth and Crimp brought the sub- 
ject up to date ,D 1897. The present position 
of the undertaking, at the end of 1916, is 
riescribed in this communication. London 
was origmaUy drained by means of the old 
open tributaries of the Thames, eramples of 
which are the Counters Creek, the West- 
bourne, the Kilbourne, the Fleet, the Wal- 
brook, etc., and these tributaries, although 
covered in, perform the same function to- 
day. At a later stage cesspools were intro- 
duced. Following upon the introduction of 
the water-closet in 1810, the overflow from 
the cesspools into the sewers, at first pro- 
niibited, became permissive, and in 1847 be- 
came compulsory. Cesspools were then 
abolished, and the state of the Thames 
became offensive by reason of these streams 
discharging within the boundarie.<: of the 
IMetropolis. In 1855 and 1858 the Metropolis 
Management Acts- were passed, whereby the 
Metropolitan Board of Works was consti- 
tuted, and inler alia was charged with the 

thllil?.'?^.- °' »?«.?<"■ read »t the ordinar7 meeting of 
6 1917 " °' ^"'^ Enginters on Tuesday, February 

duty of providing and controlling a set of 
main or ai-terial sewers to dram the Metro- 
polis, a Similar duty as regards local sewers 
being entrusted to local parishes or vestries. 
-\ system of large intercepting sewers, which 
ran from the west of London. w;is decided 
upon and constructed. They discharged 
into the Thames at points below the Metro- 
polis, the outlet for the northern side of the 
Thames being placed at Barking, and that 
for the soutliern side at Crossness. The dis- 
charge was effected on an ebbing tide, the 
sewage in the tidal intervals over the period 
of high water being stored in reservoirs at 
the outfalls. 

In 1884 a Boyal Commission reported as 
to the state of affairs then existing, the 
discharge of crude sewage into the river 
at the new outfalls having been found to 
produce disagreeable effects, owing to the 
time taken for the discharge to reach open 
water, due to the daily tidal oscillations. 
In consequence of this report, works were 
undertaken to obtain precipitation of the 
sewage at the outfalls, the resulting sludge 
feeing taken out to sea and discharged in 
the vicinity of the Maplin Sands by means 
of specially constructed vessels. 

Since 1897, the date of the last commu- 
nication to the Institution, the London 
County Council, constituted in 1889, has 
carried out many large and important works 
for the enlargement of the system and the 
amelioration of the drainage conditions ovei 
the large and populous areas now drained. 
Duiing the first ten years of that body's 
existence many important works were under- 
taken, but in 1899 it adopted a scheme, 
framed upon recommendations put forward 
by Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir Alexander 
Binnie, to enlarge the arterial system, at an 
estimated expenditure of £3,750,000 ; and 
in 1903 it decided to expend, as a comple- 
ment to these works, another £737,000 on a 
scheme prepared by Sir Maurice Fitzmaurice 
for storm^water drainage sewers and works. 
I'pwards of £4.000.000 has been expended 
on this scheme up to date, the advent of the 
war having dela.yed completion of certain 
works. The old intercepting and outfall 
.sewers, both on the north and on the south 
side of the river, have been practically dupli- 
cated, and large provision has been made 
for the dealing with heavy rainfalls by the 
provision of storm-water sewers and pumping 
stations. Altogether about eighty-seven 
mi'.e.s of sewers, the greater length of which 
consists of large main lines, have been con- 
structed by the London County Council. 
Dependent as London is upon the tidal level 
in the Thames for a drainage discharge, the 
existence of a large area of twenty-one "square 
miles in the heart of the Metropolis, the level 
of which is below very high water, and ten 
square miles of which is below the level 
of an average high water, makes the storm- 
water drainage problem a difficult one to 
deal with completely. The Legislature has 
recognised this by imposing restrictions on 
tlie erection of dwelling-houses on the low- 
Ivnig area when certain conditions prevail. 
The author is of opinion that there is need 
for further legislation in order that the 
problem may be satisfactorily dealt with in 
the future, and that further provision will 
have to be made in the direction of provid- 
ing additional storm-water outlets to the 
Thames, the provision made as regards inter- 
cepting sewers probably being sufficient for 
many years to come. 

Several features of great interest presented 
themselves during the constniction of the 
new intercepting sewers. The most marked 
was the comparatively small disturbance 
caused to the general community during the 
progress of the works, carried "out as they 
were through the most populous parts of the 
Metropolis. A system of tunnelling was 
adopted wherever possible, and very long 
drives were made, reaching in one case up to 
5,129 ft. Wherever sewers passed near to 
valuable properties the tunnel was driven 
with a shield and cast-iron segments were 
inserted, lined on the inside with concrete 
and brickwork. This method of construction 
proved also very valuable where bad ground 
was encountered, the Thanet sands heavily 
charged with water being satisfactorily dealt 

with by these means. The highest class of 
workmanship has been insisted upon even 
in small details. Where, owing to the lapse 
of time, defects have developed in the old 
works, improvements have been effected, but 
the main features of the scheme laid down 
and initiated fifty years ago remain to-day 
in their original form, and have an equally 
long prospect of utility before them. 

The population of the Administrative 
County of London at the last census (1911) 
amounted to 4,500,000, in round figures. The 
London County Council has admitted to its 
drainage system the sewage from certain out- 
lyuig areas, as in fixing the county boun- 
daries considerations of watershed areas 
were not adhered to. In agreeing to drain 
these outside areas, the proviso has generally 
been made that only sewage to the extent of 
about 50 gallons per day per head of popula- 
tiou on the area served is to be delivered and 
dealt with. Storm-water flow is therefore 
excluded. The system therefore dealt with 
an estimated population of 5,334,731 in 1911, 
and the indication given of change in these 
figures at the present date (1916) is that, aa 
regards the county area there is a slight 
diminution, while there is an increase in the 
out-county areas. The total quantity of 
sewage computed to have reached the outfalls 
was about 200,000,000 gallons a day in 1894- 
95, and 280,000,000 gallons a day in 1914-15 
an increase of 80,000,000 gallons per day over 
the discharge of 20 years ago. Compared 
with the past, this is composed in part of 
rainfaU that formerly was discharged by 
means of the old river-valley sewers and was 
not intercepted. 

The effect of the elimination of the greater 
part of the suspended solids at the outfalls 
and their conveyance to sea as sludge, when 
this operation was in working order in or 
about the year 1893 was immediate. The 
change in the condition of the foreshores 
and the river has been remarkable. The cost 
of removal of the sludge to sea during the 
past ten years was on the average, for work- 
ing alone, 3.8d., or. including capital 
charges, 4.4d. per ton of sludge dealt with. 
The cost of precipitation over the same 
period has amounted, on an average, to £1 
3s. 4d. per million gallons dealt with, includ- 
ing capital charges. The discharge of the 
sludge in the outer estuary of the Thames 
has been accomplished without any prejudi- 
cial results, and certainly by no other method 
could a like result, as regards low cost and 
immunity from nuisance or harm, have been 
attained. The London County Council has 
purchased about 750 acres of land in the 
neighbourhood of and surrounding its out- 
falls. This has the effect of isolating the 
outfall works, and at the same time the land 
would be available if, later on, future de- 
velopments should demand the treatment by 
tried bacteria! or other processes of either 
some portion of the effluent or the sludge. 

The capital outlay on the system over the 
period 1856 to March 31. 1914, amounted 
to about £12,500.000. of which approxi- 
mately one-half Has been repaid. The net 
expenditure for maintenance for the year 
1913-14 was £303,402, towards which out- ' 
county areas contributed £28.46T. The rate 
charges for main drainage services (capital 
and maintenance charges) in the county area 
amounted to 3.555d, In addition to this, 
Londoners pay the local drainage rate, 
which, roughly speaking, is Id. in the £ 
averaged over all the borough council areas. 


The Metropolitan Water Board's deficiency 
in revenue rose last year from £95,000 to 
£224,000, largely due to coal costing more. 

The Auctioneers' and Estate Agents' Insti- 
tute have established a War Assistance Bureau, 
which is now in operation at 34, Russell 
square, under a committee of management 
with the assistance of a retired London prac- 
titioner, who is daily in attendance. 

At Bedford Town Council the Public Works 
Committee recommended that the borough sur- 
veyor be autihorised to intimate to owners, 
occupiers, and agents of property that, where 
desired, the work of making good defective 
fittings oould be done by corporation plumbers 
at the cost of tihe persons giving tiie orders. 
TBie recommendation was adopted. 
















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OJ^BURGH.— Mr. James A. Williamson,0 A.R.I.B.A., City Architect. 

rnw^r--rr-^r j>r :t. — =r 

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"^ j-i — tv=. f. — Li — llJ-o- 



































































































































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Feb. 7, 1917. 

(Bax HlUnstrations. 


This .spirited and suggestive interior water- 
colour drawing shows a newly built and 
marb;epaved entrance hall, designed by Mr. 
Murray Adams-Acton, of St. John's Wood, 
who 13 now from home on military service 
with the Scots Guards. The work repre- 
sented is harmoniously arranged in a homely 
manner without undue elaboration, the fur- 
nishings in keeping being relied on as part of 
a reserved Uistef ul piece of English design car- 
ried out on historic lines of decoration. The 
original tinted picture from whii;h our 
double-page was reproduced, is a capital 
oxamplo of this artist's facility of draughls- 
niansthip and accuracy of perspective, giving 
relative values in an effective and ready 


This brancli library for the district of 
Morningside was erected some little time aj;o 
by the Edinburgh Library Committee. It 
is built of stone with a.shlar from Black- 
pastures, Northumberland. The library con- 
cists of a lending department and reading- 
room. The latter is a -spacious apartment, 
square on plan and surmounted centrally by 
a deeply coffered dome, certain of the panels 
being glazed with gix)und and figured glass. 
The plaster work and modelling was well 
carried out by Messrs. Mackenzie, of Glasgow. 
The stone carving was executed by tlie late 
Mr. Joseph Hayes, an able artist who has 
lost his life while on active service in the 
Black Watch. The roof of the front building 
is slated with large-sized TiJberthwaite slate-s. 
The of the Ijuilding was about £5,000, 
:»nd was designed by the architect to the 
Corporation, Mr. James A. Williamson, 
A.R.I.B.A. The plans, with the detail of 
the fa(,ade, reproduced by our double-|)age, 
show clearly the admirable character of the 

This brick and tile country house, which 
u\lr. E. Guy Dawber has built, high up on 
a gravel bank overlooking the Thames near 
Abingdon, for his own occupation, is sur- 
rounded by an extensive garden, of which 
the four photographs here reproduced give 
some idea. The lawn, represented by the 
left-hand lower picture, is enclosed by a ter- 
raced walk from whence the river is seen 
beyond the big elms. The owner's scheme 
for developing the grounds has had to be 
laid aside in consequence of the war, but the 
accompanying page serves to show the 
natural charm of the environment of his 
home in Berkshire. 


We have already given a sheet of Lance- 
Corporal A. E. Foley's Diploma Prize Gene- 
ral Headquarter's sketches in French Flan- 
<leis, sent us from the Front for publication 
in The Building News. Our previous 
wieclion of these pocket-lx)ok studies ap- 
l>eai'ed in our issue for January 24, when 
some notes in reference to the subjects illus- 
trated were printed. To-day, as promised, 
we include a second page, comprising views 
of the north and south )K>rches of the 
(.'athi' at St. Onier, a picturesque lands 
cape study of the church at Huby St. Leu, 
and the Dutch-like waterway town of the 
Matherin at St. Omer. 

Bai Bahadur Sarat Chaudia Das, CLE., 
Iilio famous Tibetan explorer, died on the 51 h 
ult. at his reaitlcnoe on Devapihar, in Port 
Carmioh.icl, Chittngong. 

Economy of space, says the City Prf.«.«, is 
certainly not amonp the principles practi.sod, 
even if preached, by the War Savings Coin- 
mittoe. .-\t the present time the dining-room 
of the Salisbury Hotel, now the heidquartcis 
of the oommittee, is in the sole possession of 
one official 1 



ChAITER VII.— (Con<iHj«rf /ro»i page 109.) 

By columns are meant compression mem- 
bers, of which the ratio of unsupported 
length to least width exceeds about four, and 
which are provided with reinforcement of one 
of the fonns hereafter described. 

It is recommended that the ratio of un- 
supported length of column to its least width 
be limited to 15. 

The effective area of hoo])ed culuinns or 
columns reinforced with structural shapes 
shall be taken as the area within the circle 
enclosing the spiral or the polygon enclosing 
the structural shapes. 

Columns may be reinforced by longitudinal 
bars ; by bands, hoops, or spirals, together 
with longitudinal bars ; or by structural forms 
which are sufficiently rigid to have value in 
themselves as columns. The general effect of 
closely spaced hooping is to greatly increase 
the toughness of the column and to add to its 
ultimate strength, but hooping has little effect 
on its behaviour within the limit of elasticity. 
It thus renders the concrete a safer and more 
reliable material, and should permit the use 
of a somewhat higher working stress. The 
beneficial effects of toughening are adequately 
provided by a moderate amount of hooping, 
a larger amount serving mainly to increase 
the ultimate strength and the deformation 
possible before ultimate failure. 

Composite columns of structural steel and 
concrete, in which the steel forms a column 
by itself, should be designed with 
caution. To classify this type as a con- 
crete column reinforced with structural 
.steel is hardly permissible, as the steel 
gencially will take the greater part of the 
load. When this type of column is used, the 
concrete should not be relied upon to tie the 
steel units together nor to transmit stresses 
from one unit to another. The units should 
be adequately tied together by tie-plates or 
lattice bars, which, together with other de 
tails, such as splices, etc., should be designed 
in conformity with standard practice for 
s'.nictural steel. The concrete may exert 
a beneficial effect in restraining the steel from 
lateral deflection, and also in increasing the 
carrying capacity of the column. The pro 
portion of load to be carried by the concrete 
will denend on the form of the column and 
the method of construction. Generally, for 
high percentages of steel, the concrete will 
develop relatively low unit stresses, and cau- 
tion .should be u.sed in placing dependence on 
the concrete. 

The following recommendations are made 
for the relative work'iig stresses in the con- 
crete for the several types of columns : — 
(a) Columns with longitudinal reinforce- 
ment to the extent of not loss than 1 
per cent, and not more than 4 per cent., 
and with lateral ties of not less than 
i in. in diameter, 12 in. apait, nor more 
than 16 diameters of the longitudinal 
Iwir : the unit .stress recommended for 
axial com))ress!on, on concrete piers 
having a length not more than four 
diameters, in (^hapter VIII., Section 3. 
{!>) Columns reinforced with not less than 
1 per cent, and not more than 4 |>er 
cent, of longitudinal bars and with cir- 
cular hoo]is or spirals not less than 1 
per cent, of the volume of the concrete 
and as hereinafter specified : a unit 
stress 55 per cent, higher than given for 
(n), provided the ratio of unsupported 
length of column to diameter of the 
hooned core is not more than 10. 
The fore<ioins recnniin"ndations are based 
on the following conditions : — 

It is recommended that the minimum size 
'if columns to which the working stresses may 
be applied be 12 in., out to out. 

In all cases lonn-itiidinal reinforcement ir 
assumed to carry its pronortion of stTess '\r 
!»ccorda"ce with Section 3 (c) 6 of this chan 
'er. The boons or bands are not to b- 
"n'int»d en directly as adding to the streneth 
of the roh'Tiin. 

T'OT'iluHinal reinforcement bars should b' 
'>i'>intnined s'rniirht. and shall hfive sufUcie"' 
'"tornl .supnort to be securely held in plaor 
until the concrete has set. 

Where boopiug is used, the total amount of 
such reLnforceinent shall be not less than 1 
per cent, of the volume of the column, en- 
closed. The clear spacing of such hooping 
shall be not greater than one-sixth the dia- 
meter of the enclosed column, and preferably 
not greater than one-tenth, and in no case 
more than 2^ in. Hooping is to be circular 
and the ends of bands must be united in such 
a way as to develop their full strength. Ade- 
quate means must he provided to hold bands 
or hoops ill place so as to form a column, the 
core of which shall be straight and well 
centred. The strength of hooped columns 
depends verj' much upon the ratio of length 
to diameter of hooped core, and the strength 
due to hooping decreases rapidly as this ratio 
increases beyond five. The working stresses 
recommended are for hooped columns with a 
length of not more than ten diameters of the 
hooped core. The Committee has no recom- 
mendation to make for a formula for working 
stresses for columns longer than ten diameters. 

Bending stresses due to eccentric loads, 
such as unequal spans of beams, and to lateral 
forces, must be provided for by increasing the 
section until the maximum stress does not ex- 
ceed the values above specified. Where ten- 
sion is possible in the longitudinal bars of the 
column, adequate connection between the ends 
of the bars must be provided to take this 

10. Reinfobcing foe Shrinkage and 
Tejipebate Stresses. 

When areas of concrete too large to ex- 
pand and contract freely as a whole are 
exposed to atmospheric conditions, the 
changes of fonn due to shrinkage and to 
action of temperature are such that cracks 
may occur in the mass unless precautions are 
taken to distribute the stresses so as to pre- 
vent the cracks altogether or to render them 
very small. The distance apart of the cracks, 
and consequently their size, will be directly 
|)roportional to the diameter of the reinforce- 
ment and to the tensile strength of the con- 
crete, and inversely proportional to the per- 
centage of reinforcement, and also to its bond 
resistance per unit of surface area. To be 
most effective, therefore, reinforcement (in 
amount generally not less than one-third of 
1 per cent, of the gross area) of a form which 
will develop a high bond resistance shovdd be 
placed near the exposed surface and be well 
distributed. Where openings occur the area 
of cross-section of the reinforcement should 
not be reduced. The allowable size and 
spacing of cracks depends on various con- 
siderations, sufh as the necessity for water- 
tightness, the import^ince of appearance of 
the surface, and the atmospheric changes. 

The tendency of concrete to shrink makes 
it necessarj', except where expansion is pro- 
vided for, to thoroughly connect the compo- 
nent parts of the frame" of articulated struc- 
tures, such .as floor and wall members in 
buildings, by the use of suitable reinforcing 
nia'erial. The amount of reinforcement for 
such connection should bear some relation to 
the size of the members connected, larger and 
heavier members requiring stronger connec- 
tions. The reinforcing bars should be ex- 
tended beyond the critical section far 
enouffh. or should be sufficiently anchored to 
develop their full tensile strength. 

11. — Ft.\T SLAB. 

The continuous flat .slab reinforced in two 
or more directions and built monolithically 
with the supporting columns (without beams 
or girdei-s) is a type of construction which is 
now extensively used and which has recog- 
uis«id .idvantages for certain types of struc- 
tures as. for example, warehouses in which 
large, open floor space is desired. In its 
c/)nslruct ion . there is excellent opportunity 
for inspecting the position of the reinforce- 
ment. The conditions attending depositing 
iuid placing of concrete are favourable to 
securing uniformity and soundness in the 
concrete. The recommendations in the fol- 
lowing paragraplis relate to flat slabs extend- 
ing over several rows of panels in each direc- 
tion. Necessarily the treatment is more or 
less empirical. 

The coefficients and moments given relate 
to uniformly distributed loads. 

(a) Cnlumn Capital. — It is usual in flat slab 
construction to enlaj-ge the supporting 

Feb. 7, 1917. 



-Cijlumns at their top, thus forming column 
capitals. The size aud shape of the coliuim 
•capital affect the strength of the structure in 
.■several ways. The moment of the external 
forces which the slab is called upon to resist 
is dependent upon tlie size of the capital ; the 
.-section of the slab immediately above the 
upper periphery of the capital " carries the 
highest amount of punching shear; and the 
heniing moment developed in the cohmin by 
;in eccentric or unbalanced loading of the slab 
is greatest at the under surface of the slab. 
Generally, the horizontal section of the 
column capital should be roimd or square with 
rounded comers. In oblong panels the sec- 
tion may be oval or oblong, with dimensions 
proport-ional to the panel dimensions. For 
computation purposes, the diameter of the 
column capital will be considered to be 
measured where its vertical thickness is at 
least 1^ in., provided the slope of the camtal 
below this point nowhere makes an angle 
with the vertical of more than 45 degrees. In 
Aase a cap is placed above the colunm capital, 
tlie part of this cap within a cone made by 
extending the lines of the column capital up- 
ward at tie slope of 45 deg. to the bottom of 
the slab or dropped panel may be considered 
;is part of the column capital in determining 
the diameter for design purposes. Without 
attempting to limit the size of the column 
<;ipital for special cases, it is recommended 
That the diameter of the column capital (or 
its dimension parallel to the edge of the 
panel) geneo-ally be made not less than one- 
fifth of the dimension of the panel from 
<entre to centre of adjacent columns. A 
diameter equal to 0.225 of the panel length 
has been used quite widely and acceptably. 
I'or heavy loads or large panels, especial at- 
tention should be given to designing and re- 
inforcing the column capital with respect to 
<•' impressive stresses and bending moments. 
In the case of heavy loads or large panels, 
and where the coniitions of the panel loading 
OP variations in panel length or other con- 
'!itiona cause high bending stresses in the 
column and also for column capitals smaller 
tlian the size herein reconjmended, especial 
vittention should be given to designing and re- 
inforcing the column capital with respect to 
ompression aud rigiditj- of connection to 

(6) propped Panel. — In one tj-pe of con- 
.-iruction the slab is thickened tlurougliout an 
;iiea surrounding the cflhmin capital. The 
^luare or oblong of thickened slab thus 
firmed is called a dropped panel or a drop. 
The thickness and the width of the dropped 
panel may be governed by the amount of re- 
sisting moment to be provided (the com- 
I'l-essive stress in the concrete being depen- 
dent upon both thickness and widtlil. or its 
thickness may be govenied by the resistance 
to shear required at the edge of the column 
capital and its width by the allowable 
I'ressive stresses and sheaa-ing stresses in the 
tliirmer portion of the slab adjacent to the 
•dropped panel. Generally, however, it is 
lecommended that the width of the dropped 
|ianel be at least four-tenths of the oorre- 
s|ronding side of tli£ panel as measured from 
. i-ntre to centre of colurmis. and that the oft- 
~vt in thickness be not more than five-tentlLs 
• •f the thickness of the slab outside the 
<lropped panel. 

tc) Slab Thickness. — In the design of a 
slab, the resistance to bending and to shear- 
ing fpi-ces will largely govern the fcliickness, 
-and, in the case of large panels with lio-ht 
1'iadfS, resistance to deflection may be a con- 
trolling factor. The following formulas for 
minimum thicknesses are recommended as 
general rules of design when the diameter of 
the column capital -is not less than one-fifth 
of the dimension of the panel from centre to 
centre of adjacent columns, the larger 
dimerffiion being used in the case of oblong 
I'anels. For notation, let 

/ = total thickness of slab, in inches : 

// = pajiel length, in feet ; 

lo = sum of live load and dead load, in 

pounds per square foot. 
Then, for a slab withont dropped ]>anels. 
minimum t = 0.024 L \'^ + li ; 
i"i' a slab with dropped panels, 

minimum ( = 0.02 L \ «; -I- 1 ; 


for a dropped panel whose width is 
tentlis of the panel length. 

minimum t = 0.03 L s' lu + IJ. 

In no case should tlie slab thickness be 
made less than 6 in., nor should the thickness 
of a floor-slab be made less than one-tliirty- 
second of the panel length, nor the thickness 
of a roof slab less than oiie-fortieth of the 
panel length. 

(d) Bending and Resisting Moments in 
Slabs. — If a vertical section of a slab be 
taken across a panel along a line midway 
between colunms, and if anothei' section be 
-taken along an edge of the panel parallel to 
the first section, but skirting the part of the 
periphery of the column capitals at the two 
comers of the panels, the moment of the 

/, = Other side of oblong panel measured 

in the same way ; 
c = Diameter of the oolimm capital ; 
Mx = Numerical sum of positive moment 
and negative moment in one direc- 
Jly = Nimierical sum of positive moment 
and negative moment in the other 
Foi- oblong panels, the equation for the 
numerical sum of the positive moment and the 
negative moment at the two sections named 
becomes — 

M,, = i IV h (h - 3 c)» 


PoeitioD of reaultaab 
of shear on qu&rter 
peripheries of two 
column c»pitala. 


ConUT of gravity of 
d ou haiC panel. 


i (w h (k - W 


Fig. 1. 

couple formed by the e.xtenial load on the 
lialf panel, exclusive of that over the column 
capital (sum of dead and live loads) and the 
resultant of the external shear or reaction at 
the support aA the two column capitals (see 
Fig. 1), may be found by ordinary static 
analysis. It will be noted that the edges of 
the area here considered are along line« of 
zero shear, except around the column capitals. 
This moment of the external forces acting on 
the half panel %vill be resisted by the 
numerical sum of (a) the moment of the in- 
ternal stresses at the section of the panel 
midway between columns (positive resisting 
moment) and (6) the moment of the internal 
stresses at the section referred to at the end 
of the panel (negative resisting moment). In 
the curved portion of the end section (that 


skirtuig the column), the stresses considered 
are the components which act parallel to the 
normal stresses on the straight portion of the 
section. Analysis shows that for a uniformly 
distributed load, and round columns, and 
squai'e panels, the numerical siun of the posi- 
tive moment and the negative moment at the 
two sections named is given quite closely by 
the equation : — 

U^ = lwl(l-i C)3. 

Ill this fommila and in those wliich follow 
relating to oblong panels, 

w = Sum of the live and dead loads per 
unit of area ; 
I = Side of a square panel measured 
from centie to centre of columns ; 
?, = One side of the oblong panel 
measured from centre to centie of 
columns : 

where Ma; is the numerical sum of the posi- 
tive moment and the negative moment for the 
sections parallel to the dimension L, and M y 
is the numerical sum of the positive moment 
and the negative moment for the sections 
parallel to the dimension l^. 

What proportion of the total resistance 
e-xisbs as positive moment and what as nega- 
tive moment is not readily determined. 'Hie 
amount of the jx>sitive moment and that of 
the negative moment may be expected to vary 
somew-hat with the design of the slab. It 
seems propter, however, to make the division 
of total resisting moment in the ratio of three- 
eighths for the positive moment to five- 
eighth for the negative moment. 

With reference to \-ariations in stress along 
the sections, it is evident from conditions of 
flexui'e that the resisting moment is not dis- 
tributed uniformly along either the section of 
positive moment or that of negative moment. 
As the law of the distribution is not known 
definitely, it will be necessary to make an 
empirical apportionment along the sections ; 
and it will be considered sufficiently accurate 
generally to divide the sections into two 
part.s, and to use an average value over eaoli 
part of tlie panel section. 

The relatively large breadth of structure in 
a flat slab makes the effect of local variations 
in the concrete less than would be the case 
for naiTow members like beams. The terLsile 
resistance of the oonorete is less affected by 
cracks. Measurements of deformations in 
buildings under heavy load indicate the pre- 
sence of considerable tensile resistance in the 
concrete, and the presence of this tensiUe re- 
sistance acts to deci'ease the intensity of the 
compressive stresses. It is believed that the 
use of moment coefficients somewhat less than 
those given in a preceding paragraph, aa de- 
rived by anal_vsis, is warranted, the calcula- 
tions of resisting moment and stresses in 
concrete and reinforcement being made ac- 
cording to the assumptions specified in this 
report, and no change being made in the 
values of the working stresses ordinarily 
used. Accordingly, the values of the moments 
which are recommended for use are somewhat 
less than those derived by analysis. The 
values given may be used when the column 
capitals are round, oval, square, or oblong. 

(e) Names for Moment Sections. — For con- 
venience, that portion of the section across a 
panel along a line midway between columi.s 
which lies within the middle two quarters of 
the width of the panel (H I, Fig. 21 will be 
called the inner section, and that oortion in 
the two outer quai-ters of the widlh of the 
panel (G H and I .1. Fig. 21 will bo c-,iI»H the 
outer sections. Of the section which follows 
a panel edee from column capita! to column 
capital, and which includes the quarter 
peripheries of the ed?es of two column 
capitals, that portion within the middle two 
ciuarters of the panel width (C D. Fig. 21 
will be called the mid-section, and the two 
remaininsr portions (A B C ai'd D E F. Fig. 2i. 
each having a protected width enual to one- 
fourth of the panel width, will be called the 
column-head sections. 

if) Positive Moment. — For a smiare in- 
terior panel, it is recommendpd that t'le 
IMsitive moment for a section in the middle 
of a panel extending across its width be taken 

I / — c 1 Of this moment, at 

least 25 per cent, should be 

as 1 »■ I 


^ Rpe panpr nnfl closin-e "Statical *" iTni'tntinns nn^n 
the S*e'»I Rennirpment in T?einforc»'1 O^ncrpte F'at 
Slah Fl"nrs," hv .To>"' R. Xichnle. .Tiin.Am.Soc.C.E. 
rrnnsac(ion«.\m.Soc.C.E. Vol. LXXVTI. 


THE BUILDING iNEWS: .\u. 3240. 

Feb. 7, 1917. 

vided for in the inner .section; in the two 
outer sections of the panel at least 55 )JLr 
cent, of the specified moment should be pro- 
vided for in slabs not having dropped panels, 
and at least 60 per cent, in slabs having 
dropped panels, except that in calculations to 
determine necessary thickness of slab away 
from the dropped panel at least 70 jwr cent, 
of the positive moment should be considered 
as acting in the two outer sections. 

(g) A'c(/(itivc Moment. — For a square in- 
terior panel, it is recommended that the 
negative moment for a section which follows 
a panel edge from column capital to column 
capital, and which includes the quarter 
peripheries of the edges of the two column 
capitals (the section altogether forming 
the projected width of the panel) be taken 

as — !(•■ M i - -=- c ) Of this negative 

15 \ 3 / • 

moment, at least 20 per cent, .'ihould be 
provided for in the mid-section, and at least 
65 per cent, in the two co'.umiihead sections 
of the panel, except that in slabs having 
dropped panels at least 80 per cent, of the 
specified negative should be provided for in 
the two column-head sections of the panel. 

(h) Movivntx for Olihini/ T'fincl.^.— When 
the len'.;th of a panel does not exceed the 
breadth by more than 5 per cent., computa- 
tion may be made on the basis of a s(]uare 
panel with sides equal to the mean of the 
length and the breadth. 

When the long side of an interior oblong- 
panel exceeds the short side by more thai, 
one-twentieth and by not more than one- 
third of the short side, it is recommended 
that the positive moment be taken as 

iv lilh - — c ) on a section parallel to 



dimension, /j, and 





w h 

edge of tho 
dimension, /'>, 

on a section par.allel to the dimension, }\ ; and 

that the negative moment be taken as 

1 / 2 \^ 

... ) / 7 - — g 1 OQ a section at the 

panel corresponding to the 

and :rH «> 'i ( h "-,''] *'' '^ 

section in tho other direction. The limitations 
of tho apportionment of moment between 
inner section and outer section and between 
mid-section and column-head sections may be 
the same as for square panels. 

(i) Wull I'unrlx. — The coefficient of nega- 
tive moment at the first row of columns away 
from tlie wall should be increased 20 per cent, 
over that reijuired for interior panels, and 
likewise the coefficient of positive moment at 
the section half way to the wall should be 
increased by 20 per cent. If girders are not 
provided along the wall, or the slab does not 
|)roject as a cantilever beyond the column 
line, the reinforcement parallel to the wail 
for the negative moment in the coliimnhead 
section ami for the positive moment in the 
imter section should be increased by 20 per 
cent. If the wall is carried by the slab, this 
concentrated load should be provided for in 
the design of the slab. The coefficient of 
negative moments at the wall to lake bending 
in the direction perpendicular to the wall 
line may be determined by the conditions of 
restraint and fixedness, as found from the 
relat've stiffness of columns and slab, but in 
no case should it be taken as less than one- 
half of that for interior panels. 

(/) lietnfnrremint.^ln the calculation of 
moments, all the reinforcing biirs which cross 
the section under consideration, aud which 
may fulfil the renuirenients given under 
Paragraph (?) of this chapter, may be used. 
For a cohimnhead .section, reinforcing bars 
parallel to the straight nortion of the section 
do not contribute to the negative resisting 
moment for the column-head in question. In 
the {'ase of foiir-wav reinforcement, the sec- 
tional area of the diagonal b.ars. multlpliod 
bv the sine of the angle lietween the dia'jonal 
of the panel and the straight portion of the 
section under con.sideration. mav be taken to 
act as reinforcement in a rectangular direc- 

()[■> PninI III Insertion. — For the purpose 
of makini; calculations of moments at sections 
awav from the sections of negative moment 

and positive moment already specified, the 
point of iiiHection on. any line parallel to a 
panel edge may be Uken as one-fifth of the 
clear di.stance on that line between the two 
sections of negative moment at the opiMJSite 
eids of the panel indicated in Paragraph (t I 
of this chapter. For slabs having dropped 
panels, '.he co-efficient of one-fourth should be 
used instead of one-fifth. 

(/) Airaiujement of J/einforcemenl.—Tiie 
design should include adequate provision for 
securing the reinforcement in pl-dce, so as to 
take not only the maximum moments, but^ the 
moments at intermediate sections. All bars 
ill rectangular bands or diagonal bands 
should extend on each side of a section of 
maximum moment, either positive or neg.ative, 
to points at least 20 diameters beyond the 
point of inflection, as defined herein, or be 
liooked or anohoied at the point of inflection 
111 addition to this provision, bars in d'agonal 
bands used as reinforcement for iiegiitive 
moment should extend on each side of a line 
drawn through the column centre at right 
angles to the direction of the band at least a 
distance equal to thirtv-five one-hundredths 
of the panel length, and bars in diagonal 
bands used as reinforcement for positive 
moment should extend on each side of a 
(liagoiial through the centre of the panel at 
leail a distance equal to thirty-five 
one-hundredths of the panel lengt-nj 
and no splice by lapping should 
be jiermitted at or near reg'ons of 
maximum stress, except as just described 
Contimntv of reinforcing bars is considered 
to have .advantages, and it is recommended 
that not more than one-third of the reinforc- 
ing bars in any direction be made of a length 
less than tlie" distance centre to centre of 
columns in th-at direction. Continuous b.ars 
should not all be bent up at the same point 
of their length, but the zone in which this 
beniling occurs should extend on each sid" 
of the as'sumed point of inflection, and should 
cover a width of at least one-fifteenth of the 
paiiel length. Mere draping of the bars 
should not be pei-m-tted. In four-way rein- 
forcement, the position of the bars in both 
diagonal and rectansjulRr directions may b" 
considered in determininc whether the width 
of zone of bendinjr is suffic'ent. 

(ni) Ittinjorci'tncnt (il Conft ruction Joints. 
—It is recommended that at construction 
joints extra reinforcing bars equal in section 
to 20 lier cent, of the .amount necessary to 
meet the requirements for moments at the 
section where the joint is made be added to 
the reinforcement, these bars to exteiid not 
less than 50 diameters beyond the joint on 
each side. 

{Il) Tensile and Compressive Stresses. — The 
usual method of calculating the tensile and 
compressive stresses in (.he concrete and in 
the reinforcement, based on the assumptions 
for internal stresses given in this chapter, 
should be followed. In the case of the 
drojiped panel, the .section of the slab and 
dropped jianel may be considered to act in- 
tegrally for a width equal to the width of the 
column-head section. 

{<)) Provision for Diiitjonul Tension ami 
.S/icric— In calculations for the shearing 
stress which is to be used as the means of 
measuring the resistjmce to diagonal tension 
stress, it is recommended that the total vei 
tic.ll shear on two column-head sections con- 
stituting a wid'h ecpial to one-half the lateral 
dimension of the panel, for in the for- 
mula for determining critical shearin<T 
.stresses, be con.sidered to be one-fourth of the 
total and live loads on a panel for a 
.slab of uniform thickness, and to be three- 
tenths of the sum of the dead and live loads 
on a panel for a .-ilab with dropped panels. 
The formula for shearing unit .stress civcn in 
the Aiipendix to this report may then b.' 
0-25 W 

tion of a uniform disUibution over the sec- 
tion of the slab arcjund the periphery of the 
column capital, and also of a uniform distri- 
bution over the section of the slab around 
the periphery of the dropped panel, using in 
each case an" amount of vertical shear greater 
by 25 per cent, than the total vertical shear 
on the section under consideraition. 

The values of working siresses should be 
those recommended for diagonal tension and 
shear in Chapter VIII.. Section 5. 

(/)| Wolls anil Openings. — Girders or beams 
should be constructed "to carry walls and 
other concentrated loads which are in excess 
of the working capacity of the slab. Beams 
should also be provided in case openings in 
the floor reduce the working strength of the 
slab below the required carryiiig*capacity. 

(</) Unusual Panels. — The coefficients, ap 
portionments, and thicknesses recommended 
are for slabs which have several rows of 
panels in each direction, and in which the 
size of the panels is approximately the same. 
For structures having a widih of one, two 
or three panels, and also for slabs havinc 
panels of miirkedly different siz/CS, an analysis 
should be made of the moments developed in 
both slab and columns, and the values given 
herein modified accordingly. Slabs with 
panelled ceiling or with depressed panelling 
'n the floor are to be considered as coming 
under the recommendations herein given. 

(r) lientlimi Mnmfnis in Columns. — Provi- 
sion should be made in both wall columns 
and interior columns for the bending 
moment which will be developed by un- 
equally loaded panels, eccentr-c loading, 
or uneven s))acing of columns. The .iniount 
of moment to be taken by a column will de- 
pend upon the relative stiffness of columns 
and slab, and computations may be made 
bv rational methods, .such ,is the nr'nciple 
of least work, or of .slop? and deflection. 
flenerally, the lareer oart of the nnenualised 
neg.ative moment will le tram milted to the 
columns, and the column should I<e des'cned 
to resist this bending moment. ETiecial at- 
tention should be given to wjill columns and 
corner columns. 




written v = 


for slabs of uniform 

thickness, and i; 

0.30 W 

for slabs with 

droi>ped panels, w^here 11" is the sum of the 
dead and live loads on a panel, h is half the 
Lateral dimension of the panel measured from 
centre to centre of columns, and itl is the lever 
arm of the resisting couple at the section. 

The calculation of what is commonly called 
punching shear may be made on the assump- 

The following working stresses are recoin- 
niended for static loads. Proper allowances 
for vibration and impact are to be added to 
live loads where necessary to produce an 
equivalent static load before applying the 
unit stresses in proportioning ^larts. 

In selecting the permissible working stress 
on concrete, the designer should be guided 
by the working stresses usually allowed for 
other materials of construction, t-o that all 
structures of the same class aunposed of dif- 
ference materials may have approximately the 
Slime degree of safety. 

The following recommendations as to allow- 
able stresses are given in the form of per- 
ceiit'^TOS of the ultimate sitrengtli of the 
particular concrete wliich is to bo u.sed ; this 
ultimate strength is that developed at an 
age of 28 day."!, in cylinders 8 ins. in diameter 
and 16 ins. long, of the consistency described 
in Chapter IV.. Section 2 (d). made and 
stored under laboratory conditions. In the 
absence of definite kno"wle<lge in .advance of 
construction as to just what strength may be 
expected, the Committee submits the fol- 
following values as those which should be 
obtained with materials and workmanship in 
accordance •with the recommendations of this 

Although occasional tests may show higher 
results than those here given, the Committee 
recommends that these values should be the 
maximum used in design. 

Table of CoMrREssivK SiBFNr.xns or DiFPtlENT 


In pounds per sqiiftre inch. 
AgKrcRBte. 1 : 3* 1 : 'IV 1:6 

Qraniee, Imp rock.... 3,300 2,800 2,200 
fl ravel, hftrd timestono 

nn'l hard sandstone. 3,000 2,500 J.OOO 
Soft limpitone and 

Kandstone 2,200 1,800 1,500 

Cinders 800 700 GOD 

Note.— For variationB in the moduli ot elasticity see 
{Chapter VIII., Seotion 8. 

1 :7*' 

1 ;9- 

1,6C0 1,300 





•Combined Tolnme 
measured separately. 

fine and coarse aggregate 

Feb. 7, 1917. 




When Cdiiipression is applitd to a surface of 
concrete of at least twice the loaded area, a 
stress of 35 per cent, of the compressive 
jitrength may be allowed in the area actually 
under load. 


For concentric compression on a plain con- 
crete pier, the length of which does not excee^l 
four diameters, or on a column reinforced 
with longitudinal bais only, the length of 
which does not exceed twelve diameters, 22.5 
per cent, of the compressive strength may be 

For other forms of columns, the stresses 
obtained from the ratios given in Chapter 
VII., Section 9. may govern. 


The extreme fibre stress of a beam, calcu- 
lated on the assumption of a constant modulus 
of elasticity for concrete under working 
stresses may be allowed to reach 32.5 per 
cent, of the compressive strength. Adjacent 
to the support of continuous beamsj stresses 
15 per cent, higher may be used. 


In calculations on beams in which the 
maximum shearing stress in a section is used 
as the means of measuring the resistance to 
diagonal tension stress, the following allow- 
able values for the maximum vertical shear- 
ling istress in concrete-, calculated by the 
method given in the Appendix, Formula 22, 
are recommended : 

(a) For beams with horizontal bare only 
and without web reinforcement, 2 per cent, 
of tlie compressive strength. 

(b) For beams with web reinforcement con- 
sisting of vertical stirrups looped about the 
longitudinal reinforcing ibars in the tension 
side of the 'beam and spaced horizontally 
not more than one-half the de|)th of the 
lieam or for beams in which longitudinal 
bars are bent up at an angle of not more than 
45 degreES or less than 20 degrees with the 
axis of the beam, and the points oi, bending 
are spaced horizontally not more than three- 
quarters of the depth of the beam apart, not 
to exceed 4^ per cent of "the compressive 

(c) For a combination of 'bent bars and 
vertical stirrups looped about the reinforci.,;; 
bars in the tension side of the beam and 
spaced horizontally not more than one-half 
of the depth of the beam, 5 per cent of the 
compre.ssive strength. 

(<i) For beams with web reinforcement 
(either vertical or inclined) securely attached 
to the longitudinal bars in the tension side 
of the beam in the case of inclined members, 
slipping of bar past the stirrup, and spaced 
horizontally not more than one-half of the 
depth of the beam in case of vertical stirrups 
and not more than three-fourths of the depth 
of the beam in the case of inclined members, 
either with longitudinal bars bent up or 
not. 6 per cent, of the compressive strength. 

The web reinforcement in case any is 
used should be proporticmed by using two- 
thirds of the external vertical shear in For- 
mulas 24 or 25 in Chapter X. The effect 
of lon2^tudinal bars bent up at an angle of 
from 20 to 45° with the axis of the beam, 
may be taken at sections of the beam in 
which the bent up bars contribute to dia- 
gonal tension resistance, as defined under 
Chapter VII.. Section 8, as reducing the 
shearing to be otherwise provided 
for. The amount of reduction of the shear- 
ing stress by means of bent up bars will 
depend upon their capacity, but in no case 
shonld be taken as greater than 4^ per cent, 
of the compressive strength of the concrete 
over the efl'ective cross-section of the beam 
(Foi-mnla 22). The limit of tensile stress in 
the bent in> portion of the bar calculated by 
Foirmula 25, using in tliis formula an amount 
of total shear cori'esponding to the reduc- 
tion in shearing stress assumed for the bent 
<ip bars, may be taken as specified for the 
working stress of steel, but in the calcula- 
tions the stress in the bar due to its part as 
longitudinal reinforcement of the beam 
should be considered. The stresses in stir- 
rup.s and inclined members when combined 
with bent up bars are to be deternuned by 
finding the amount of the total shear which 
may be allowed by reason of the bent up 

bars, and subtracting this shear from the 
total external vertTcal shear. Two-thirds of 
the remainder will be the ghear to be 
carried by the stirrups, using Formulas 24 
or 25 in the Appendix. 

Where punching shear occurs, provided the 
diagonal tension requirements are met, a 
shearing stress of 6 per cent, of the com- 
pressive strength may be allowed. 

6. BOND. 

The bond stress between concrete and 
plain reinforcing bars may be assumed at 

4 per cent, of the compressive strength, or 
2 per cent, in the case of drawn wire. In 
the best types of deformed bar, the bond 
stress may be increased, but not to exceed 

5 per cent, of the compressive strength of 
the , concrete. 


The tensile or compressive stress in steel 
should not exceed 16,000 lb. per sq. in. 

In structural steel members, the working 
stresses adapted by the American Railway 
Engineering Association are reco<mmended. 
The value of the modulus of elasticity of 
concrete has a w-ide range, depending on 
the materials used, the age, the range of 
stresses between which it is considered, as 
well as other conditions. It is recommended 
that, in computations for the po.sition or 
the neutral axis, and for the resisting 
moment of beams, and for comipression of 
concrete in columns, it be assiuned as : — 
(a) One-fortieth thait of steel, when the 
strength of the concrete is taken 
as not more than 800 lb. per sq. in. 
(h) One-fifteenth that of steel, when the 
strength of the concrete is taken 
as greater than 800 lb. per sq. in. 
and less than 2,200 lb. per sq. in. 
('■) One-twelfth that of steel, when the 
strength of the concrete is taken as 
greater than 2.200 lb. per eq. in. 
and less than 2,900 lb. per sq. in., 
(rl) One-tenth that of steel, when the 
strength of the concrete is taken as 
greater than 2,900 lb. per sq. in. 
Although not rigorously accurate, these 
assumptions will _give safe resrilts. For 
the deflection of beams which are free to 
move longitudinally at the supports, in 
using formulas for deflection which do not 
take into account the tensile sti-enigth de- 
veloped in the concrete, a modulus of one- 
eighth of tliat of steel is recommended. 
(2'o be conchided.) 


Memorials to jSIanchester Officeks. — At 
Oliester Consisitory Ocmrt a numiber of facul- 
ties have been decreed tor the erection of 
memorials te officers who have fallen in the 
war. Memorials are to be erected in St. 
Oatherine's Churcli, Birtles. in memory of 
Lieutenant J. C Close-Brooks. 1st Life 
Guards, wlho was killed in action on October 
30 last ; in Bebington Parish Church in 
memory of Second Lieutenant R. P. Schole- 
field. CliPsliiro Regiment, killed on July 25 
last ; in Timperley Parish Church in memory 
of Captadn K. C. G. Wray. South Lancashire 
Regiment, killed on August 9 last ; in (St. 
Mark's. New Ferry, in memory of Captain 
G. B. Sayce. 20th Battalion Manchester R<>2ri- 
ment. killed on July 1 last; in St. George's, 
Hyde, in memory of Second Lieutenant E. W, 
Westbrook, 8th Battalion Manchester Regn- 
ment, killed on Novcmfcer 8, 1915; and in 
St. Mark's, Saltney, in memory of Second 
Lieutenant Alan .Sheriff Roberts. 14th Bat- 
talion Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 


Boyle's latest patent " air-pump " ventila- 
tors, supplied by Messrs. Robert Boyle and 
Son. ventilating engineers. 64, Holborn Via- 
duct, London, E.C.. have been employed by the 
Consett Iron Co. for Bradley shops extensions, 

In these days of strict economy a surprisingly 
large amount of waste results from foodstuffs 
and other materials being stored in damp 
cellars. The difficulty is easily overcome by 
the use of a waterproofed cement rendering. 
Wo are informed that the cellars of a mansion 
at Roehampton were very damp and the above 
treatment was succe.'^sfully applied, the powder 
'■ Pudlo " being adopted for the work. 



To the Editor of The Building News. 

Sir, — I have to iufoim you that the Govern- 
ment, installed November 14, 1916, has now, 
because of war conditions, indefinitely post- 
poned the reception of designs in the Federal 
Parliament House Architectural Competition. 

The ilinister has arranged for the registra- 
tion of competitors to be retained, and states 
that it is intended to complete the adopted 
programme as soon as the time is opportune. 
— Yours, etc., 
Federal Capital Director of Design and 

Federal Capital Office, 84, William Street, 
Melbourne, December 13, 1916. 


Mr. E. H. Lingen Barker (of the firm of 
Lingen Barker and Anthony Barker) passed 
away at his residence in London on Jan- 
uary 27, at the age of 78, as we briefly 
announced last week just as we went to 
press. Mr. Barker built and restored a very 
large number of churches in different parts 
of England and Wales, and latterly has 
identified himself with a movement for the 
erection of churches to meet the needs of the 
growing populations in our large industrial 
centres. An important step in the progress 
of the movement was taken in February, 
1907, when Sir W^ H. Houldsworth, Bart.. 
at a meeting of the Bishop of Manchester's 
Commission at Manchester, pleaded for the 
careful consideration of the cost , of the 
churches, which were to be built with the 
help of money granted by the Commis- 
sion, and strongly urged the building of a 
church at a cost of £8 a sitting. Mr. Barker 
was forthwith commissioned to prepare plans 
for various churches in the Manchester 
Diocese. He also had considerable school 
practice, and held the appointment of 
architect to ten school boards. Mr. Barker 
was a member of sundry archaeological 
societies, and the author of several archi- 
tectural essays, one of them being on Garway 
Church and the Knights Templars, which he 
read before the British Archseological Asso- 
ciation at their Great Malvern meeting, and 
another on the Domestic Mediaeval Architec- 
ture of Herefordshire, for the old Hereford 
Literary, Philosophical and Natural History 
Society. He was the author of " Parish 
Churches of the Diocese of St. David's " and 
" Warwickshire Parish Churches," the latter 
being intended by the then Bishop of Worces- 
ter, Dr. Philpott, to form the first part of a 
Diocesan handbook. 

The funeral of Mr. Joseph Foster Wood, 
a well-known Bristol architect, who passed 
away on January 26, in his 62nd year, at his 
residence, 9, Westbury Park, took place on 
January 31, at Canfor'd Cemetery, Westbury- 
on-Trym. The principal mourners were Miss 
Mai-ioii Wood (sister), the Rev. E. J. D. 
Hellier (cousin), Mr. John Griffin (brother- 
in-law), and Mr. Graham C. Awdry, with 
whom the deceased gentleman was in partner- 
ship. Mr. Wood was a former president of 
the Bristol Society of Architects, who were 
represented at his funeral. The attendance 
included Messrs. W. V. Gough, C. F. W. 
Dening, J. B. Wills, T. Edwards. George 
Bunyon. Arthur N. Price, and E. W. Beesley 
(la member of the office staff). Sir Frank 
Wills was unavoidably absent. 

The death is announced, on Jaimary 31, at 
Satwell. Henley-on-Thames, of Mr. Lisle 
March -Phiillipps, whose writings on architec- 
ture have in the recent past attracted 
some notice. The deceased, who was 57 
years of »se, belonged to the family of 
March-Phillipps de Lisle, of Garendon and 
Grace Dieu, and was the son of Spencer 
March-Phillipps, an Edin'burgh reviewer 
and writer on international law. and 
erandson cf the Rishit Hon. Samuel March- 
Philliiops. In 1902 he married Isa.bel, 
daughter of Mr. H. Coulson. bv whom he 
had three cVIdren. His sister. Miss Evelvn 
March-Phillipps, died in October, 1915. 



Feb. 7, 1917. 

^uilDing Dntillig^nre. 

Dublin. — One of the first Ibuildings to be 
ro-erected in tlie devastated area of Dublin is 
that o! Messrs. Corrigan and Wilson, printers, 
of Sackville Place. The space occuJi>ied by 
the building covers an area of some 1,500 
Bupeihcial leut, and contains three floors. 
The Uasement, whicli is laid with concrete, 
contains llie new machinery. The floor over 
is earned on steel beams and stanchions and 
surrounded by a gallery, and the upper floor 
is carried out in a similar manner. The 
entire lloors are lighted by a large A-shape 
roof light. Messrs. Farmer Brothers, Not- 
tingham Street, are the contractors. Mr 
George B. Bea-ett, C.K., Stephen's Green. 
IS the architect. 



Light and Air Dlspuie.— Bkduington and 


— This was an aobion, tried on January 31, 
before Mr. Justice BaiiUiaohe and a sj>ecial 
jury, by the trustc^es of the late Mr. Moses, 
deocaeed. Uio owner of 7, Groat St. Andrew 
Street, Shaftesbui-y Avenue, London, againet 
Messrs. J. Wilhiiott and Sons, buildcra, and 
Thomas Gordon, London, Ltd., of 63a, Vincenit 
Street, Glasgow, claiming an linjunotion and 
fo/ aajnages by reason of tho interference of 
the plaiiiulfs' ancient ligthts by Uie erection of 
* buJlding ojiposite ,by Meters. Wiillmott for 
Messre. GoihIimi, Ltd. Mr. Kirby, K.C., and 
Mr. K. G. I'ttlmer .T.j.peared for "the plaij'itift's, 
»n<l Mr, (Jompeton, K.C., Mr. Matldociks, and 
Mr. Robertson for tihe defendants, I'laintitfs, 
wtlio are fre<iliold<;rs of premises tlie 
building creote<i by tlie defendants, tlie Shaftes- 
bury Hotel, complained that tile dofendamts 
Ihiad raised tIhe hoigilit of tihe Shafteabury Hotel 
from 46 ft. 6 ins. to 67 ft. 3 ins. with tie result 
«liat Uhe light oorauig to tilio basoment sOiop, 
I>assage, staircase, and front room on the first 
floor, used f<>r resiidential pui-jioscs, was ob- 
structed, diminished, and interfered with the 
ordinary comfort and user of the premises. — 
Mr. C. S. Jostiiili, of Messrs. C. S. and E. M. 
Joseph, ardiitccits and surveyors, of 83, Queen 
Street, E.G., gave evidence that tJierc was mate- 
niial diminution of iigiht to tlie promises. He 
estimated tllio loss in letting value at £25 a 
year. The loss on tihc &il« valuta on the 5 )K-'r 
cent, table he put at £375, or £262 if the lease 
ran to 1929. On the 6 per cent, table tJhe 
amount w\>uld bo £192. In his opinion the 
promises were worth more tjian £100 -a year 
Ixtfore tihe defen<lants* buildings wore raised. — 
Mr. H. A, Furber, of Messrs. Fuiber, 3, War- 
wick Court, Gray's Inn, auotionecra and sur- 
veyors, agre^vl with the e^•idenco of Mr. Joseph, 
and supjwrted his figures. — ^Mr. Win. Wood 
ward, senior partner of Messrs. W. WoodwuiRl 
and Sons, arohiteots and surveyors, of Southh- 
ampton Street, Strand, W.C., sairi in his 
opinion there was a, material diminution of 
liffht to the plaintiffs' premis^-s by reascin of tb<.' 
building oppo«it(>. The .street was 36 ft. wide, 
building to building. Tlie heiijtlit to the para- 
|)et of the old building {excluding the roof) was 
32 ft., and that of tho new buildiing to tJie para- 
pet 59 ft. 6 ins., a diflerence of 27 ft. 6 ins. 
Taking these figures into consideration, lie was 
of opinion that his conclusion as to tilio loss of 
light was indisputable. He put the loss of rent 
*t £30 a year. — Mr. Comiwton. for the defen- 
dants, Messrs. Willmott, said this \ms an 
utterly exaggerated claim. His clients did not 
<Hsput<! t;hat there was a loss of light, but his 
case was that tihe loss was not such as to jus- 
tify largo dsimages. — Mr. W. M. Malts, an 
larohitoot and surveyor, of Staple House, Chan- 
<ery Lane, W.C, examined, said he liad known 
lilic district before the erection of tilie Shaftes- 
bury Hotel. He was the architect for the erec- 
tion of the Qiotel at a cost of £23.000. In his 
opinion Hhe plaintifTs had. a sufiicient amount 
of Iigiht left to tlheir promises, iKvt.withstnn<ling 
IJi" erection of the ex'ension of tilie hotel. — Mr. 
IV I. Breac^li, surveyor and estat*' agent, and n 
anembor of the firm of Me.'ssi's. Farebrother. 
Fillis, .and Co., of 29, Fleet Street, E.G., gave 
evidence to the offeot that bv reason of the 
erection of tihe d'efendants' building tJie lettiii;' 
or selling value of the plaintiffs' promises hail 
not depreciated, but, in f.iot, had appreciated 
in >'alue. — Mr. H. Bloss Taylor, surveyor, of 
iMessre. BiK>wett and Taylor, 9. Warwick 
Court, W.C, also gave similar evidence. — The 
jury returned a verdict for tHie plaintiffs, and 
assoswcfl the damages at £160. His lord^ii' 
entered jiulgment accordingly against both 
dcfondiante. with costs. 

Dublin. — The adjudicators' report on the 
designs submitted in the competition for a 
town plan of Dublin have at length been made 
public. The competition owed ,ts inception 
to the Marquis of Aberdeen, then Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, who offered a prize of £500 
for the best plan. The a<ljud.cators were Pro- 
fessor Geddes, Edinburgh ; Mr. C. J. Mac- 
Carthy, city architect, Dublin ; and Mr. C. J. 
Nolen, M.A., Cambridge, Mass., b.S.A., an 
expert on town planning. The adjudicators 
unanimously awarded the premium to the de- 
sign G, submitted by Professor P. Abercrom- 
hie and Messrs. S. J. Kelly and A. J. Kelly, 
of Liverijool. Honourable mention was alto 
made of the designs F, C, B, and H, of 
Messi«. J. M. L. Bogle, A. W. Panton, H. 0. 
Burroughs, and New'bold, of Livcrjiool; 
-Messrs. Kaye Parry and, Dublin ; Mr. 
F. A. Gushing Smith, Urbana, Illinois, 
U.S.A., and Messr.s. A&hbee and Chettle, 
London, respectively. The Architectural 
Association has been able to arrange an ex- 
liibition of Uie competitive designs at the 
A.A.I, rooms in South Frederick Lane, for 
a short period. 

>— •o»— < 


Glasgow Master Masons' Associ-\tion. — 
Topics di.scussed last week by the Glasgow 
Master Masons and Bricklayers at t < ir 
annual meeting in the Building Trades' Ex- 
change, Buchanan Street, included the handi- 
cap of private enterprise thiough taxation and 
the question of prohibition during the war. 
Mr. John Train presided. Mr. J. Scott Inglis 
was elected president for the ensuing year, 
and Mr. E. Forrest was elected vice-president. 
Mr. Forrest moved a recommendation of the 
Committee to the effect that the Association 
communicate with the other building trades 
in Gla.sgow and the West of .Scotland, and 
also the Scottish National Building Trades 
Federation, with a view to a joint communi- 
cation being sent to the Secretary for Scot- 
land urging prohibition during the" war in the 
interests of the nation. Mr. William Taylor 
seconded. Mr. Train moved that they take 
no action. Mr. William Muir seconded the 
amendment. The motion was carried by 
seventeen votes, against three for the amend- 

-■Vn Analysis of Mei>i.*:val Construc- 
tion.— At a meeting on January 26, 1917, of 
the Royal Technical College Architectur il 
Craftsmen's Society, Glasgow, held in the 
College buildings, Mr. James S. Boyd, Lie. 
K.I.B.A., lecturer in the architecture and 
building department of the college, gave a 
lecture entitled "An Analysis of Mediaeval 
Construction." The lecture was illustrated by 
a series of slides made by the lecturer from 
))luitograplis. Mr. Boyd dealt first with walls 
and foundations, describing the construction 
ind materials used. He then passed on to the 
construction of piers, pier arcades, vaults of 
the various tjTJes from Romanesque down to 
the fan vaulting of Henry 'VHI.'s Chapel at 
W'estminster. In dealing with late vaulting, 
the lecturer .stated that " tierccrons " or in- 
termediate ribs were essential in the English 
.system of vaulting, which was not commonly 
" domical.'' .Just as the transitional builders 
emjiloycd ribs to give additional support to 
their vaults, so in later work the Knglisli 
Gothic builders used tierccrons to give addi- 
tional permanent support to the infilling of 
the vault cells, making il possible to use much 
lighter masonry. 'rhere is a freedom and 
variety in English vaulting which was un- 
equalled in France, where, after the erection 
of Amiens, the development of Gothic vault- 
ing practically came to a standstill. More- 
over, the use' of tiercerons showed the great 
advance made by English workmen over 
their contemporaries, culminating in the high- 
walermark of craftsmanship in the later liern 
and fan vaulting. Following the vaulting, there 
was described the aluitmcnt system, the con- 
struction of doorways, windows, roofs, towers, 
and spires, Mr, Thomas Whyte, F.S.S., pre- 
sided, and a vote of thanks to Air. Boyd was 
accorded on the motion of !Mr, C, Ernest 
Monro, A.R.I.B,A. 

(Dur (DOizt (LaliU. 

Among the many stories told about L<jrd 
Cromer the following, related by tlie London 
Conesponaent is one of the best : The bitter- 
ness ol his duel with the cunning and un- 
scrupulous Abuas II, was greatiy eased by 
his appreciation of Abbas's humour. He 
often used to relate how Abbas complained 
that some of the Italian masons employed on 
the Assuan dam were .■Vnarchists, and had 
probably come to the country with the ulterior 
.i.t,;ntion of ir.uraering llic Khedive ! " But," 
said Lord Cromer, "if the Anarchists assas- 
sinate anyone they are just as likely to kill 
me as you ! " The suggestion pleased Abbas. 
" Tiens, c'est vrai ! " he exclaimed joyously. 
.\nd Abbas's pleasure delighted Lord Cromer, 
The Khedive knew other moods, and once 
remonstrated with Lord Cromer for having a 
step on his carriage. The fearless Lord 
Cromer innocently asked why he should not 
have a sfep. " Assassins always attack from 
the step," was the answer. 

A master plumber, named Barker, claimid 
exemption for four men at the l>ondon City 
Ixical Tribunal last week, and admitted that 
one of them was aged 21 and passed for 
general service. He said that he paid his 
men the standard wages of lO^d. per hour. 
Captain Elliott said that the current rale was 
Is. Id. Mr. Barker s,iid that il was a rule 
of the jobbing trade that where a man had a 
permanent job he had less than a casual one. 
ihe Chairman disputed that. Mr. Barker 
declined to enter into any arrangement with 
the military authorities, and the Tribunal 
ordered that three men should serve at once 
and one should have two months' exemption. 
Mr. Barker : " That means that I must close 
up my shop. Is not a plumber engaged in 
work of national importance? " The Chair- 
man : " That depends upon the state of the 
market." iMr. Barker: "The state of the 
market is that men are not obtainable." 

" Lockwood's Builders' and Contractors' 
Price Book " for 1917 (London : Crosby Loc 
wood and Co., 4s.) is, as u.sual, a compi. 
hensive handbook of latest prices — so far, m 
course, as is pointed out in the preface, a.s 
any such list can be relied on for more than 
a few days. For this and other reasons, as 
the Editor remarks, trade is stagnant, and is 
likely to remain so till the war is over and 
we get a Government alive to the absolute 
necessity of repealing the irksome rcBtrictions 
and foolish finance which have paralysed our 
industries since 1909. 

Twenty new members have joined the 
Bribery and Secret Commi-ssions Prevention 
League. Inciuporated. within the last month. 
They include l^oid Blyth, who has become 
a Vice-President, the Hon. J. G. Jenkins. 
-Mr, H, L, Symonds, and Mr. H, F, Tomalin 
(the two the Executive Committee alsol. 
and also Jtr, T. E. Lescher and Mr. G. Mar- 
Jow Reed, representing on the council r,- 
spectively tho Drug Club and the Builders' 
Alerchants' Alliance, which have become 
affiliated to the League. The other new mem 
bers are : Major' G. O. Uoase, R..A. : 
Mr. Edward Hepburn, Darlford ; Mr. 
W. A. Barton Kent, and Mr. J. (". 
I'mney : and Messrs. Barr.itt and Co.. 
William Cooper and Nephews, Gillespie 
Brothers and Co., Hall and Co., Croydon. 
Ltd.. .Teyes' Sanitary Compounds Co., Ltd.. 
John Knight. Ltd., James Pascall. Ltd., K. 
and T. Pink, Ltd., .Tames Robertson and 
Sons. Preserve Manufacturers, Ltd.. Sir 1". 
Samuelson and Co., Ltd. Mr. G. H. Long- 
man has been elected Vicc-Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, of which Mr. Stanley 
IMachin is Chairman. 

.\ccording to T!ic London anit Cfiinn 
Trhqrriph the native houses in China are 
all frame. The uprighLs are usually native 
round fir poles, 6 to 8 in. in diameter at th.- 
ba.^e. Div'sions betAveen houses are of 3 in. 
brick. Joists carrying the floor and roof 
are round fir poles. The flooring is pine, lap- 
jointed or tongued-and-grooved. Doora are 
of pine, made up of thin hoards n.iiled to a 
frame. Windows are glazed with (ourth- 
quality glass. No hardware is u.scd. Ir.m- 

Feb. 7, 1917. 



work entering into th« construction consists 
only of rainpipes from the roof and nails for 
the flooring. The walls of foreign residences, 
shops, etc., are generally of solid brick; 
fronts are sometimes constructed of granite, 
stone, or artificial stone. Timber is in- 
variably Oregon pine ; floors are of Oregon 
pine or Singapore redwood. This latter wood 
is also e.Ntcnsively used for cabinet work. A 
good quality of lock sets is used, generally 
of British manufacture. The use of rein- 
forced (oncrete has grown rap diy, and it is 
now being extensively employed. E.xpanded 
metal, wire-mesh and reinforcement bars of 
every description are in greit aemand, al- 
though at high prices. The demand will, in 
all probability, greatly increase. Cement is 
being consumed in increasing cjuantities, the 
demand being met from mills in or near 
China. Before the war Belgium was prac- 
tically the only source of supply for window 
glass : now it is obtained from Japan and 

As the result of a meeting lately held at 
llie Tioyal Academy, an address of protest 
against the National Gallery Bill has been 
signed by thirty-seven Academicians and 
twenty-three Associates and also by twelve 
representatives of other Art Societies, and 
has been sent to the First Lord of the Trea- 
sury. The address says :— " It has already 
been pointed out in the debate on the Bill in 
the House of Lords that pictures which could 
1)6 spared as of little value to the National 
Cal ery wo iM be of equally little value in the 
market ; and that, it the object in view is to 
gain money for the purchase of works of the 
great masters which would be desirable addi- 
tions to Cue National Collection, any sum 
which could be raised by this means for the 
funds of the Gallery would be a negligible 
(luantity for the purpose. We do not sup- 
pose that it IS within the intentions of the 
promoters of the Bill that the Trustees 
should part with any of the numerous works 
\vh ch give special lustre to our Natonai Col- 
lection, and we should greatly deplore any 
breaking-up of the unioue collection of 
Turner's works ; yet it is by such measures 
alone that any substantial addition could be 
made to the funds. Again, the fluctuations 
of tas e in the future, on the part either of 
the Trustees or of the public, might bring 
about results which would seriously injure 
the National Collection. It was also most 
justly pointed out in the debate in the House 
of Lords how discouraging the effect of grant- 
ing the necessary powers inight be on future 
donors and testators, who would feel that 
there was no guarantee that gifts or bequests, 
accepted by the Trustees for the time being, 
would be regarded as sacred in the future. 
The principle that gifts and bequests may be 
diverted from their purpose, once admitted, 
could not but act as a deterrent to those 
whose liberal appreciation of the fine arts 
might take the form of a desire to add to 
the national treasures." 

An order was issued by tte Minister of 
Munit'ons last Friday taking control of the 
purchase and sale of lead. Licences will be 
required exc.Dt in regard to lead of a certain 
vaJue specified in the order, and for certain 
small contracts and for type casting from lead 
alreadv in the form of type or already pur- 
chased for that purjiose. All persons are 
ordered to send within 10 days from February 
1, and monthly there^after, particulars of 
stocks. Aoplications for licences must be 
waAe to tlie' Director of Mat-rials (A.M. 2 
(E)), Hot^l Victoria, Northumberland 
Avenue, London, S.W. 

The Army Council anno'ince that they have 
taken steps', under the Defence of the Realm 
Beeulations, to assume control of all stocks 
in the Un tfd Kinrdm of soft-sawn timber, 
both planed and unplaned, includ'ng sleepers. 
in order to safeguard supplies for military 
purposes and to prevent firther inflation of 
pricee. All dealings in stocks of timber of 
these descr-ptions is prohibited until further 
notice, subject to the proviso that deliveries 
mav be made under ex'st-ng contrpcts or that 
sales mav be made to any one person of not 
more t^ia'n two standardf at prices not exce-d- 
ing those current during last week. The 
purchase of timber of the?e description.^ not 
already in stock in the United Kingdom is 

also prohibited until further notice. A further 
annoiuicement will be made in the course of a 
few days. 

Tne ways of the Metropolitan Water 
Board, remarks the City Press, are 
beyond comprehension. The water rate 
payable for the six months to end in 
March is £3 ICte. on the Lord Mayor's 
stables, and £45 13s. 7d. on the Guildhall 
Library and Museum. In the latter case the 
daily consumption is a question of a few gal- 
lons only at the very outside. In the former 
the quantity must be approaching a hundred 
times that figure. It is the old story of rate- 
aole value 1 

■At tne meeting of the Dublin Port and 
Docks Board on the 24th ult., applications 
for the position of engineer to the Board were 
coasidcred. ihe candidates were ; — Mesbrs. 
H T. 0. Day, Joseph Mallagh, Eniest Tar- 
rant, and H. Wayte. The hnal voting was 
Mallagh, 18 ; Wayte, 3. The chairman asked 
if he was to announce to the successful candi- 
date the terms under which he was to enter 
into his appointment. Mr. Scott said thai 
he undersiojd from Mr. Mallagh's application 
that the salary mentioned by him was £500. 
.11.-. Field, M.P., said it was an extraordinary 
thing to give a man £650 a year who offered 
himself at £500. Mr. Scott pointed out that 
the recorainenaation of the committee was that 
the engineer should be apix>inted on appro- 
bation for 12 months at £650, and that he 
be granted no increase until one year after 
tnat period. Mr. Mallagh agreed to accept 
these terms, and thanked the Board for his 

VV nat, asks the Manchester Guardian, wiU 
be the effect of the war upon heraldry ? Shall 
we see guns and tanks "quartered " on the 
crests and arms that the Heralds Office will 
inscribe on its roll cduring the next few 
montns ? Lord Armstrong has a crest with clacksmilhs shouldering hammers, whilst 
Loid Wimborne has also the blacksmith's 
nammer on his arms. Both these are remi- 
niscent of the industries that helfjed to lay 
the family fortunes. Newspaper proprietors 
-iKe Lord Northcliffe and Sir Frank Newnes, 
Bart., have rolls of paper in their armorial 
bearings. The College of Heralds, which 
dates from the reign of Richard III., must 
find the allocation of arms a difficult matter, 
for no two family crests must be alike. Some- 
thing in the way of guns or machinery would 
be a relief to the Principal Garter King of 
Arms, Sir Alfred Scott-Gatty. 

The Public Health Committ'ee of the Lon- 
don County Council, having had its atten- 
tioT drawn to the fact that serious delay is 
taking jjlace in the collection of house refuse 
in the metropolitan borough of St. Pancras, 
and that the refuse in some portions of the 
northern part of the borough has not been 
removed since the week before Christmas, 
and that in many other parts of the borough 
only one collection has been made since 
Christmas, while recognising that the 
borough council has experienced considerable 
diliiculty in disposing of refuse, the com- 
mittee points out that in this matter the 
position in St. Pancras is without parallel 
in any other part of the county. Inquiries 
show that, while in several other metropoli- 
tan boroughs somewhat similar difficulties 
lias'e arisen owing to the shortage of labour, 
in no instance has there been failure to col- 
lect and dispose of house refuse for so pro- 
lonsied a period of time as in St. Pancras. 
The delay which has arisen in this case is 
a serious menace to the public health. In 
view of the failure of the borough council 
to provide a remedy for the existing condi- 
tions, and as it holds out no hope of any 
im'mediate improvement, there is no alterna- 
tive but to advise the council to make repre- 
se'i'ations to the Local Government Board 
under section 101 of the Public Health 
(Lnndnni .\ct, 1891. that the sanitary autho- 
rity has made default in executing the provi- 
sions of the ."^ct. The committee recom- 
mended on Tuesday, therefore, " That com- 
plaint be made to the Local Government 
Board under section 101 of the Public Health 
(London) .\ct, 1891, that the St. Pancras 
MetronoHtan Borough Council, as sanitary 
authority, has made default in executing 
the provisions of that Act relating to the 
removal of house refuse in the borough." 


We do not hold ourselves responsible tor the opinions 
of our correspondtnis. All coraniunications should 
tje drawn up as briefly as poss.ble, as there are 
many claimants upon the space allotted to 

It is particularly requested that all drawings and 
all eomniuni<;ations respecting iUu=traLion= or l.lerafy 
matter, boolis tor review, etc., should be addressed 
to the Editor of the Bl'ILDINO News, Ellingham 
House, 1, Arundel Street, Strand, W.C, and not t« 
members of the staff by name. Delay is not infre- 
quently otherwi^ caused. .\II drawings and other 
couimun.cations are sent at contributors' risli..., and 
the Editor will not undertake to pay for. or be 
liable for, unsought contributions. 

When favouring us with drawings or photograplii?, 
architects are asked kindly to state how long the 
liuilding has been erected. It does neither tin m nor 
us much good to illustrate buildings which have been 
some time executed, except under special circum- 

***Drawings of selected competition des.gns, im- 
portant public and private buildings, details of old 
and new work, and good sketches are alw.iys wel- 
come, and for such no charge is made for i sertion. 
Of more commonplace subjects, small churches, 
chapels, houses, etc.— we have usually far more sent 
than w'c can insert, hut are glad to do so when space 
permits, on mutually advantageous terms, whicii 
may be ascertained on application. 

Telephone: Gerrard 1291. 
Telegrams: '* Timeserver, Estrand, London." 


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RECEIVED.— F. C. H.— Q. M. C— R. F. W. .^lld Son— 
p. ,1,1 Cr.— V. f<e T. A. Co.. Lt-d.— W C. Co., 
Ltd.— M. G. and Co.— W. S. and .Son— G. ard B. 
— R. B. and S-n— W. and W.— J. S. S.— C. C. D. 
:,nd Co—D. and Cc.— \v. and Co.— F. A. N. and 
Co.— F. and J.— S. S.— T. B. B. and Co., Ltd. 

.ASZAC— Yes. 

T. R. M.— Please send. 
Major T. — Forwarded as directed. 2. No. 
J. G. H. — Thanics for proffered co-operation, but at 
present we cannot avail ourselves thereof. 



Feb. 7, 1917. 


March 3.— Water Supply and Sewerage Scheme 
(Iirciniutn 5.000 pesetas— about £200). Manza- 
riari-b, Spain. — Stcrctarja del A}'untamieDto, 



Feb. 28.— Xc'W bathrooms, lavatories, etc., at the 
Loiith County Inllrmary.— J. \V. TurncT, J.?., 
Suurotary, J>outh County Inrirniary. 

No date.— ^Krecti.on of :i3 pairs of CoMji^os near 
Iloj>L;icii Clou;;'ii, Ijinco.njJii'irc. Ajipjoxianate 
d.»u»a<:e fiToni lioubejic'h S-uoiUon, from Uhroe to 
flvc miles, "lllie work is to be dividi-d inio sv*^- 
tiiom-. of three paiins, i:ind tenders may be eub- 
niit-tcd for one or more soclioiLs. JJuil-thjiy; to 
coinnienci: in Aijiril, and the work lie com- 
.pleLed by end of iScptemibeT tliis year.— Kor tlie 
Jloard oi Ayriculttiire and F.whurie.s. — Sucrctiiiry, 
Hoard of Ayriciilture and FJslieries. 4, WJiit>ei}iaU 
Plaee. Jx>ndon, S.W. 


Feb. 2 8.— CoiLstruction of two Miisonry Dams 
jicro>s the J'arHati iKIver in rcs'pect of 1i>x1to- 
electrit- watorworke stud irrij-'ation f<!^iuinetf, 
amounting: to about (lis.;j(), 00,000, e<iual to 
.€200.000 eadi; one nt-air Bud'h, and the otht'T 
i>eitween Jia.sM:u and Kaketo.— S. K, Gurtu, Mem- 
l>cir lioard of Iteveuue lor Irrifjation, UwjU'ior 
CJoveriiniL-nt, ftlotJ-i-MiiiHial, Laelhkar, GwivLor, 
Centra! Indi'a. 

June 1.— Stonn-water Pumping Plant, Calcutta.— 
For the Corporation.— Tlie Indian and Eastern 
Engineer, 50, fenehurch Street, li.C. 


March 30.— Wroujilitiron Gates and I-'eneing. for 
the Central Whiirf and Quay Street i-anding, 
Auckland. N.Z. — l-'or the Harbour Board.— The 
Commercial Intelligence Department, 73. Basing- 
hall Street, E.G. 


Feb. 1 3.— Cleanin.: d<>\\ ii. Painting, otc, .it 
v^KTious police stiition^ in Jvee<Ls. — Town Clark's 
Ollb-e. Greut George Street, Leeds. 

Feb. 24.— Rei);mnt^ng ,and Decorating St. Miary's 
J*.ari(>'h ClmrcUi, Kewry.— J)tiMgns and i>|>ec)fi«i- 
tion t-Ain be iiisiHreted .at tlie ofllce of LMr. iS. W. 
Hesi<le, Apc^lnitwt. Margiureit Squatre, Kowry. 
TeJKlers to be senit to the iRev. 11. B. iSiwanzeij", 
:M.A., Tlie Vio:';r?jge, N^iwry. 


Feb. 9.— Alioiit :}.hm tons of GraniU-, about 5.400 
tons of Slag, about ."i.'iO tons of Slag Chips, and 
about 200 tons of Tar-Macadam, to be delivered 
to various .stations and wharves in the district. 
—For tbf CaisltT (Linos.) Rural Di.^trict Coun- 
cil.— A. A, P;ulley, Clerk. Council Oflices, Caister. 

Feb. 9.- Granite, Flint-s, Kentish Racstone, Tar 
Macadam, Gravel, Chalk, ete. ; haulage of 
materials from railway stations, etc., cartage of 
materials from depots; team labour by the day 
and hour; supply of tools, oils, etc., fuel, bricks, 
rement, iron and stoih-wnre pipes, etc.. tar- 
wjishing surface.'^ of roads and paths (one year). 
—For the Reigatc Rural District Council.— K. C. 
Morrison, Clerk, 40, High Street, Keigate. 

Feb. 9. -Granile. Tarrc<l Granite and Slag, Gravel. 
Flints and Hoygin, bauliing and ipurchase of 
][<r.n\ Sand and Swe^-pings (one year).— For the 
I'xhrulge- Rural Didtriet Council.— C. Wood- 
bridge," Clerk, ;iS, High Street. T'xbridgc. 

Feb. 10.— Surface tarring approximately l,2r>0,000 
Mjuare yar<U of main roads with refined tar 
during ensuing spring and summer. — For the 
Hertfordshire County C^^uncil — .1. >(. Killick, 
County Surveyor, Hatfield. 

Feb. 10*~-^.one and tariuac for the road^ within 
the dii^triet. — For the Bridgwattr Rural Dis- 
trict Council. — W. H. Couiinb. Surveyor's Olliee, 
I'nion Workhouse, Bridgwater. 

Feb. 10.— Best te.ecied grait.te, br-jken and un- 
l)roktn, and unscreened l in. granite ehippings, 
to be deJvertd fiee of ebarge and wharfage. — 
For the District Cuunt-.l.- A. Walker. 
Windmill Road, Xew Me:idington. 

Feb. 12.— Supplying, breaking, and carting stone 
rKfuired for the maintenance of the county 
roads (one year). — For the Northumbe land 
County Council Bridges and Road.-. Committee. 
—County Surveyor, Moothall, Neweaslle-on- 

Feb. 1 2.— Sfupply and Delivery of Clean, Il.and- 
]ii<'K.e<l Fie^d FHnt-s on (Main )loads during enduing 
.-■jtring a.iid summer. — For the Bucks County 
CounL'.l Highways Committee. ^K. Winlluld, 
Acting County Sune>or, County Hall, Ayles- 

Feb. 13.— 400 tons XX granilc (broken), 200 tons 
X\X granite (broken), 1«0 tons X granite, 140 
tons 2i-in. slag, and 200 tons i-in. gran>.te chips. 
— For the Long Sutt[;n Urban District Council. 
~S. S. Mossop, Clerk, Long Sutton. 

Feb. 14. — ^About 5,750 tons of Broken Granito. 
].ft04 tons of (Jpanite C^liips, 2,2;i0 tons of Sl-ag, 
200 tons of iSl'jig, 209 ton^s of Coarse 
Buildtm' Sand, and 'lOO iKirrols of Rellned Tar.— 
iFor tihe JloUand (Lineclnisthire) County Council. — 
W. II. Gane, Clerk of tlie County Council, Ses- 
siojiLS House, Boston. 

Feb. 15.— Sujyply and delivery in full truck loads, 
as requireu, to NewTnarket and Burwell (GjE.R.) 
railway stations as follows : — Best broken Lei- 
cestershire granite, li in., 2 in., 21 in. gauge, 
about 1,000 tons; best broken slag, 2i in. .gauge, 
about 200 tons; granite or slag chipi>ings, frte 
from dust, I in. gauge, about 500 tons; g in. 
tarviated granite ohippin^s, about 250 tons. — 
For the Newmarket Urban District Council. — 
F. R. Ennion. Acting Clerk to the Council. Deva 
ChamIK^rs, Newmarket. 

Feb. 15.— Broken Koadstone. Tar Macadam, and 
Cob Limestone, to be delivere<l, earrlage paid, 
to various railway station.*^, in quantities requirtd 
by the surveyor (One Year). — For the Wetherby 
Rural District CounciJ. — E. H. Coates, Clerk to 
the Council, Wetherby. 

Feb. 17.— iSupiplying tbest Hand-picked and Broken 
(iranite .and Girouee at Croj)redy, Broadmoor 
Bridge. Claydon, Banbury. Xe!! Bridge and Twy- 
fonil Wihjirveis, and at Bi;inibury. Crc3>redy, Blox- 
h.fim. Adderbury, and Hook Norton Railway 
iStaitu'rms. — For t^e Banbury Rural District 
Counoil.— K. L. Fisher, Clerk, Union Offlcee, Ban- 

Feb. 17.— 'Leiceateirshire Granite and Granite 
ChiiTvpings; selected Ironstone Slag, free from 
comb; bewt iDeirby Limeeitxme; Broken Pit or Dug 
Flintt^ and bft«t brigili't i*it Hoirgin aijd SiHingle; 
o^irtage of tJlie laibove mateirials (One Yoar). — 'For 
the King:^hury (Middlesex) Urban District 
Council. --iH. H. TurneT. Clerk, Council Ollicee, 
Kingsbury IRoad, Kingsbury. 

Feb. 21. — Granite, Limct^tone. Slflg, Basalt, Tjurped 
Limestone. Tarred fvlair, RtJincd Tar, Pitch. 
iKcTb, Clvannel, Sand, and Stoneware Pipes (One 
Yoar).— tt'or the rol;>over Urban iXistrict Council. 
— J. F. Wardle, Town Surveyor, Council Ofllces, 

Feb. 2 2. — Girainvte and Slag (One Year), to l>o 
lieHvered ^t various stations and wharves In Uio 
district of Bridgnorth. — For tJie RuniJ District 
Council.— -F. iRichardis. Surveyor, iBri'dunortih. 

Feb. 2 3. — Granite macadam and ehippings; Mac- 
clesfield macadam and ehippinga; limestone mac- 
adam and ehippings; 6-in. grit stone setts; sani- 
tary pipes (One Year).- For the Marplc Urban 
District Council. — D. J. Diver, v'^urveyor. Council 
Ofiices. Marple. 

Feb. 24. — Granite Slag *and TaTTCil Maoa<!am, to 
be KleliveiVMl at v^iriou.*! railway stations in tlie 
district. Team ila^bour necessary in cartjng tJie 
miateriial on to the roads required (One 
Year).— -For the iRotliorhaim Jt.ural Distri«-t 
<*ounril.— ^Oxlcy and Cow^ird. CUtK'; to the 
<'oiiiici. r>. Westgi'tc, Rotiherlmm. 


Feb. 9.— »MateriaIs required during the year ending 
.March al, 191S— namely, broken granite, tarred 
flag, kerbs, setts, .stoneware idpes and gullies, 
cement, hire of steam roau rtiiUr. p;teh and 
creosote oil, disinfectants, scavtnging biHX>ms. 
iron castings, provender, and t« am labour. — For 
the Iriam Uri»an District Council.— R. H. Win- 
terboltom, Surveyor, Council Offlces, IrLun. 

Feb. 13.— Alaterials (One Year).— Tar; Tar-aiiray- 
ing; Granite and Chijipings; Harney; Cartage— 
iHouee Refuse Removal, General and Piece-work; 
Foraige; Disinfevtants; Coke.— For the Sout^- 
gate Urban Di.^rict Council. — A, K. Lauder, 
Clerk, Counoil Oflices, I'almer's GreOTi 

Feb. 13.— Stores and Materials (One Yesir) and 
iExeeution o<f Work (One Ye^ir). — Stopee, TooUi, 
etc. ; Stonef\varc Pi]»es, Gully Traps, elc. ; Port- 
land Cement: Hoil-c and St<i;im Coal aod Gas 
Coke; Flints. Gravel, and Sund : Broken Gmmte; 
Kerb. Oliannel and Crossing**; Tar-paving Mate- 
rials: Tar-pa\ing O.aid): Collection and I»8K)eal 
of ^louse .R<-*fuse; Hire of Horses, OsLrt*, and 
-Men ; cati-tge of Highway Materials. — For the 
Mitcham Urb:in Dis-trict Council.— Council Offices, 
Vestry Hall, Mitcham. 

Feb. 19.~Suj>jdy of Rondistone and Setts; Kerb- 
.■itone. Flags, etc.; iS'ag or Furnace I>rof*; 
T;trreid Slag and Limestone ; PitcJi^ Creosote Oil, 
and Refined Tar : Sand and GraTe.1 ; DmlTiasge 
Pipe's, eUi.: Blue Channel Bricke ; Bricks; 
Cement; Brooms; Paint.";: Picke nn»tl Shovels: 
Oi's. p.:>jrafliT and Cotton W;ist*'i?; Disinfectant* 
<One Year.)— For the iDonc':ist<r CoriKwation. — 
•R. (E. Ford. AjM.LC.iE.. Acting 2kiTuugh Sur- 
veyor, Mansrion Ho«.<c, Donca.^er. 

1^ c 

Mr. J. W. r/aj]>l<>n. iiig^hways surveyor to the 
Flaxbon Rural District CV^uncil, has boon voted 
a bonus of £10 \)cv annum. 

The St. Aiisrtell Ui4>nn Dastrict Counoil have 
agreod bo a eoliwiie for the ereotion of an ifo'.a- 
tioTi hospital for t-wonty beds. 

The death in action is announoed of P(p. 
Daniel Kihv.ird Watiioy (Royal Frsiliers), only 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Walter Daniel Watney, 
4a. Kroderick'ts Place. EC. 

At tIhe request of tihe Ministry of Miini'tions. 
"he Fine Art Society. Ne-w IJond Streot, will 
open .an exJiibitaon next Saturday of Mr. 
I'ennell's drawings and lithc^pajihs of war work. 

The worst salt sul»:dence of the l;a*%t twoiity 
yeans ooourrcd last Friday moniiiig on London 
Road, Northwioh. The cnackii extond a hundre*! 
yards. A crater 60 ft. ionp and 70 ft. wido thas 
swallowed up the road surface, and somo ai)ut- 
mente of tiho bridge crossing tftie riv«r Dane 
Jiave sunk <in tilie oavity. Tftie road ia com- 
pletely blocked. 

A requisition was presented to the Loixl 
Maj-or of Dublin last Friday asking him Uy 
euninion a conference to oonsidiSr the question 
of housing in the city wit3i a view U> pa-opaTring 
CL plan for its solution ^at tihe end of tlie war. 
The requisition iboare tjio aignilures of tJho trwo 
Artdibishops of Dublin. Sir Etlward Oaraon, the 
six momboi-fi for tilio Hty and CVmnty of Dublin, 
t*he Recorder of Dublin, and otliew. 

M. Auguste Ro<lin. the groa-t sculptor, was 
married on January 50 to MUo. Rose Boufre. 
at his honso at Mcndoii. M. (ienientel. 
Minister of Commene. ond M. DaJimier. 
Under-Secretary of Fine Art^, took part in 
the ceremony. Augusto RodUn was Ix^rn in 
1840, and during the siege of Pari.-* served 
as a corptn-al in the National Guard. He hatl 
a long struggle to eooure recognition, and tJi<* 
(lishoartening experi'>nce of having bU work 
rejected time after time by the Salon. 

Also at DEPTFORD, 








Chief Offloes: 352 to 364, EUSTON BOAD, LONDON. N.W. Telegrams: " Covrieoos, Ecsboad, London.' 

Telephone: Musedv 3032 (5 lines).. 

February 14, 1917. 

Volume CXII.-No. 3241. 



Effing'ham House, 

Currente Calamo 135 

A Worthy War Memorial 136 

The Architect and the Theatre 138 

Some Notes on the Defence of the lieahii (Ac- 
quisition of Land) Act, 1910 13S 

Our Illustrations 150 

Obituary 150 

The Surveyors' Institution 152 

Concrete and Reinforced Concrete . . . . i.^'z 

Correspondence 153 

Legal Intelligence .. 15-1 

Professional and Trade Societies I;j4 

Trade Notes 1,54 

Our Ofhee Tahle 154 



To Correspondents 

Tenders .. .' '' 

Competitions Open 

List of Tenders Open 

To Arms ! 

Latest Prices xii. 


Block Qf new Business Premises now ueuring com- 
pletion, Kingsway .and Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 
Elevations, plans, and section, llr. M. E. Collins, 
F.R.I.B.A.. Architect. 

The Dressmakers' Balcony near the Grand Canal, 


Strand, 'W.C. 

Venice. The Royal Academy Exhibition of 
Graphic Art. From an etching by Mr. Clitford 

The Orange Great Barn, Alciston, near Alfriston. 

Sussex. The Koyal Academy Exhibition of 

Graphic Art. From a lithograph by Miss Dorotbv 

F. Roberts. 
A Pair of Wrought-iron Gates, St. Peter's Church. 

London Docks, Shadwell, E. Mr. Maurice B. 

Adams, F.E.I.B.A., Architect. 
X Worthy War Memorial : Suggestions by Me?sr-. 

William Woodward and Sons for a War Memorial 

Chaj)el at Westminster. 

(Ivixxtnit Calamo. 

Mr. Edwin Savill's paper on the De- 
fence of the RestLm Acquisition of Land 
Act, read at the Sur'v-eyors' Institution on 
Jlonday night, is a verj- timely and valu- 
able one. Mudi controversy marked tlie 
passage of the Bill tlirough both Houses 
of Parliament, and more would have hin- 
dered its discussion had not the Depart- 
iiient concerned — wiser for once than 
others — taken the sensible step of submit- 
ting tlie first draft to the mertibei-s of the 
Council of the Surveyors' Institution, and 
subsequently a later draft to the Counoil 
it.self. The assistance rendered ouglit to 
induce tlie Department concerned ^nd 
others to adopt a similar course always. 
Had they done .so from the beginning of 
the war we should have been saved much 
waste^ many blunders, and some scandals. 
When we remember that 150,000 acres of 
land have been taken over by the Govern- 
ment since the war started, and that the 
annual value of buildings thus acquired is 
approximately two and a-haif millions 
sterlin.g, it may be taken for granted that 
readers professionally concerned wjll have 
some problems to ' consider and some 
hitches to straighten out. By such, and 
by aU concerned, Mr. Savill's luminous 
notes will be found most helpful, and we 
congratulate the Surveyors' Institution 
on its addition to the excellent list of 
papers it has been able to maintain 
during the present session. 

lyancashire progress, and to turn the site 
into a mere tramway shunting centre of 
lines and loops, is like using honey to 
grease the wheels of a handcart. Ju^t 
now art is overshadowed by the war, in 
which it helps to the best of its limited 
I ability, but it may surely meekly plead 
again.S't the possible vandalism of an un- 
curbed utilitarian invasion at a time 
when the hand of man is held back fi-<im 
the arts of peace." 

Tfie War Office seems to have acted with 
commendable pi'omptness in issuing the 
recent timber regulations. It seems tliat 
it teoame known in official quarters late 
on Saturday week that Germany had de- 
claimed Swedish timber contraband. Public 
knowledge of this enemy proclamation 
would almost certainly have led to a rapid 
inflation of prices in the timber markets. 
The effect of tliis Order, by whicli the Waa' 
Office, using its powers under the Defence 
of the Realm Regulations, on the follow- 
ing Monday took over all stocks of soft- 
sawn timber in the countrj', was to pre- 
vent artificial forcing-up of timber prices. 
Thereby the National Exchequer will be 
saved considerable sums, for the Govern- 
ment is now the biggest pui-chaser of v.tsod 
in this countTv. 

judges to range at will over some centuries 
of ancient learned lore. But, of course, 
all these old autliorities were on tlie sij:le 
of the Lords of the Land. So it was' 
solemnly decided that tlie lease threw a 
primary obligation on the tenant to do 
these repaire, wliidh he was not bound to 
perform until the landlord supplied the 
materials. This was the view of two 
judges, but the third held it was tJie land- 
lord's coveai.ant as to materials which 
came firet. Now the case goes back to the 
Arbitrator to act on the ruling of the 
majority and to see what he can make of 
it. Yet, if the lease had been worded in 
plain English all tJiis bother would have 
been saved. These problems to find out 
the intentions of tlie parties are certainly 
not sat by those parties themselves. Some 
people think they are arranged by the 
lawyers for other lawyers to unravel at 
tlieir leisure. We foresee that, at the end 
of this needless litigation, tlie really 
burning question will be : which side is to 
pay the costs of all this waste of 
argument and judicial learning. 

Very proper protests are being made by 
some of the architects of Manchester 
against the latest proposals of one of the 
City Council's committees to turn the in- 
firmary site into a tramway centre. The 
embarrassments of Cottonopolis with re- 
gard to the site have been many, but 
surely this scheme will be reconsidered ? 
We entirely endorse' the plea of Mr. 
Richard Anderton, A. R. I.E. A., who, 
writing from 187, Market Road, Ashton- 
under-Lyne, to the Manchester Guardian 
of Monday last, says: — "It would be re- 
grettable almost to sacrilege to cripple the 
future of this site by embarking upon a 
short-sighted policy at this stage. To lose 
the splendid opportunity of creating a 
civic centre, a worthy nucleus in the 
shining and far-reaching nebula of our 

Covenants to repair in leases still seem 
to hold the field for the encouragement of 
costly litigation. Their consitruction by 
the Courts is of mucli practical and pecu- 
niary interest to property owners and to 
the building trades. In tJie recent case of 
" Westacott ' V. Hahn " we have a good 
example of the law at its woi-st and cost- 
liest. In liis judgment, the Lord Chief 
Justice, with unconscious humour, said 
the " problem was to find out the intention 
of the parties " from the wording of the 
lease. This pretty pix>blem had been re- 
ferred to arbitration, which was for the 
time suspended in order that the High 
Court might be consulted. Yet it all looks 
simple enough as a matter of business. 
The tenant covenanted to do repaii-s, he 
" being allowed all necessary materials for 
that purpose " by the landlord. The 
whole point was whether this obligation to 
supply the materials was a covenant by 
the lessor to do so, or only a condition of 
the lessee's covenant to repair. It was a 
truly technical point, and it enabled the 

One method of accelerating the artistic 
impulse, and one that would seem to offer 
great possibilities, has, says the American 
A rch itect, been adopted in the , South 
American city of Buenos Ayres. That 
municipality exemjjts from taxation eacli 
year the most beautiful building erected 
dui'ing the preceding twelve months, and 
in addition awards a medal to the archi- 
tect. A more direct form of encourage- 
ment, or one that would possess a greater 
appeal for the average owner, it would be 
difficult to devise. It is possible that the 
decoration of the architect may be un- 
necessary to the success of the plan, but 
doubtless it is with the idea of taking 
cognisance rather than paying a reward 
that the medal is bestowed. The plan 
might well receive consideration by muni- 
cipalities in this country. Then, possibly, 
the average citizen would learn to appre- 
ciate the inherent as well as the commer- 
cial value of good ai-chitecture to an ex- 
tent that might render unnecessary the 
offer of any special prize or distinction to 
induce him to co-operate in the production 
of architecturally meritorious buildings. 

The sending of rolling stock to France 
has brought about, ae was inevitable, sevi- 



Feb. 14, 1917. 

(JUS congestion on the railways. Are we 
making full use of our other modes of 
transport? A speech last week of the 
Ohaii-nian of the Rochdale Canal Com- 
pany sugaiests, and we believe rightly, 
tliat we are not. He complained that for 
some time one-half of the company's fleet 
had been idle owing to the sliortage of 
labour. As usual, the canals are beinj; 
asked to relieve the railways, while the 
military are talcing more and more men. 
That the two things are incompatible does 
not seem ap])arent to the authorities, nor 
do they see how serious are the inactions. 
Hir Norman Hill U'lls us tliat the slowness 
in loading and unloading ships reduces 
\ei'y heavily the ef[icien<y of our morcan- 
tile marine, every ton of which is precious 
in these critical months. The warehouses 
and whai-ves are loaded with goods be 
cause the railways have not the rolling 
stock to remove them. Meanwhile tlK' 
<anals, which could help, and so release 
nrerchant ships, are compelled to ke<'p 
JiaU their fleet idle for lack of labour. 

In the report of their prot^eedings 
<luring the past year the Employers' Par- 
liamentary Council express the opinion 
tliat when the time comes for taking stock 
of the nation's industrial resources, in 
view of the universal competition which 
will rule the markets of the world, it will 
be found that any return, oven on a small 
scale, to the conditions whidi governed 
national production in the period Ixjfore 
the war would be disastrous and possibly 
fatal to British interests both at home 

and abroad. It may, say the Council, be 
assumed as extremely unlikely thait the 
systematic restriction of output which 
prevailed before the war, and is, un- 
happily, still existent, will ever again 
find favour in this country outside the 
ranks of the labour unions. There is 
evidence on every hand of the growing 
feeling of distrust in the old methods of 
labour unionism. The fact of thx>se 
methods having to be abandoned to meet 
national necessities has impressed itself 
strongly even on the minds of those who 
formerly excused them as promoting the 
interests of labour. The demand that 
after the war laliour sliall t^ike a larger 
share of the profits of industry, a demand 
that has been eiidoi-sed by several members 
of the Government, and with which sj-m- 
]>atliy has been expressed in many influ- 
ential quarters, is one to which no reason- 
able exception can be taken, provided that 
labour, earnestly and whole-heart<'dly. 
performs its part in th<' general scheme 
of production, and thus establishes a good 
title to tlie claim for greater remunera- 
tion. A high standard of production can 
Ix! maintained only if the enei-gies of 
capital and labour alike are exerted to 
their utmost oapacity. Whatever the 
conditions under which various industi-ies 
are condu< ted in the future, whether sys- 
t<>ms of cx>-partnei-ship, or profit-sliaring, 
or wages, the effort evei-ywhere will have 
to lx> of a generally .sympathetic and high- 
spiritetl character if all concerned are to 
benefit in the shajie of increased gains. 
It has been frequently suggested of late 

that the war has broken down class bar- 
riers, and tliat the old eJement of sus- 
picion, which it is alleged pervaded the 
relations between rich and poor, capital 
and labour, will have disa]>peared wlien 
the ordinary life of the nation is re- 
sumed. If tliis should pixjve to be so, and 
all classes unite in the common aim of 
ensuring the nation's prosperity and pro- 
gress, thei-e will be no room for strife and 
strikes, but each and all will be animated 
by mutual trust, and strive for the best 
results which friendly conibiniation and 
(•o-operation can hope to achieve. If it is 
not so we are on the eve of an upheaval, 
the perils of which will far exceed tboae 
of the present troublous time. 



We expressed our opinion in our i.ssue 
of .January 3 last that it was none too 
early to consider the nature and location 
of the great central war memorial wliich 
we take it will be set up in the capital of 
the Empire to perpetuate the remem- 
brance of the heroism of its citizens in the 
world-wide struggle that is being waged in 
defenw of all that is sacred to liberty, 
against the allies of the powers of darkness 
and barbarism, and we rejoice greatly to 
find that a prominent firm of arc]iit«cts 
are first in the field with a suggestion that 
will appeal to every Briton. With the 
great Abbey Churoli of Westminster are 
intertwined the undving memories of those 
who through many centuries have best 
served England. Within its walls sleep 
the greatest of her kings, the stoutest of 
her warriors, and the most famous of all 
who have given life, or life service, for her 










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i3cs TO BE V& 




Feb. 14, 1917. 



weal. For years past it has been mani- 
fest that the limits of the great churt-h 
as regards space for the graves or 
cenotaphs of our gi'eat dead were fast 
closing. From time to time suggestions 
.ha\ie been made with the view of providing 
a memorial cliapel for the leception of 
national memorials as an adjunct to the 
Abbey, some of which been illusitrated 
in our own pages. To all of these objec- 
tions of various kinds have W'en taken, on 
better or worse grounds, but we can 
see none that should hinder the adoption 
of the scheme we herewitli illustrat*, by 
tlie courtesy of the Daily Chronicle, and 
with the proposition of which Messi"s. 
William Woodward and Sons are first in 
the field. 

The suggestion as regards location is, of 
course, not new, as the Daily Chronicle 
points out, but tlie opportunities for com- 
passing it and the method of utilising 
them are, and we certainly regi-et to see 
it stated by our contemporary that the 
present Abbey authorities lare not in 
favour of a memorial chapel to be erected 
in connection with the great building of 
which tihey are the guai-dians." They are 
not so large-minded as tJie late Deans 
Stanley and Bradley, who wei-e both 
. strongly in favour of the sc-heme. The 
matter, however, is not one for the Abbey 
authorities to settle, but for Parliament 
and the Governments of the Empire. That 
the nation and its representatives will re- 
ceive Messrs. Woodward and Sons' sugges- 
tion with sympathetic approval we cannot 
but feel certain, and the more so because 
their idea is presented in a practical and 
really artistic form, combining the pro- 
vision of a great national requirement with 
that of a most desirable metropolitan im- 

If any readers will take a walk to Mill- 
bank, as far as the Victoria Tower, they 
will see a block of mean-looking buildings 
(the property of the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners), facing Abingdon Street and 
extending southwards from the Chapter 
House of the Aljbey to Great College 
Street. These buildings constitute a 
blot upon the surroundings which have, 
during the last few years, been, at great 
cost, so much improved. The removal of 
these buildings would open up to public 
view the ancient wall enclosing the fine 
old " Abbey Garden," now buried taw- ay at 
the side of the mews which runs along at 
the rear of the buildings proposed to be 
demolished. The fine trees in this garden 
would then be seen from Abingdon Street, 
and there would also be exposed to view 
the old "Jewel House," which is also now- 
covered up by these obstructive build- 
ings, which, we understand, the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners themselves are 
proposing to pull down, and to let the site 
on a building lease. It will be seen by the 
plan that the Chapter House (which was 
opened up a few years ago by the removal 
of old buildings) would then form the 
central feature between Henry VII. 
Chapel and the proposed Memorial 

In 1890 and 1891 a " Royal Commission 
on the present want of space for Monu- 
ments in Westminster Abbey " sat, and 
much interesting evidence was given 
before it by architects and by distin- 
guished clergy and laymen, and it was 
then agreed that tliere was not space for 
many moi-e memorials in the Abbey itself, 
and that there should be no interference 
with the present Abbey monuments. The 
idea then was that a Memorial Chapel for 
future monuments should be provided, 
that it should be erected as an adjunct to 
the Abbey, and that it should provide for 
monuments for the next hundred or two 
hundred years. The then Archbishop of 
< 'anterbury said that it should be a build- 

ing sacred in the sense " that it should be 
l>ossible to be used for services like the 
rest of the Abbey, as any of the chapels 
might be." 

The proposed chapel would be 
reached from the Abbey through the door- 

way leading to the east walk of the 
" Great Cloisters," and by the " Vesti- 
bule " from that walk through the Chap- 
ter House. It could also be reached 
through the doorway into the Chapter 
House from the south transept of the 



Feb. 14, 1917. 

Abbej-. The new vestibule would be 
reached through an opening to be made in 
one bay of the Chapter House, wliich 
would be formed without any interference 
with the window above, and a principal 
iMitrance and exit are shown by the jmitIi 
next Old Palace Yard, which provides also 
for caniages. 

Memorials to Lord Kitchener, Nurse 
Cavell, Captain Fryatt, and the many 
other heroes, naval and military, who 
I-.ave fallen in the war, would "be the 
first to find a place in the Valhalla; 
and the monument to King Edward 
VII. might very well be placed there 
instead of in Waterloo Place, as now 
proposed, unless, of course, it is to bo an 
equestrian monument. 

We quite conceive that modifications 
"f the plan may be found necessary 
when a detailed survey is made, and 
w^^ suggest that the authorities concerned 
should facilitate the preparation of such 
liy Messrs. William Woodward and Sons, 
Ml readiness for its final presentation to 
I'arliament at an early ))eriod. 

By W. A. RoTiEit'isoN. 

Although we havo evidence that until 
within tlie last ceintury architects were em- 
jjloyed by the giants of tlie profession of 
scenic artists, the architect of to-day is not 
MsuaJly employed in collaboration with the 
M-enic artist. 

The claim of the architect that scenic de- 
sign is part of his profession and birthright 
lan be sustained by precedent as far back 
.19 the days of ancient Greece. The actor- 
manager of the ancient Greek clas.'nc theatre 
must undoubtedly have been a client that 
I lie architect of that day thought well worthy 
of cultivation, his scenery being of no frail 
canv:L3 and paint. 

Travelling down through the history of the 
Middle Ages, when the monastic "" archi- 
tect" would, no doubt, gratuitou.sly supervise 
the setting of the Miracle plays, we have 
many examples existing of the close connec- 
tion between the architects of the Renais- 
sance iiiid the theatre. Palladio's " back- 
oloth," built in stone, is still the set scene 
.it Vicenza, and numerous dra.wings are to 
be seen of Inigo .Jones' work 'or the com- 
mand performance of the first Charles. 

Recently in one of the largest towns in the 
provinces I sat in a music-hall which had 
been built to the design of, and, what is 
even more important, been dcc^irated by, our 
finest civic architect. The front of the 'house 
possessed a charm which, unfortunately, was 
utterly destroyed on the rise of the curtain, 
when the usual back-cloth was displayed dc- 
)iicting a room redolent of the ino4 offensive 
rococo decorations. This particular back- 
cloth, painted for the opening of the theatre 
upon its completion some four or five years 
ago, was typical of its successors. What an 
npiwirtunity the management had mis-sed for 
•ipplying their architi»c,t's criterion of gond 
taste to the stage side of the proscenium so 
that it harmoni.sed with the autitonuni. 

The whole education of the architect, 
\yhich is one of the most liberal in the world, 
fits him for the position of art critic 'in the 
theatre. His sure sense of perspective and 
linowledge of archaeology would relieve the 
historic play of many of its nightmares, if 
only ho had some say in the matter of the 
Hcuracy of the scenic arti.<?t's designs. His 
lire-eminence in archnjology and perspective 
liaye been readily reali-sed and utilised hy 
painters of large pictures. 

The architect might well find a further field 
of operation in his daily professional work, 
ill the matter of supervising stage scenery. 
Should the setting be a garden, he has at 
his finger-tips the correct method of depict- 
ing an herbaceous border, a yew-hedge, or a 
fountain, .^iid to design for a .'cenic artist a 
nicdia'val castle would be to him a delight- 
ful change from the utilitari.-ui business 
premises he designs to meet present-day re- 

From Draving. 

quirements ; the stage would thus bectuiie 
I he happy inheritor of those dream castles 
and cathedrals which are too costly to be 
built of solid stone. 

The charm of Mr. Gordon Craig's work, 
which is so universally admired, is due in 
a large degree to the feeling of architec- 
tural solidity which it conveys: the fact 
that he was not trained as an ardhitect I 
ha\e a'.ways felt rather added to the great- 
jiess of his genius. 

It will be argued by the producer and the 
stage-manager also that the conditions govern- 
ing siCenic design are so entirely different 
from those under which an architect's work 
is produced thait he would fail to grasji the 
limitations under which they labour. 'J'nere 
need be no fear that these permanent limita- 
tions would be an obstacle to a man who has 
found that every new commission he received 
bristled with hitherto un^iiet limita.tions of 
a much more rigid nature, and upon the 
succe-ssful surmounting of which his profes- 
sional career depended. 

It would be strange if a man who can 
design and erect a sanatorium or a univer- 
sity without having been either a patient in 
one or a student in the other should find 
a great difficulty in adapting himself to the 
controlling elements of scenic dosign, and I 
am looking forward to the time when an en- 
terprising manager will give architects a 
chance of showing their adaptability to the 
requirements of the stage and surprise 
everybody by their fuller grasp and utilisa- 
tion of ail its possibilities. 




LAND) ACT, 1916.* 

By EDWIN SAVILL (Member of Coi-ncil). 

When - considering how to deal with a 
paper on this subject, I thought of writing 
a short history of the events which led up 
to the need for the Act. This might pos- 
sibly have been of interest, but when I had 
completed my notes upon the Act itself I 
realised that your patience would be fully 
taxed in ligtening to them, and as it is not 
material to the subject under discussion. I 
reluctantly decided that the history should 
be omitted. I should, however, like to 
draw attention to the huge increase in the 
area of the property under the control of 
Government Departments; to the increase in, 
or rather the creation of, the Lands Branch of 
the War Office and the Ministry of Muni- 
tions, now happily amalgamated; to the 
work of organisation, construction, and con- 
trol, and to the resultant difhculties and 
successes. But I will nierelv beg vou to 
dwell on the fact that 150.000 acres of land 
have been taken over since the beginning 
of the war. and that the annual value of 
buildings acquired during the same period 
is approximately £2.500.000. 

The reasons for the introduction of llie 
Bill were clearly set out in the memorandum 
■attached thereto. The main object was the 
protection of the State against the loss it 
might have incurred owing to the fact that 
buildings of various kinds erected on land 
belonging to jirivate owners, possibly with 
v.aluablo machinery attached, would in the 
ordinary course have reverted to the owners 
of the land. No doubt, under the Defence 
of the Realm Acts, whose buildings could 
be removed, but in many instances they 
are of great value where they stand, and, 
if removed, would be of little value. Busi- 
nesses having a potential value to the State 
have been created, and without such an 
Act as this they might have been destroyed 
or have passed gratuitously into the hands 
of the owners of the land. 

I need not follow the progress of the 
Bill through both Houses of Parliament, 
although the debates were of great interest. 
Much matter for controversy arose, but 
much was avoided by reason of the Depart- 
ment taking what we must consider the 

• Read at the Oidinaiy General Meetins of the 
SnrTeyors' Institution, held on Monday, Febiaary 12, 

very wise course of referring the first draft 
to two members of our Council, and, subse- 
quently, a later draft to the Council itself. 
One can only wish other Dejiartments \\'ould 
more freely consult this Institution upon 
technical matters. I feel sure that I may 
say on behalf of this Institution that the 
unique knowledge and experience which is - 
here available would always be placed en- 
tirely at the sei'vice of the Department, and 
that all questions referred to the Institu- 
tion would invariably be considered judici- 
ally and from the point of view of the 
national interest, without regard to any poli- 
tical party or selfish considerations. 

With these few remarks I will come to the 
Act itself. 

Sections 1 and 2. 

Give powers to certain Goveinment De- 
partments already in temporary ]>osse6sion 
of any land to conitinuo the occupation for a 
certain period after the war, and during tliat 
time to remove any buildings which have 
been erected at the expense of the State. 

Land. — Under Section 12, Soibsectioii (1). 
land is .stated to include any building, or part 
of a building, any pier, jetty, or other 
structure on the shore or bed of the sea or 
any river, and any easement or right over or 
in relation to land. 

Section 1. 

Subsection (1). — The powcre under this 
section relate to any land of wliich possession 
has been taken during the course of the war 
or within the week immediately preceding its 
commencement. Tlie ruling date, therefore, 
is .luly 28, 1914. 

Possession must have been taken of the 
land by or on behalf of a Government de- 
partment for purposes connected with the 
present war, whetlier in exercise or purported 
exercise of aiiy prerogative right of His 
Majesty, or of any powers conferred by or 
under any enactment rebating to the Defence 
of the Realm, or by agiwment or otherft-ise. 
The Government 'dep;irtnient in possession 
may, after the termination of the war, c<'n- 
tiiiue in possession for a period not exceeding 
two years, and, with the consent of th'> 
R.,aihvay and Canal Commission, referred to 
as " tlie Commission," for a further period 
not exceeding three years, making five years 
in Jill. 

The department must be in posscesion at 
the tciTivination of the war. 

A certificate by any Government depart- 
ment shall be prima facie evidence that the 
land is in possession of the department. 
(Section 10 (a).) 

The period of two years runs from the 
tcirniination of the war. To extend this 
lieriod the department must make application 
to t.ho Coinniissi<m six months before its 
tonnination. and the continuance of occupa- 
tion can only be with its consent, the de- 
])artment having to show that it is necessary 
or expedient in the national interest. 

The occupying department may transfer 
jKissession Ui" the -Admiralty, Army Council, 
or Minister of Munitions. 

There are at least three points upon this 
subsection which appear to me to require 
clearing up : — 

1. Nothing is said as to the owner or 
former occupier of the land having tli« right 
to appear before the Commission to protest 
against the continuance of the occupation 
aft^'r two vears. One niu.<«t iissumc that he 
would bo given such right, and that the Com- 
mission would take into consideration his 

2. The same omission applies to the provi- 
sion that the certificate of a Government de- 
department is iirinia facie evidence that the 
department is in possession. This question 
is likely to lead to much dispute, and tlie 
owner should certainly be lieard. 

The words " during the course of the " will at some future time need defini- 

3. Apparently the occupying department 
can give up jiossession of the land at any 
time without notice. This is hardly reason- 
able, because it would almost certainly entail 
the loss of rent to the owner, even if he 
knew the land had been vacated, but in many 
cases he would not know. I have already 

Feb. 14, 1917. 



<?ome across in5tance.s where the owner is un- 
certain whether his land is in military occu- 
pation or not. Notice has been given to take 
ihe land, it has been occupied, and subse 
quently the troops have left, but no notice 
having been given to the owner, he does not 
know whether the vacation is temporary or 
permanent, and consequently he dare not let 
his land, and it remains idle and gets into 
bad condition. If the vacation proves to be 
permanent he loses his rent, and the strange 
pait about it is that he is unable to ascertain 
what is the position. In some cases, no 
doubt, tie length of the notice to be given 
might form part of the terms and conditions; 
but it would have been reasonable to have 
])laced the obligation upon the department of 
giving notice witliin tliree months of the ter- 
mination of the war of their desire to continue 
in possession 

Subsection (2). — The occupying department 
may, while the land remains in occupation, 
exercise such powers as were exerciseable 
'during its occupation in war time for the pur- 
pose.s of tlie Defence of the Realm, subject, as 
regards tlie closing of public highways, to Sec- 
tion 6 (3), and as regards the removal of 
buildings subject to Section 2. 

The owner and occupier of adjotning lands 
are within certain limits safeguarded under 
(a) and (b), which provide that where, but 
for the powers contained in this Act, they 
would have been entitled to restrain the user, 
they shall under the Act be entitled to com- 
pensation during the period of occupation for 
pollution, abstraction, diversion of w-ater, 
damage by noxious fumes, and injury to 
property caused by accident due to the exer- 
cise of such powers. 

Subsection (3). — Provides for the payment 
of rent and compensation, the amount, failiuL; 
agreement, to be determined in accordance 
with the provisions of this Act. 

The wording of this subsection presents 
many difficulties. The occupying department 
shall pay rent in respect of any land which 
continues in its occupation, "and such con- 
tinuance shall be upon and subject to such 
terms and conditions as to compensation or 
othcr\vise (including compensation for any 
depreciation attributable to works and budd- 
ings not removed)," etc. 

The owners appear to be in a very in- 
vidious position. They have for the most 
part given the departments a free hand, that 
is to say, they have made no objection to the 
free exercise of all departmental powers, ind 
rents and compensation in many cases have 
been nominal. Many owneis are no doubt 
anxious to regain possession of their land at 
the earliest moment compatible with national 
interest. No provision is made for the occu- 
pying department at the termination of the 
war to give notice to the owner that occupa- 
tion is to continue. Presumably it may con- 
tinue automatically for two years, the de- 
partment having the power to abandon the 
land before the termination of the two years. 
Provision is made for fixing the rent, but the 
terms and conditions as to compensation or 
otherwise would appear to have to be fixed 
at the beginning of the continuance. In ordi- 
nary circumstances it would seem desirable 
that the compensation should be settled at the 
time of the subject-matter of the compensa- 
tion arising. Compensation for consequential 
damage might be fixed at the time of the con- 
tinuance, but compensation for damage to the 
land for buildings not removed at the expira- 
tion of the holding should be fixed when the 
occupation ceases. Owners will need to be 
very carefully advised if in fixing the terms 
many items of compensation are not to be 

The amount of rent is, to a certain extent, 
governed by paragraph. 6 of the Schedule, ap- 
preciation or depreciation caused by acts or 
works of the Government upon it or neigh- 
liouring lands not being taken into considera- 

Section 2. 
Subsection (1). — Under this subsection the 
deoartment has the right after the termina- 
tion of the war, and while it remains in occu- 
pation of the land, to remove any buildings or 
other works it has erected for purposes in 
connection with the war, or buildings or works 
erected with the consent of the department 

at the expense of some person not interested 
in the land. Provided that (a) where the 
building or work was erected partly at the ex- 
pense of the landowner, or (b) where under 
an agreement with the department the land- 
owner is entitled to the building or work, the 
department shall not have power to remove 
the building without the consent of the land- 

Nothing in this subsection shall prejudice 
the right of the department where, under an 
agreement, the department has the right of re- 

It appears obvious that the department 
must retain possession of all land upon which 
buildings have been erected pending a deci 
siou as to whether the buildings are worth 
removing, and, in cases where it is decided 
to remove, the department must retain pos- 
session until the removal is completed. Thi': 
will necessarily entail great delay in the re- 
linquishment of land for which, but for this 
clause, the department would have no further 
use. Where buildings occupy a small por- 
tion of the land only, it would seem advisable 
tor the department and the owner to come to 
an ai-rangement whereby the owner should re- 
take possession subject to the department's 
right to remove the building within a fixed 
time. By this means the country would be 
saved a considerable sum in rent. 

Subsection (2).— Wliei-e any building or 
vork has been removed under this section, 
the department Sliall restore the land to its 
>rigmal condition, or compensate the owner 
'or depreciation caused by the disturbance 
>f the soil. 

It must be remembered that the continu- 
ince ot possession after the war shall be upon 
terms and conditions as to compensation or 
Hherwise as shall be agreed or arbitrated 
-ipon. Section 2 (2) makes provision only for 
-einstatement of. or compensation for, the 
listurbance of the soil where buildings or 
vorks have been removed, but nothing is said 
IS to reinstatement of, or compensation for. 
the distarbance of tlie soil on other parts of 
the land. For example, where lands are 
!sed for an aerodrome a fev/ Sheds are erected, 
^nd if they are removed, the land upon which 
tihey stood has to be reinstated or the owner 
?om.pensated, but that is a very small part 
>f the damage. Ditches may have been filled 
<n, drains blocked, hedges removed, and tim- 
ber felled. I assume that if the land is given 
lip at the termination of the war, the owner 
vould be compen.'^ated for all these things by 
the Defence of tlie Realm (Losses) Commis- 
sion ; but if the department continues in pos- 
session after the war, then all these matters 
•nust be arranged for in settling the terms of 
the continuance. If they are omitted, no 
"ompensat'on need be paid. 

Subsection (3). — This deals with the re- 
moval of buildings and works from commons, 
ind apparently safeguards all interests of the 

Subsection (4). — -Protects the department 
from claims upon buildings, fixed or attached, 
machinery, or plant, by mortgagees or others, 
beyond the ow-ners of the land, who may be 
interested in the land. 

Section 3. 

Deals witli the purchase of land, and, un- 
like the preceding sections, wh'ch come into 
force only on the termination of tlie war, this 
section came into force upon the passing of 
the Act, and gives powers to the Govern- 
ment to purchase (a) any land in the ]X)sses- 
sion of an occupying department or any in- 
terest in such land ; (b) any land on, over, or 
under which any buildings, works, or im- 
provements have, for purposes connected 
with the present war, been erected, con- 
structed, or made, wholly or partly at the 
expense of the State, or any interest in .such 
land. The powers are limited in time to 
within three yeaJs of the termination of the 

For the purpose of 'the acquisition of land 
the provision of the Lands Clauses Act shall 
be incorporated with this .\ct subiect to the 
modifications contained in the Schedule to this 
^ct. Therefore notice to treat can now be 
served upon any owner whose land is in the 
occupation of oiie of the Government Depart- 
ments, or upon which buildings have been 
erected by such department. It should be 

remembered that a certificate by the depart- 
ment is jjrimd facie evidence of its being in 
possession of land, but whether this fact has 
to be determined before or after the serving of 
a notice to treat is not clear, although it seems 
desirable that owners should comply with the 
provisions of the Lands Clauses Act even 
though it is considered advisable to dispute 
the otcupation. 

Subsection (2). — This subsection gives power 
to the department to acquire any adjoining or 
neighbouring land (whether belonging to the 
same owner or not), or any right of access or 
other right which appears to the Commission 
to be reciuired for the proper enjoyment of 
the land so acquired, but this power can bo 
exercised only during the present war or 
within three years after its termination. 

Again, there is doubt as to whether the 
notice to treat is to include adjoining land be- 
longing to the same owner, and, if so, whether 
this has to be the subject of a preliminary 
inquiry, or is to be dealt with at the hearing 
of the case for the acquisition of the land in 
the occupation of the department. If it is to 
be the subject of a preliminary inquiry, the 
rights of the owner to apj>ear and give evi- 
dence are not clear. If it is to be dealt with 
subsequently it would be necessary for the 
arbitrator to give his award subject to the 
ruling of the Commission as to the depart- 
ment's right to acquire the further land. It 
appears desirable that this point should be 
determined before any other steps are taken, 
otherwise much time and money will in- 
evitably be wasted. 

Subsection (3) gives power, if the depart- 
ment desires, to acquire the mines and 
minerals under the land, with such right oi 
support as the department deems advisable. 

Subsection (6) prevents any person re- 
moving, destroying, or altering any buildings, 
works, or improvements erected by the de- 
partment whilst the rights of the department 
to acquire the land remain in force. 

Subsection (7) gives power to owners 
having the right of sale to grant or demise 
the land in perpetuity or for any term of 
years with or without a right of renewal, or 
to grant the department an option to acquire 
the land, but only where such consent is 
necessary under the Settled Land Acts, with 
the consent of the trustees or with the sanc- 
tion of the Coui-t. 

Section 4 deals with the manner in which 
land acquired by the department may be 

Any land which has been acquired under 
this .\ct may be used by any Government 
department ifor the purpose for which it 
was used during the war, or for any other 
purpose for which it could be u-sed had the 
land been acquired under the Defence Acts 
or .Military Lands Acts. The owner has no 
power to restrain such user, nor has any 
person interested in any neighbouring land, 
nor anyone who is entitled to any riparian 
rights ; but if, apart from this Act, such 
person would have been entitled to restrain 
such user, then, if application is made within 
three years after the acquisition of the land, 
or after the commencement of the user caus- 
ing the depreciation, he shall (i.) be entitled 
to compensation for damage caused to his 
riparian rights, or any breach of a restric- 
tive covenant, or the emission of noxious 
fumes if the land is used for any purpose for 
which it could have been used had it been 
acquired under the Defence or Military Lands 
Acts, and (ii.) if the land is used for any 
other purpose he shall also be entitled to 
compensation for damage caused by such 
user ; the compensation in either case, in de- 
fault of agreement, to be decided in accord- 
ance with the provision of this Act. Pro- 
vided that— 

(a) The department shall have the right 
in manner provided by Section 3 of 
this Act to acquire land in respect 
of whicb a claim for injurious affec- 
tion is made; 

(b) The owner or person interested shall 
have the right to recover damages 
for injury to property caused by 
accident due to such user; 

(Continued on page 150.) 


J. r. S„H,leU. /'/loln.l 

SHADWELL, E.— Mr. Maurice J3. Adams. F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 


£:levat/on to k/ng^waV. 



RUARY 14, 1917 

MW LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS, W.C— Mr. M. E. Collins, F.R.I.B.A., Architec 














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(The Royal Academy Exhibition of Graphic Art). — From an Etching by Mr. Clii-i-ord Adoams. 


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AND LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS, W.C— Mr. M. E. Collins, F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 



Feb. 14, 1917. 

lur Ullnstrations. 

The two elevations, with two of the main 
plans and a, oix>s8 -section from west to east, 
herewith giveii, fairly well show the con- 
venient character and architectural style of 
thi.'; important and e.vteiisive commercial 
building We have elected to give the lower 
gromul lloor plan to illustrate what may be 
done in the way of direct natural lighting to 
a basement, eveiy available use being made 
of tJio open area towards the east on the Lin- 
coLn's Inn .side. The conveniences are set 
below a paved and glazed terrace as well as 
side approaches from the pavement level, as 
shown by the ground |ilan. The main archi- 
tectuTal lines of the favades were determined 
■by tlioso of the Land Registry Trustees' 
office on the Kings^vay. The space is left uii- 
I'nclosed, and so set out on the several floors 
in <^r(ler tliat tenants may have them cut up 
and al'locaited to meet individual require- 
ments, flues being provided in the piers be- 
tween the windows to permit firejilaces as 
desired, the dotted linos on the plans being 
merely a suggested way of dividing up for 
ordinary office use. Mr. M. E. Collins, 
P.R.I.B.A.. of Old Broad Street. E.G., is the 
architect. Mr. 0. Grey, of Sliefiherd's Bush. 
is the general contractor. Portland stone is 
employed for the facing masonry. The Hift» 
were supplied bv Messrs. Wavgood-Otis, Ltd. 
" Kleino " flooi"ng is used tlirni.ghout, and 
Messrs. Hay<va,rd Bros., Ltd.. dil the heat- 
ing. At an carlv date we grive to a 
mu<h larger scale elevatinnal details of the 
interesting work of tJiis Kingsv.ray building, 
which is one of the most satisfactory in that 

Tliis roprodiuAion is rather i educed from 
the original print, but our illustration gives 
a g(K)d i<lci,i of the excellence of Mr. Clifford 
Addams' etching, now on view in the Royal 
.\cademy Exhibition of Graphic Art. The 
beautiful arcade and elegantly corbelled bal- 
cony is capitally rendered, with ■> good sense 
of lix'al colour. The Palazzo is situated on 
the fir.sit cana.l after jiassing the Rialto, going 
towards the station on the right, and quite 
iioar the Grand Canal. The building, which 
is of Renaissiince cliar.icter. nclonged to a 
family of cardinals, whose hat may still be 
seen sculptured on stone shields, enriching 
the fa<;a<lo along Uie upper stages. Below 
the hat is ca.r\'e<l a curious cianc. but we 
have been unable to identifv the name of the 
origiiiiU owners of the buikling. 

The accompany ing interior view is repro- 
duced fnwn an e.xccllont hand-pi'oduced litho- 
graph exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 
the Winter Exhibition of Graphic Art, by 
Miss Dorot.hy F. Roberts, of Snith Street, 
-Chelsea. It represents one of the largest 
timber kirns in England, and the finest to be 
seen in the South Down county. Miss 
Roberts' drawing only shows half of it — or, 
rather, less than half of the entire building, 
■which is T sihaped on plan, possessing the 
grandeiu ajmost of a cathedral or a big 
church. Certainly the structure is a splen- 
did example of early carpentry, and a won- 
derful old place, well preserved, but little 
laiown and seldom mentioned, even in books 
on Sussex. Alciston, spelt in Domesday as 
" Al.sitono " and in the viigar tongue 
" Ashon," is in the Rape of Pevensey, dis- 
tant seven mile.s from Lewes, and h.ird by 
the familiar little town of Alfriston, famous 
for its anc'cnt " post and panel " viciirage 
and "The Star Inn." of which we gave a 
prize sketch bv ^liss .To;in V. Brewer in TiiE 
Buii.DiNC! News for October 3, 1913. A 
furt.her sketch of the same street will be 
found in owr i.ssue for .lanuary 14, 1916. The 
manor of Alciston formed part of the endow- 
ment of B.attle .'Vbbev by V'lliam tbo Con- 
queror, and after Henrv VTIL spoilt-d thai 
conventual institution the properly went to 
the C.agi-s. and now lieloucs o their de.scen- 

ilant,s. The principal grange to tlje great 
abbey at Battle was "Alciston Pliice." It 
t'ontiviiis some interesting architectural 
features, and is used as the estate residence. 
The church has a dovecote at tlie west end 
of the nave roof. The chancel has two 
pisciiire, and there are two bells dedicated to 
St. .\gatha. Berwick is the nearest railway 
station, two mileis off. The roof of the barn 
is covered with tiles, which are of a fine dark 
red colour. Bolton Abbey Bam is not so as that at Ailciston, but it is a great 
piece of carpentry, and will be found ilhis- 
trate<l by sections and details in The Butld- 
i\r, New.s for Novemlier 13, 1900. Another 
timber barn a.t Laver .Marnej', drawn bv Mr. 
Arnold Mitchell, 'F.R.I.B.A.. as R.I.B.A. 
silver medal student, appeared in our issue 
for .\pril 2. 1886. It has a veiy wide span. 
The stono-built barns of Glastonbury and 
Wells wore illustrated by us April ?! 1905, 
■Old ith.iit at Doulting, sketclied by Mr. 
'^'inrice B. Adams, was given on August 17, 


This pair of wrought-iron gates occupies 
an arohw.ay between the intended narthe.x to 
the church and the memorial and groined 
baptistry, which was erected some time ago 
from the designs of the architeot. Mr. Maurice 
B. Adams, K.R.I.B.A. The illu.stration is 
self-explanatory, and the work has been 
carried out by Me^'ssi's. Hart, Son, Peard and 
Co. from the arolnitect's full-size details. The 
gates form a grille in the ordinary way, but 
when open give access to the baptistry with- 
out first going into the nave, to which it 
forms an adjuiiot, with ,-i .'^tone stairway lead- 
ing to an intended western gailcry when the 
proposed new west front is built. 





-Mr. John William Waterhouse, R.A., died 
at his house in St. John's Wood on .Saturday, 
after a long illness, in his 68th year. His first 
picture exhibited at the Royal Academy was 
" Sleep and his half-brother Death," in 
1874. He was elected an Associate in 1885, 
the year of one of his best known-paintings, 
the "" St. Eulalia." " The Magic Circle," 
painted in 1885, which was purchased for 
£650 for the Chantrey Bequest Collection, 
md "The Lady of Shalott," which was ex- 
hibited at the Academy in 1888, were otiurs 
of his mo.'it popular works. He became an 
R.A. in 1895. His painting, " Hylas and the 
Nvmphs," shown at the Royal Academy in 
1897, passed into the possession of the Cor- 
poration of Manchester, and by the?n was lent 
for exhibition in GUusgow in 1901 and at the 
Franco-British Exhibition seven years 
'"ter. At other loan exhibitions in 

Wliitechapel. Manchester, the City of 
r.ondon Guildhall, and at Earl's 
Court examples of his work have been on 
view from time to time. His wife several 
t-mes exhibited jiaintings of floral subjects at 
the Royal Academy. 

»— ^a^ < 

Till- contract for the erection of 1.000 houses 
for the Scottish National Housinjr Coinixiny, 
Ltd.. nt Rosyth has. it is learned, been let to 
Messrs. HoUoway Brothers, Lki., of London. 

Mr. Thomas Ross Salmond. who die^l nt 
i}<'lfast on Saturtlay in his ninetieth year, was 
resident engineer to the Belfast Harlxiur Com- 
■Missioners for twenty-ono years, retiring on a 
(lension in 1892. 

.\t the Defence of the Realm I os?es Com- 
mission in London, last Friday, a claim for 
€17.500 WHS made against the Home Grown 
Timber Committee for Lady C«wdor in respect 
of the timber on the Cawdor estate in Scot 
land commandeered by the Government. The 
tximniittee did not oppose, and the Commission 
allowed the amount. 

The .■\uctionopi-s and Estate Agents' In- 
stitute of the United Kingdom has established 
!\ War Assistance Bureau, which aims chiefly 
it ajsisting those members who are serving 
with H.M. Forces, but have been able to Kmvo 
a res|ionsible person in cJuirce of their busi- 
ness. In those cases tbe Institute, tliiough the 
Bureau, is obtaining the assistance of its 
menvbors. wherever practicable, without charge, 



LAND) ACT, 1916. 

(Cont'miud from pa le 139.)- 
In the using of the land the provi- 
sions of the Alkali, etc.. Works Re- 
gulation Act, 1906, and the Rivers 
Pollution Prevention Acts, 18(6 and 
1893, and of any local Act shall be 
complied with, and nothing in this 
section shall affect the powers con- 
ferred by any Act, whether public, 
general, or local, or any local autho- 
rity, board of conservancy, or other 
public authority in rtepect of the 
prevention of the pollution of rivers 
or abatement of nuisances caused by 
smoke or noxious fumes, 
section gives very wide powers to 
the department as to user, while the limi- 
tations are slight. Under the Defence Act. 
1342, the Government may do anything on 
the lands taken beneficial to the public ser- 
vices, except that land taken under com- 
pulsory powers may not be used for the bar- 
rack service or for the erection of any bar- 
racks thereon. 

The Military Lands Act, 1E92, give* 
owners and others an opportunity of being 
heard at a public lofal inquiry before the 
land is taken eompulsorily, the pur|K)se for 
which it is required being stated by the 
Government. It dees not appear likely that 
these provisions would affect this section, 
because under it the >nd can be used for 
any purpose for which it could have been 
(Lsed "had it been acquired," etc., and not 
" were it .about to be acquired." It seems 
clear tbat, apart from the rights of user 
given by the Defence Acts, and 60 autho 
rised by this Act, any particular piece of 
land can only be used, after acquisition, for 
the purpose for which it was used during 
the war— that is to say, it cannot be iiscd 
for any other purpose" for which it might 
have been used when taken under the De- 
fence of the Realm Acts, if that purpose is 
contrary to tlie Defence and Military Lands 

User is further restricted by Section 13 
(5), which provides that land cannot b«' 
acquired compulsorily without the Consent 
of the Commissioners if it is required for 
purposes other than those for which it can 
be acquired under the Defence and Military 
Lands Acts. 

Section 4, as already mentioned,- limits the 
owners' rights to claim compensation for 
damage caused by any breach of a restric- 
tive covenant, damage to riparian rights, 
and damage by noxious fumes, in the case 
.-.f land used f(U' such purposes as it could 
have been used for had it been acquired 
under the Defence and Military Lands Acts, 
but no provision ap|)ears to be made for 
compensating owners where the purpose for 
which the land is used carries with it clear- 
ance rights and restrictive rights. MucJi 
land has been affected by these rights during 
tlie war, as in the case of some seaside 
towns, where development has been seriously 
interfered with, and whore, unless large 
numbers of defence works are to be abaji 
doned after the war, very serious loss will 
apparently fall upon owners of property in 
those localities. There are, no doubt, other 
causes of damage to adjoining properties, 
such as vibration, for which owners would 
have the right of claim but for this clause. 
Section 5. 

Under this section the Qovernment may at 
any time sell, lease, or otherwise dispose 
of" the land acquired. 

Subsection (2).— Protects the purchaser in 
matters connected with the title to the land, 
and makes provision for compensating an 
owner who establishes an interest in the 
land which has not been dealt with. 

Subsection (3).— Gives the owmer of land 
the right of pre-emption to any land upon 
which no permanent buildings have been 
erected, or which is not used in connection 
with anv permanent buildings. In the event 
of the "right of pre emption being declined 
by the owner, the offer shall be made to 
the person or to the several persons whose 


Feb. 14, 1917. 




lands immediately adjoin the land proposed 
to be sold. 

Subsection (4). — Gives owners si.x weeks, 
after receivin;^ the oiTer, to determine 
whether they will exercise their right of 
pre-emption or not, the riglit entirely ceasing 
at the end of that time. 

Subsection (5). — In default of agreement 
between the Department and the owner, 
the price to be determined under the 
provisions of this Act. 

Subsection (b). — The last three foregoing 
subsections apply to the leasing of land lor a 
term exceeding 21 years, except whve the 
land is leased for the purpose of its develop- 
ment in connection with any factory, build- 
ing, camp, or other premises erected o est- 
ablished on land retained by the Gov.^r.i.iient. 
It is ditiicult to decide how much o.vners 
will benefit under this section, as o much 
depends upon buildings "of a permanoiit 
nature." It is easy to realise the Govern- 
ment's difficulty. There are, no doubt, many 
cases where buildings spread over the land 
of more than one owner, and the right of pre- 
emption, could not be given without sacrific- 
ing the value of the buildings, but no reason 
IS apparent why an owner should not have 
been given the right of pre-emption where 
the complete set of buildings was wholly upon 
Ills land. It is probable that there may be 
_ -soriie interesting cases on the question whe'ther 
buUdings are of a permanent nature, and 
ivhether land is being used in connection with 
j.ermanent buildings. Much may be suffered 
with complacence from the State, but from 
individuals the position is entirely different. 
It is assumed -that on all questions of user 
after sale or leasing the owner would be free 
to take action without consideration of the 
provisions of this Act. 

It seems clear that under Subsection (5) of 
I his section the price to be paid by the owner 
sliall be governed by paragraph 6 of the 
Schedule without regard to any enhancement 
or depreciation attributable to any buildings, 
works, or improvements erected on the land°or 
any neighbouring land for purposes connected 
with the present war. There will no doubt be 
cases where the value of the land has been 
enhanced or depreciated bv buildings erected 
for purposes of the present war. and still 
more enhanced or depreciat-ed by buildings 
which have been erected since. I envy 
ai'bitrators the knotty points they will have to 
■solve in apportioning the blame'or the praise 
to the war and post-war buildings. 

Section 6. 

Subsections (1) and (2).— These subsections 
deal with matters in connection with the in- 
terference with public highways by the lay- 
ing of tram lines or pipes over and under 

Subsection (3). — Where under powers con- 
ferred upon the military authorities any public 
highway has been closed, it may not remain 
closed after the expiration of twelve months 
after the termination of the war except with 
the consent of the Commission. The Com- 
mission, before giving a consent, shall hear 
the public authorities interested, " and anv 
person interested in any land adjoining any 
highway so closed shall be entitled to. . . 

" So closed " seems to mean closed with 
the consent of the Commission, so that for the 
first twelve months after the war owners do 
not appear to have the right to claim compen- 
sation for damage to land affected by the clos- 
ing. It is difficult to see any reason for this. 

Subsection (5). — Provides that this section 
shall not override agreements under which a 
time is specified during which tramways, etc., 
may remain upon highways or roadways may 
be closed. 

Section 7. 

This section deals with water and lighting. 
and, under certain conditions, allows com- 
panies to continue to supply outside their 
areas. It is to be hoped that the Commission, 
unless there are very good rea.'^ons to the con- 
trary, will allow the mains to remain, not only 
lor the purpose of supplying the particular 
Government factory for which they were ori- 
ginally intended, but will also allow them to 

be tapped en route where they are of suffi- 
cient capacity. 

1 he section is an extremely interesting one, 
but there is not room to deal with it in this 

Section 8. 

Under this section tlie method of arriving 
at the am.ount of compensation is laid down. 

Subsection (1).— (a) If both parties agree 
within such time as may be allowed by the 
Commission, compensation shall be deter- 
mined by a single arbitrator agreed by the 

(b) Within such time as may be allowed 
by the Commission, at the request of either 
party, compensation .shall be determined by 
a referee selected by the Reference Conl- 
mittee from a panel appointed in the same 
way as under Part I. of the Finance (1909- 
10) Act, 1910. The referee's decision shall 
be final, subject to appeal to the Commission 
on any point of law. 

(c) In any other case it shall be determined 
by the Commission. 

These provisions are eminently satisfac- 
tory, and if the panel is selected with the 
care with which the panel under the Fin- 
ance Act was chosen, nothing but good can 
result. It has given universal satisfaction, 
and I have never heard either its methods 
of conducting a case or the fairness of its 
findings criticised, and although many 
awards have been challenged on points of 
law in the Courts, the majority have been 
there upheld. In this Act, when an arbi- 
trator IS appointed under (a) there is an 
appeal to the Courts in the ordinary way. 
but where a referee is appointed under (b) 
the first appeal is to the Commission. 

Subsection (2).— Where questions are re- 
ferred to the Commission, the nrovision of 
the Railway and Canal Traffic' Act, 1888, 
shall apply. The procedure under this Act 
IS very similar to that under a Court of 
Law;^ there is no appeal from a decision of 
the Commission on a question of fact. The 
subsection provides that ; — 

(a) The Commission may call in for its 
assistance one or more specially 
qualified assessors ; 

(b) The Commission may hold a local 
inquiry, and may delegate its offices 
and powers .in holding such local in- 
quiry to any one of its members, 
or to any officer of the Commission, 
or to any person whom it niav direct 
to hold the inquiry. The' person 
directed to hold the inquiry shall 
report the result to the Commission. 
The provisions of the Railway and 
Canal Traffic Act, 1888, as regards 
appeals, shall not apply to these in- 
quiries ; 

(c) The Commission may act by tw^o of 
its members, one of whom" shall be 
the judge ; 

(d) Deals with the question of costs, 
and gives the Commission discre- 
tion, &ubjeet to the provision of the 
Lands Clauses Acts as modified by 
this Act. ^ 

Section 9 provides for the pavment of sums 
awarded to owners. 

Section 10. 

Gives considerable powders to Government 
departments, and this section is set out in 
full :— 

'" For the purposes of this Act a certificate 
by any "Government department 

" (a) that possession has been taken of 
any land for purposes connected 
with the present war : or 

" (b) that the departraemt is in possession 
of suoh land or is the occupying de- 
partment within the meaning of this 
Act: or 

" (c) tliat any sums therein specified have 
been expended by the State in erect- 
ing, constructing, or making build- 
ings, woi'ks, or improvements for 
purposes connected with the present 
war on, over, or under any land ; or 

" (d) that any such buildings, works, or 
improvements have been erected, 
constructed or made with the consent 
of the occupying department at the 

expense of a person not being a per- 
.soii interested in the land ; or 
" (e) that a railway or tramway has 
been laid along, across, over, or 
under a public highway, or that a 
public highway has been closed, in 
the exercise of any prerogative right 
of His Majesty, or any powers coii- 
•> ferred by or under any enactment re- 
lating to the defence of the realm for 
purposes connected with the present 
war; or 
" (f) that watea-, light, heat, or power 
has been supplied to any premises 
on the requisition or at the request 
of a government department for 
purposes connected with the preseait 

"shall be prima facie evidence of the facts 

therein stated." 

Section 11. 
This section deals with streets, buildings, 
or works which are contrary to the provisions 
of local by-laws, and should be read carefully, 
particularly by those who have erected build- 
ings at their own expense, of which the 
dejjartment has no power of removal (Section 
2 [1]), or where the department does not 
remove buildings and the owner is entitled to 
compensation for their non-removal (Section 
1 [3]), as under this section the public 
authority has power to order alterations to 
be carried out to make the buildings comply 
with the by-laws or to order their removal 
after such buildings have passed into private 
hands. • 

The owner has the right to appeal to the 
Local Government Board. 

Section 12. 
Subsection (1). — Defines " land " as set out 
on page 1 of this Paper. 

Subsection (3). — Among other definitions 
states that the expression " building " in- 
cludes machinery and plant fixed or attached 
to the building. 

Subsection (6). — Provides that a competent 
naval or military authority, acting under the 
Acts relating to the Defence of the Realm, 
shall be deemed to be a Government depart- 

This last subsection is a very important one. 
and is likely to give rise to a good deal of 
dispute. Under Section 10 a certificate of 
any Government department that certain 
things have been done shall be prima facie 
evidence that they have been done, and this 
Section 12 (5) states that a competent naval 
or military authority shall be deemed to be a 
Government department. Questions will no 
doubt arise whether acts done have been done 
by a competent naval or military authority 
as defined by Clause 62 of the Defence of the . 
Realm Regulations, revised to December 31, 
1916. Under that clause the competent 
authority must be, as regards the Navy, an 
officer not below the rank of lieutenant-com- 
mander, and, as regards the Anny, an officer 
not below the rank of field officer. 

On account of great emergency land has 
been taken in some cases in a very hap- 
hazard way. " Somebody " has stepped in 
and taken it, and it is sometimes extremely 
diflficult to ascertain who that " somebody " 
was. The onus of proof that he was a com- 
petent naval or niilitairy authority appears to 
rest upon the department proceeding under 
this Act, and it must be assumed that the 
decision of this point will rest with the Com- 
mission. It is, therefore, to be hoped that 
the owner of the property affected will be 
able to give evidence before the Commission. 
It .seems inevitable that the department in 
some cases will be likely to find itself in con- 
siderable difficulty. 

Section 13 prevents a department taking 
powers under this Act to acquire any 
common, open space, oi- allotment, or, except 
by agreement, any part of a park, garden, 
pleasure ground, or home farm usually occu- 
pied with the mansion-house, ■ provided 

{a) The foregoing shall not affect the 
right to acquire the right to use and 
maintain cables, lines, or pipes which 
have been laid under such land. It 
should be noted that the word 
" imder " is used, and not "under 
or over." 



Feb. 1-1, 1917, 

(6) Neither shall it affect private lands 
before mentioned upon which build- 
ings for the manufacture of muni- 
tions fiave been erected before the 
passing of this Act, and where the 
acqui.sition of such land is shown to 
the .satisfaction of the Commission to 
be necessary from a natioTial stand- 
)>oint, but the owner may in this 
require the department to take the 
whole of such property, including 
the mansion-house, if any. and the 
matter cannot proceed until a draft 
of the order made by the Commis- 
sion for acquiring the land has 
been laid beifore each Hmise of iPar- 
I'nder this .section with regard to the ac- 
quisition of park lands, etc., the department 
appears to be entirely in the hands of the 
owner. It is not left to the Commission t<j 
decide whether it is reasonable for the owner 
to demand that the whole of such park, etc., 
shall be acquired in cases where the depart- 
ment has acquired power to take any jiart ; 
but if the owner "so requires" the depart- 
ment is bound to take the whole. There will 
no doubt lie cases in which there will be dif- 
ferences of opinion as to what lands form 
part of a park or home farm, and it is not 
clear whether owners will have an opportunity 
of voicing their opinions. Considerable care 
will have to be iised by the department, or it 
may find that in acquiring a comparatively 
\niiniportant munition factory it has made 
itself liable for the purchase of a large area 
of land with perhaps a mansion in addition 
which it does not require. 

Section 13. 

Subsection (2). — Deals with lands belonging 
to local authorities, public companies, and 
cliai-itable bodies, and prevents departments 
letaining po.ssession for more than three 
months after the war without consent, and 
fcir more than three years with consent. 

Subsection (3). — Provides that where pos- 
session of any land has been taken under an 
agreement which specifies the time at which 
it has to be given up, possession cannot be 
retained after that time withoyt the consent 
of the person with whom the agreement was 

Sub.section (4).- Further prevents interfer 
ence with agreements and provides that, ex- 
cept as regards an agreement for a tenancy, 
land cannot be compulsoiily acquired where 
a.i agreement has been entered into that 't 
shall be restored to the owner, and that the 
powers of a department for acquisition under 
tlii> Act .shall not interfere with an agreement 
fo:' sale to a Government dejiartment. 

Subsection (5). — Deals with u.ser and has 
been referred to under Section 4. 
.\Innip-\TUi\ op THE Lands t'i.*rsi:s Acts 

1. The »i''paTtment acquiring the 'land or interest 
tlKTfin i^hnll he deemed to be tlie promotorfi of the 
niidcrtakinc, and thbv .\ct ahall be <ieeined to b." 
tlte .special Act. 

■Z. Tlie provisions a^ to the s.ale of superfluous 
land and aa to access to the special Act .«*haill not 

3. .\11 questions of disputed compensation shall 
be settled by an arbitrator, or referee, or the Com- 
mission. .i« the case may require (hereinaftvr re- 
foircd to as "the iirhitralion tribunal"). 

4. N'o allowance shall be made on account of the 
ar»|uisition bt-ins eonipa'.sor.v. 

6. WluTc a portion only of .any factory or other 
huiiilim.: i^ required, the owners ami other ]>erson9 
iuterc.'*tod in such building may, notwithstanding 
irnythinc in the Lands Clauses Acts, be reqiiired to 
sell and convey the portions only of the building 
so required if the Commission are of opinion that 
vuch jiortions can be severed from the remainder 
(►f till' properties without material detriment thereto, 
and in .such eiise compen.sation shall be paid for the 
portions required, and for any danuige sulfered l^y 
the owners or other iiavties interested in the 
buiMinc by severance or otherwise. 

Ci. In determining the amount of eoinpensation, 
the value of the land acquired shall l>e taken to b;' 
file value which the land would have ha<l at tlic 
date of the notice to treat if it had remained in 
the condition in which it was at the commence- 
ment of the present war, without regar<l to any 
enhancement or <leprpoiation in the vane which 
may be atfrilmtable directly or Indirectly to any 
buiidincs, works, or inuirovemcnfs ertH'tcd. con- 
strticted, or made on over, or trnder the land. <x 
any adjoining or neinhbotiring land for purpascs 
connected with the present war wbolly or partly -at 
tlie expense of the State, or. with the consent of 
the occupying department, at the expense of any 
person not being a person interested in the laad : 

Provided that— 

(a) where any such building, work, or improve 
nient was erected. c<instructed. or made 
in pursuance of an agreement with aay 
person interested in the land, the considera 
tion given by such person shall lie taken 
into account in assessing the compensation 
payable in respect of such interest; 

(b) where by virtue of ain agreemnt with any 
Government department any person mter- 
csted in the land is entitle<l as b twe.n him- 
self and that department to the beneflt of 
any ,-ucb building, work, or improvement. 
the vaJue attributable to such building, 
work, or improvement shall be taken 
into account in a.sse8sing the comiwiiBation 
pavable in respect of such interest; 

(c) where, since the commencement of t le 
present war, anv person interefited in the 
land has liimself erected, constructed, or 
made any building, w<irk. or improvement, 
or has contributed to the expense tbcreot, 
or hiis committ.ed amv iict depre i.ating the 
value of the land, the value attributab e t 
his expenditure or the depreciation in valui' 
attributable to such act shall be taken int.> 
account in assessing the compensation pav- 
able in respect of such interest. 

7. In determining the amount of compensation, 
the arbitration tribunal shall Jilso take Into account, 
the amount (if any) of any compensation p;ud or 
other payment received in respect of the previous 
occupation of the land .so far as such compensation 
or payment was payable in respect of matters 
other than the mesne proHts of the land. 

8. Where the surface of the land is acquired 
without the mine» and minerals lying there- 
under, the i>rovisions of sections seventy-sevea IIj 
eighty-five of the Raihva.vs C auscs Consolidalioti 
Act. 184.1. .shall apply subject to this modification, 
that for the purpose of section seventy-eight of 
that Act " prescribed " shall mean " prescribed by 
the arbitration trfbunal." 

9. Where by reason of the erection, coi^struction. 
or making of any such buildings, works, or im- 
provements as .aforesaid or the msiintenance thereol. 
or bv rexson of the user of the land, any interest 
in tlie land has become or might become forfeitcil 
or liable to forfeiture, the ei)mi)ens3tii n shall he 
determined as if no such forfeiture or liability t<> 
forfeiture had ari.sen or inicht arise. 

10. The Lord Chancellor mav m.ike rules fixing a 
.scale of costs to be app'icable on an arbitraiioi 
under thus Act, and the arbitration tribunal may, 
notwitbstanding anythiilg in the Lands 
Acts, determine the amount of cost*, .ami .sh.ill have 
power to disallow as co.sts in the arbitration the 
cost of any witnes-s whom they consider txi li.ave 
been called unnecessarily, and any other costs which 
tliey consider to bave been catised or incurre<l un- 
necessarily, and. if they think the eircum-stances 
such as to justify them in .so doinc, to order that 
such of the jiarties shall bear their own costs. 

11. There may be contain d in the award of the 
arbitration tribunal a flnding that the claimant, 
after having been reouested in writing by the de- 
partment by whom the land or intertst therein is 
to be acquired .so to do, has fai'ed to deliver t) 
such dei)artment within a reasonable time a state- 
meat in writing of the amount c'aime<L together 
witli any information in his j>ossession which may 
be rea.sonably required to enable such department 
to make a proper otfer, ,and. where such a flnding 
is contained in t!ie award, the provisions of the 
Lands Clanses .Vets as to costs ef arbitrations shall 
apply as if such department ofTere<] the same 
sum or a sTrcatcr sum than that found to be due 
by the .award : 

I'rovi<le<l that this provision shall not npp un- 
less the written re(|uest for information cont ed 
a notice of t'le effect of tliis provision. 

12. The provisions of this Schedule .s^lalL apply to 
Scotland, subject to the following niodifleations ; — 

(a) For the reference to mesne profits there shall 
l» substittited a reference to profits; 

(b) For the reference to 6*?ctions seventy-seven 
to eighty-five of the (Railways Clauses'idation Act, 1845. there shall be sub- 
stituted a reference to sections stn-enty to 
seventy-eight of the Railways Cans s Con- 
.solldation (Scotland) Act. 184,'i. an<l for the 
reference to section seventy-eight of ttie 
former .\ct there shall be substituted a 
reference to section seventy-oi\e of the latter 
Art : 

fci " The Court of Session " and " Act of 
Sederunt '* shall be substituted for " the 
Lord Chancellor " lunl "rules " respectively. 

IS. The provisions of this Schedule sha'l app'y 
to Ireland, with the sulistitution of a reference t« 
the Lord Chanceror of Irttand for the reference to 
the Lord Chancellor. 

This schedule appears to be quite clear ex- 
ce))t perhaps paragraph 6 (c). In what way 
has the appreciation or depreciation caused to 
the value of the land, .iltributable to build 
ings erected by the owner or to his expendi- 
ture upon the land, to be taken into account? 
It must be assumed that he will Vie paid the 
value attributable to his improvements, and 
that depreciation caused by him will be 
ignored, as in that way only will he be dealt 
with fairlv. 

Rectory, Wincaiiton; Beard. Ed»i;i Krnest, Wood- 
lands, Lexden Road. Coljhester. Essex; Bickford, 
Sidnev .lohn. Woodbine Farm. Burnley. Lanes; 
Brailiv, Leslie, 40, Pier Street, West Hoe, iPlymouth; 
Crowlev. (ie.ifl'rey Curtis, Chilbolton Rectory, Stock- 
bridge, llant,-: Daniels, Thomas Goldsvfqrthy, 69, 
Derby Lane, Liverpool ; Grange, George, Bridachouse 
Gate,' I'atelev Bridge. Yorksliire ; Grecnslade, Arthur 
Thomas, cdbnibe. Thorne.vville Road, Pomphlete. 
near Plymouth; Uanstock, John Walter, The Gables, 
Upper Batlpy, Vorks; Karn% John llugh, Jlaln Ck)t- 
tage, I'rivett Road. Alverstoke, Hants; Helmore, 
Leonard Mervyn, S, Danes Road. KxetCi'; "Hill, 
William ArchKiald, ?3. Uplanil r.oid. East Dubvich. 
S.E. ; Home, Edward Chancellor, 5", H;Uiwortli Road, 
UouiLSlow, .Middlesex ; Jarman. .\rthur Roy, Geneva 
Cottage, Cotterells Road. Hemel Hcmi>sted. Herts; 
Johnson. Raymond Edgar. *J;. Cowley Hoad, 
Uxbridge, Middlesex ; Knapp, Dougias Eric John, 
Great Lyplatt. Corsham, Wilts; Marsh. Frank Bar- 
nett, 1, Dasliwood Road. Stroud Green. If.; 
Matthews, Harold Marten, 9, Stone Buildings, 
Lincoln's Inn. W.C. ; Pe.xton. Frederick William. 30. 
Tennyson Avenue, Scarhorougli : Prall. Hugh 
.\lexander Mackie, 150, Eastgati- Rochester, Kent: 
Radclyfle. Brettoner. St. Briavels, S.O., Glas. ; Ree«. 
David Watkin. Bollondeb. Penybank. Ammanford. 
.s. Wales; Turner. George Edward. iH, Gravelly Hill. 
Birmingham: Vinson, Edward Douglas. The Old 
Vicarage, Loose, near Maidstone. Kent ; Ward, 
Humphrey. Hewton, Bere .\lston. Devon. 
' of Li^t 


The following candidates have satisfied the 
Examiners in the preliminarv examination, 1017 ; — 

Alldridee. Lionel George Helmore, S41. Dudley 
Road, Birmingham: Bax, Stephen N.apicr, Maperton 


{Cnncliiflcd f 10)11 jvigr 1 .11.) 




These formulas arc based on the aesump- 
tious and principles given in the cb.^pter on 

1. — Stand.^rd Notation. 
(a) Rectangular beams. 

The following notation is recommended : — 

/„ = tensile unit stress in steel ; 
fc = compressive unit stress in concrete 
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel ; 
Ej = modulus of elasticity of concrete ; 

n = „ 
M = moment of rosis*an"e. or bending 

moment in general : 
A, = stoel area ; 
6 = breadth of beam ; 
d = depth of beam to centre of steel ; 
/; = ratio of depth of neutral axis to 

depth, rf; 
z — depth below top to resultant of the 

compressive stresses . 
J = ratio of lever arm of resisting couple 

to depth, d ; 
y</ = <i - 2 = arm of resisting couple : 

p = steel ratio -^' 

(6) T-Beams. 

h = width of flange : 
b' = width of stem ; 
t = thickness of flange. 

(c Beams reinforced for Compression. 

A' = area of compressive steel ; 

p' = steel ratio for compressive steel ; 

/,' = compressive unit stress in steel : 

C = total compressive stress in concrete ; 

(7' = total compressive stress in sttel : 

<i' = depth of centre of compressive steel ; 

a = depth to resultant of (' and (". 

((i) Shear, Bond and Web Reinforcement. 

V = total shear ; 

V = total shear producing stress in rein- 

forcement ; 

V = shearing unit stress; 

u - bond stress per unit area of bar; 
= circumference or perimeter of bar ; 
"^o = sum of the perimeters of all bars ; 
T - total stress in single reinforcing 

member ; 
s = horizontal spacing of reinforcing 

(e) Columns. 

A = total net area : 

A, = area "f longitudinal steel : 

A,. = area of concrete : 

r --- total safe load. 

2. — Formulas. 
(a) Rectangular Beams. 
Position of neutral axis, 

fc = ^ 2 |j ?i -1- (p n)'^ - p n . 


Feb. 14, 1917. 



Arm of resisting couple, 

j =1 - ik (2) 

[For fs = 15 000 to 16 000 and /. 

= 600 to 650, J may Ije taken at J.] 

Position of resultant compression, 


Fibre stresses, 

D, f 
P = i 


pj b d^ 


Steel ratio, for balanced reinforcement, 


Case 1. When the neutral axis lies in the 
flange use the formulas for rectangular beams. 
Case II. When the neutral axis lies in the 

The following formulas neglect the compres- 
sion in the stem : — 
Position of neutral axis, 

fcd= 2»^A, + bf ^ 

2nA, + 2bt * ' 

Position of resultant compression, 
z = ^kd-2t £ 

Zkd - t ' 3 ^ ' 

Arm of resisting couple, 

j d = d - z (8) 

Fibre stresses, 

/s = ^ (9) 

f ^ Mkd _ /, k 

'" bt{kd - it)jd^ ti • r^Tfe "^ °' 

(For approximate results, the formulas for 
rectangular beams may be used.) 

The following formulas take into account 
the compression in the stem ; they are recom- 
mended where the flange is small compared 
with the stem : 

Position of neutral axis, 
kd = 

A/ 2«dA, -K6 - b') t^ , fnA^ + (b - 6'>tV^ 

^ b' + \ 6^ ) 

-^lA^JlfjZ^t ^^^^ 

Position of resultant compressions. 
s = 

{kdt^-%i^)b + Ukd - t)'' (t + i{kd-tmb' ,,„, 
t{2kd- t)b + (kd - t)n- * ' 

Arm of resisting couple, 

jd = d - z (13) 

Fibre stresses, 

^-a5^ <^^) 

f ^ 2 M k d 

■ ' U^kd - t)bt + (kd - tpb']jd (^^) 
(c) Beams Reinforced for Compression. 

Position of neutral axis, 

k = \/2 91 (p + p' ^) + M'^ (p + p') 

' - np + p' (16) 

k^ + 2p'n 




Arm of resisting couple, 

jd = d - z (18) 

Fibre stresses, 

/c = 



f-= -^"/'^^ (20) 

pjbd^ k ^ ' 

A = «/=-^ (21) 

(d) Shear, Bond, and web reinforcement — 
For rectangular beams, 

^=^. (22) 

"=/S^ (23) 

[For approximate results y may be taken at J.] 

The stresses in web reinforcement may be 
estimated by means of the following for- 
mulas ; — 

Vertical web reinforcement, " 

T=I^ (24) 


Bars bent up at angles between 20° and 45' 
with the horizontal and web members inclined 
at 4bS 

1=-^"^-^ (25) 

In tlie text of the report it is recommended 
that two-thirds of the external vertical shear 
(total shear) at any section be taken as the 
amount of total shear producing stress in the 
web reinforcement. V therefore equals two- 
thirds of V. 

The same formulas apply to beams reinforced 
for compression as regards shear and bond 
stress for tensile steel. 

For T-Beams, 

" = 57^ (26) 

" = 7^ (27) 

[For approximate results; may be taken at J] . 

(e) Columns. 
Total safe load, 

P= /e(Ao -(- wA,) =/c A(1 + (n - l)p).. ..(28) 

Unit stresses, 


^° = A(l-h(«-l)p) (29) 

h^n (30) 


Mr. Samuel .Stevens Hellyer. of Nehv 
Holme, Bromley, Kent, has left £170,185. 

It is notified in the London UazrJte that tile 
Ijusiuess of the Brimsdown Lamp Works, Ltd.. 
Kingsway House, London, manufacturers of 
electrical lamps and fittings, Ls to be wound up 
under the Tra^ng with the Enemy Amend- 
ment Act. 

Mr. Reginald Barratt, R.W.S., died last 
iveek after an operation, aged fifty-five. He 
t>xhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal 
Society of Painters in Water Colours, his 
paintings being chiefly of Oriental life and 
architecture, which he studied under Mr. 
Norman Shaw. 


To the Editor of The Building News. 

Sir, — On page 97, in a recent issue of your 
widely circulated journal, I notice in the 
course of your reproduction of the Report of 
the American Joint Committee a warning 
to engineers, architects, and builders against 
those waterproofing compounds which are in- 
jurious to the strength of the concrete, and 
which have no permanent effect upon per- 
meability. The advice was good to ask 
manufacturers to produce " reliable data 
showing the action of the particular brand 
under a long time test." 

As a member of the Concrete Institute I 
knew the importance of a time test, so that 
when I commenced to manufacture "Pudlo" 
I asked Messrs. Kirkaldy to test my product 
under compression. After a lap.-^e of time, 
varying from three months to so long a.s two 
years, the cement showed no deterioration in 
.strength but a slight gain. I also had com- 
pression and tension tests made by Messrs. 
Faija and Mr. H. C. .Johnson, of Cork Uni- 
versity. In addition to these I have had 
analytical tests made, and I shall be glad to 
send particulars to any reader of this paper 
if they will ask for the "Book of Tests." 

With regard to the remarks about cement 
being waterproof in itself, I formerly had 
the same idea, so that I can quite understand 
anyone thinking tliat cement was waterproof 
without the addition of a waterproofing 

I will now try to show that the powder 
"Pudlo" has indeed a most wonderful 
chemical action upon cement. Just as a pinch 
of salt or a small quantity of sugar per- 
meates food, so does this powder waterproof 
cement. What I say, perhaps, may not be 
so convincing as outside evidence, so if any 
reader will turn to the " Associated Portland 
Cement Manufacturers' Handbook " he will 
see on page 82 (the third edition, 1913), that 
" No concrete is absolutely imjiervious to 
water." When cement manufacturers pub- 
lisli such a statement one naturally feels that 
it is a reliable fact and an unbiassed opinion, 
because it is a cement manufacturer's con- 
stant aim ti) make his cement not only strong 
but impervious. 

Many percolation tests have been made 
with " Pudloed " cement by some important 
experts. For instance, the University Col- 
lege, Cork, have engineering laboratories, and 
ilr. H. C. Johnson, their chief engineer, 
tested " Puldo " under an 8 ft. head of 
water. The slabs made without the powder 
allowed several ounces of water to pass in 
the short time of fifteen minutes, but the 
waterproofed slabs made with "Pudlo" 
passed no water, and indeed were perfectly 
dry, at the bottom of the slabs, after six 
hours. The engineer to the City of Winni- 
peg tested " Pudlo " with eleven other water- 
pioofers, and "Pudlo" was the only one 
which withstood the test of 200 lbs. pressure. 
The Japanese Imperial Government tested 
the powder with German and American 
waterproofing compounds, and " Pudlo " 
proved to be the best. The above, with de- 
tails, are in the " Book of Tests." 

Since these tests were made the Spanish 
Government have made exhaustive and suc- 
cessful tests. The G.P.O. of the British 
Government has also made tests, with the 
result that this great public departmeut 
specify " Pudlo " for waterproofing their 
manholes, etc. I should like to give half a 
pound of " Pudlo '" free of any charge to 
any architect, clerk of works, builder, or 
builder's foreman who reads this paper if he 
will write to me. I will tell him how to 
make a test so that he can assure himself that 
this remarkable powder reaUy waterproofs 
Portland cement. The .same experiment is 
also a proof that Portland ceinent mortar and 
concrete is not absolutely waterproof in itself. 
— Yours truly, 

J. H. Kerner-Greenwood. 

King's Lynn. 

> »0» < 

The housing difficulty at Chatham and Gil- 
lingham is as bad as evej-. and rewards are 
offered of as much as £5 for the first infoi-ma- 
tion of empty houses. 



Feb. 14, 1917. 


Imi'Ohtant Businkss Point. — Before ii Divi- 
sional Court of tlio King's Bend), on Tuesday 
week, coniiXBecl of Justices Bailliaehe unci .\tkin, 
the ai)i)oal was heard of R. A. Naylor, Ltd., 
timber merchants, of Warring'./)!), fiom u deci 
tion of Judp-e Howard Smith at Wolverlmmp- 
ton County &)urt in favour (A plaintiff, Mr. 
William Roe, eontra<!tor, of Hartley Street, 
Wolvorhampton, who had recovered judgment 
in an ati-ion brought for daniapct for alleged 
breach by R. A. Naylor, Ltd.. of a contract 
of .sale to tJie plaintilf of fourteen standards of 
timber, dated February 11, 1916.— Mr. .\lkin- 
son, K.C., for appellants, said that plaintil! 
gave the defendants an order, and rc-ceived a 
contract noto which had on it the condition, 
" Good.s sold .subject to their being on hand 
and at liberty when the oriler reacnes the head 
ofRce." Defendants told plaintiff that they 
could not deliver the lirst two items of tlie 
goods ordered as they had sold tiiem elsewhere, 
I'laintiir, relying on the contract, sued and re- 
covered judgment for £41 10s. for brejich by 
defendants, the judge saying that he accepted 
the statement of plaintiff that he did not read 
the condition or the oontrai-t. but plaintiff did 
.-ulmit that lie litul previously had other con- 
tracts of the same kind from deTendants. Mr. 
Atkinson argued that the judgment wa.< 
erroneous, as plaintiff aeeepteti ihe contract 
wiith the oondition upon it. and he had actually 
sued upon it. The authorities said that, in the 
absence of fraud, a person was Ixiund by the 
■words on a contract, even if ne did not reatl 
them. The County Court judge had taken the 
view that defendants did not take reasonable 
steps to (all the attention of plaintiff to the 
«)ndition on tlie cxmlract. and he |ioiiiled out 
that it was printed in small type on neitlter 
tlie toj) nor the Ixit.tom of the document, and 
could only be read by tuniing it 8idewa_ys. 
There was (counsel contended) no obligation 
on defendants ia call plaintiff's altintion to the 
conditions. — Mr. Hirst (for plaintiff) arguc'd 
that the question was one of fact, and there 
had been no misdirection of law. What hap- 
pene<l was that plaintdft" was (ii-st shown cer- 
tain specifications of timber, he selected cer- 
tain items that he was told he could have, and 
then later came the contratvt note, which he 
foun<l agreed witli the items in the specifica- 
tion, and he did not see the condition on the 
note at all. The plaintiff Ind rea-lly been 
mi.sled. — The hearing was a Vourned till 
Friday, when judgm>nt was gi\en. — Mr. 
.Justice Bailhache said that th(> condition was 
a very pix>per one. as wIkm-c h *1 m had travel- 
lers they ha<l to safeguard themselves against 
having the same goods sold two or tlirce times 
over. The condition was gener.i'!y recognised. 
and was known as " subiect to goods being 
unsold." The law was that when r-ne party 
handed to another a sold note which was ac- 
<'oplod as containing the terms ot the contract, 
there was no fluty on the seller to ask the 
buyer to rejid the note or call his attention to 
the <x)ntents of tilie .sold note. But a sold note 
roultl be a miaUviding document— the condi- 
tions might lie misJeading. because thev are 
.so iimbiguously worded that they could be 
read equidly well in two ways, or because they 
were so pliicivl in the doeument that a man (>f 
ordinary car<> and intelligence on rending it 
would not exneet to find the conditions in the 
position in which they were in fact placed. In 
such a case the buyer could not be l>ound iiy 
the clause or condition. The on'.v question, 
therefore, in tliis iwrticular ease was. said his 
lAird.shin. whether the printed clause on the 
document was so printed th.'it from its position, 
size of tvne. ot<\. an ordinary per.son. reading 
the dwument with jironer care, might reason 
ably m.iss it? Tf in this ease the b"ver could 
.show f.h-'t he could not rensonn.blv be evneeted 
to see ihp cln"se. he could not be held to be 
bound bv it. There must be n new trial of th^ 
case for the judge to direct his mmd to this 
point. Tf the itidfre found the nljtintiff roidd 
Bav he was misled, then tlte cont'-nct notf^ 
Tnn.''t be '-end ns though the njirticiilnr condi- 
tion or elnns" relied ori wis not in the doeii 
ment.^Mr. .Tustice Atkin coneurvpri. 

RrsEBvnrR roxTR»rT Dispute. — Tn the Kinir'? 
Trench D'v's' Court, on Tnesdnv week. 
.TustiecR Bni'lhnche and Atkin had before then> 
tlio cnco of Nott V. the Lord Mavor. etc.. of 
Cardiff. This was n motion bv the Cardiff 
Coroorntion to set aside an "ward of Mr. Kd. 
!^ w^'O acted ns nrbitr.Ttor in a con- 
+ -nct disoute betwiMm the CorT>arntw>n and the 
T^veciitors of the late Mr. Louis Phibn Nntf 
The contract relnted to the c^nstruotioii of « 
'■eservo'v and subsidiarv buildings at Tnff 
Fawe VnPov. Brecon. The contract price was 
over £200.000. and the dispute related princi- 

,)ally to the (piesiion of '" extrQ.s." tlio Cor 
,ioration subniitting that the findings of thi 
arliitrator were not justified. After hearini. 
full arguments, the Court dismissed the motion 
.\ir. Justice Bailhache added that he was quiti 
satisfied that there was evidence supjwrting 
the findings of the arbitrator, and witli regard 
lo the eiigineer, his Lordshiji thought tlier*- 
wa.s evidence given before the arbitrator ujion 
which lie might find as he di<i. The result was 
that this motion by the Corporation failed, 
an<l must be dismissed, with costs. Mr. Jus- 
lice .'Vtkin coneurre<l. 


Nationai. FKiiK.K.vnii.N OK Building Trade 
Kmi'loyers.— At the annual general meetinj; 
at 'he Connaught Rooms, W.C., on January 
31, the president, Mr W. F. \ValIis, in the 
chair, the Rejxirt was adopted. With 
reference to the revised foims of contract and 
fub-contra<t at present under consideration, 
(he president stated that the form after 
reference to the Contract sub-committee 
would be sent on to the R.I.B.A., and, fail- 
ing agreeiment, ai'bitration under the chair- 
manship of Sir George Askwith was suggested, 
as in tile case of the Scottish ft>rm of con- 
tract. After ot'lier business the oliairman 
moved, and Mr. Samuel Snietliurst, J. P., 
.seconded, that Mr. James Storrs, J. P. 
(Stalybridge), be president for the epsuing 
year. Mr. E. J. Brown (London) also 
suiiported the nomination, and Mr. Storrs 
was unaniimously president. Mr. 
Str)rrs, thanking the meeting, said that it was 
thirty years since he fii-st attende<l a 
National Fcderatioiii meeting, and that he 
liad had tlie honour of being president of the 
l..aii<-ashiia'e Federation. Turning to the 
subject of the proposed new form of contract, 
Mr. Storrs said it was manifestly unfair that 
iii'dhiieots should be the sole arbitrators upon 
the question of materials to be used ; dis- 
putes <m such matters ought to go to 
arbitration. In conclusion, he moved a vote 
of thanks to ^^r. W;idlis for his able services 
as presidfut duTing the past year, and 
suggested that tiis name be added to the list 
of \-ice-)]res'dents. This was carried iin- 
aJiimously. ilr. W. F. Wallis said tliat his 
year of office had been a most strenuous one, 
and he had done his best to further the 
interests of the Federation. He tendered his 
heartv thanks to .Mj-. White and his 
assistanil for tlieir services during the past 
vear. and Mr. White repbed. 



Boyle's latest patent " air-pump " ventilators, 
supplied by Messi-s. Robert Boyle and Son, 
ventilating ongineers, 64, Hollxirn Viaduct 
London, F-.C. have bi>en employed at Messrs. 
Liptons' Tea Rooms, 265, O.xford Street, Lon- 
don. W.C. 

We hear the cellar under the TCssex Countv 
High School, at Walthamstow, has given much 
trimble owing to being constantly Hooded. 
.\ftcr niucli exix'iise in trying various means 'to 
ki'cii the water away it was dwided to put 
down a further 2 ft. of concrete, and to periodi- 
cally use ft waU pump. Water still percolated 
into the cellar, and the county ai-chiteet, then 
decided to Pudloed cement oincrete. We 
understand this latter treatment has resulted 
in the cellar being niaile perfectly dry, and the 
authorities are pleased tliut the suggestion 
placed before them. 

The late Mr. Thomas William OfFin. of High 
Street, Southend, auctioneer, 'eit £32.010. 

A birthdav knighthood has been given to 
Mr. H. Holloway, Director of Housinj; Con- 
struction under the Ministry of Munitions, a 
member of the firm of Holloway BrotJiers, 
builders and contractors. 

A striking illustration of the giowth ot an 
endownient is given by Mi-s. Hylton Dale in a 
reixn-t of the doings during the pa-st year o' 
the Cult of Ixindon— an interesting little 
organisation designee' to promote a love of 
London in its antiquarian and archaeological 
luspeots. In the year 1683 one Prisca Coliorn 
left a sum of £50 a year for the foundation of 
a simill school in the Last Fiid. The estate 
from wlii<h that sum was derived now pro- 
duces a revenue of over £1,000 a yeiir. and a 
still {urt.lier increment is certain when the 
existing leases fall in ! 

(Bnr ©fficr Olabk. 

Tlie eighteenth edition of " Practical- Sani- 
tation," by George Reid, M.D., D.P.H. 
(London: Charles Griffin and Co., Ltd., 6s. 
net), is published. The matter has been 
completely revised and brought up to date. 
There are, perhaps, one or two sections in 
which a little more expansion would have 
jeeii welcomed — notably those on ventilation 
and building appliances. The eight lines, for 
instance, on p. 185 on concrete hardly em- 
brace all that .should be known about the- 
developments in the use of that material 
which have taken place since the first edi- 
tion of the book was i.ssued. 

One of the really historic buildings in Un- 
united States is said to be the residence of 
the Governor of New Mexico in the city oi 
Santa Fe. It is said to have been erected 
by the Spanish when the greater part of the 
Western world was theirs, and was the finest 
house in the colonies. According to legend, 
millions of dollars were spent on the quaint 
old structure. Most of the material in it 
wiis brought from Spain, and it was con 
structed by the best builders to be found 
among the Dons of that jjerind. In thi 
ship which brought over the building 
material and builders were many art 
treasures used lo decorate the finished house. 
.After the Spanish departed Mexicans use<l 
the house as a Governor's j)alace, and with 
the overthrow of the. Mexicans by the United 
States Government it was continued as the 
residence of the head of the territorial 
Goverimienit that was formed. The house i- 
still in use. 

One of the most successful sales, from the 
standpoint of average^ realised, held by the 
American Art .•\ssociation in New York took 
place in mid-,Ianuary. A grand total of well 
over £100,000 was paid for 171 canvases by 
modern artists, the eighty-seven lots in tli. 
second day's session showing a total, within 
two hours or so, of $432,000. Almn-Tadema's 
" 'I'hermte Antonuiianie." or " Batlis ot 
Caracalla." Opus CCCLVI.. first seen at ifhe 
Royal Academy of 1899, brought $19,000, or 
within about $5,000 of what the late Mr 
.lames F. Sutton paid for it. The chit' 
feature of the auction, however, was tin 
.$160,100 aggregate for twenty-four paintiiiu- 
by the French impressionist, Claude Monet 
incJudin^ $15,900 for a view' of Bordiglier.i 
26 ins. by 32 ins. Mr. vSutton is said t. 
have paid aji average of about $3,000 for his 
twenty-four Monets. .\ sunset lands^-ape, on 
panel 30 ins. bv 45 ins., by the .American 
artist, George Innes, which CAst the vendor 
Jfr. Edson Bradley, only $1,100 a few year^ 
ago, brought ,-is much as $16,400. 

It is refioi'ted that at a fire in the Prad 
Gallery, Nladrid, on January 9. eeverj' 
f.amous paintings in that worl^-ianied coUei 
tion were destroyed. Chief among these 
appeivrs to have been Titian's "Venus and 
.Vdonis." 73 ins. by 81 ins., painted in 1554 
for Philip of Spain. It was. however, sadly 
disfigured by restoration, though no doubt 
originally a gorgeous piece of painting. In 
our National Gallery is a studio repetition of 
the (Madrid picture, purchased with thirty- 
seven other works for £57,000 in 1824 from 
Mr. Angerstein. The National Gallery version 
was formerly in the Colonna Palace at Rome. 
and, according lo Crowe and Cavalca.selle, is. 
in all likelihood from the brush of Schiavone. 
-Among other works destroyed by the fire are 
a [lortrait of the Du'kc of Richmond assigned 
to A'an Dyok, "The Disciples at Emmaus. " 
given to Velasquez, and Murillo's " Knight 
of Malta." 

That glue or gelatine in drying will pull 
flakes off the surface of plate gl.iss is well 
known to photographic process workers, so 
much so that they are careful to avoid 
sucli a mi.shap by previously rubbing over 
the glass with some .substance of a 
greasy nature, such as French chalk. A 
case " mentioned by a corres]x>ndent of 
Kiiqinffrinri : — A mirror with a frame of 
embroidery had been glazed with four pieces 
of iil.ite glass mitred at the corners. The 
previous owner had stuck four pieces of 
Japanese leather-paper, about 5 by i in.> 

Feb. 14, 1917. 



over the mitres to keep the dust out. After 
hanging in my very dry room for some t'ma 
the paper began to peel off, and in doing 
so took flakes of glass with it. These fliiis 
were shaped like oyster-shells, some of 
them more than a sixteenth in diameter. 
Anyone" wishing to try the experiment 
should first clean the glass with caustic soda, 
and be careful not to finger it before pouring 
on the gelatine, i.e., the surface should be 
chemically clean. The glass must be thick 
or it will crack, and it should be plate 
glass, as the natural surface of crown glass 
might be too strong for the glue. 

The Queen received at Buckingham Palace 
last Friday three deputations whose errands' 
were closely allied, in that all concerned the 
mamt-enance of the beneficent work of the 
Star and Garter Hostel for disabled soldiers 
and sailors. One deputation represented the 
Auctioneers and Estate Agents' Institute, and 
its members came to offer to the Queen the 
title deeds of the Star and Garter property, 
together with those of Ancaster House near 
by, with a further contribution of over £13,000 
to the endowment fund. In reply, her Majesty 
said: — "I am much touched by this proof of 
generosity on the part of the members of the 
Institute and of those who, through them, have 
contributed to the fund, and I am glad to 
think that the Star and Garter will always 
remain a permanent memorial of the patriotic 
spirit they have evinced in the relief and com- 
fort of these brave men who have suffered so 
■ severely in the performance of their duty." 
The war has brought a slmnp in company 
promoting in England and Wales. During 
1915 only 3,749 new companies, with a capital 
of £49.284.267, were registered, compared 
with 6,871 in 1913, with a capital of 
£145,752,553. Some 164 companie.? went into 
liquidation, including 112 by order of the 
Court, and 2,993 were removed from the 
register on the ground that they were no 
longer cari'ying on business. In April, 1916, 
there were 66.094 companies on the register. 
. with a capital of £2.716,989,129. Since 1862 
156,373 companies have been registered, with 
a total capital of £8,032,953/787. By the 
104 companies wound up by order of the 
Court creditors lost £645,982 and contribu- 
taries £1,654,221. 

The long frost has seriously affected gas- 
meters as well as water-pipes. The tem- 
perature of the gas in the mains is 42 degs., 
and it in passing through the meter this 
is maintained the met«r will be kept above 
freezing-point ; but when no gas is passing 
through the meter becomes a dead end, and, 
not getting the benefit of the temperature of 
the gas, the water may become frozen. There- 
fore precaution should be taken to protect 
meters from the cold by covering them with 
l>ags or sacking. In the event of a meter 
-freezing it should be thawed by the applica- 
tion of hot bricks or hot-water bottles placed 
a.round it and covered with thick wrapping. 
In no circumstances should a light be used 
to thaw a gas-meter. 


We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions 
of our corrtspond«nts. All communications should 
be drawn up as briefly as possible, as there are 
many claimants upon the spac« allotted to 

It is particularly requested that all drawings and 
all communications respecting illustrations or literary 
natter, books for review, etc., should be addressed 
to the Editor of the Bcildino News, Effingham 
House, 1, Arundel Street, Strand, W.C. and not to 
members of the staff by name. Delay is not infre- 
quently otherwise caused. All drawings and other 
communications are sent at contributors' risks, and 
the Editor will not undertake to pay for, or be 
liable for. unsought contributions. 

When favouring us with drawings or photographs, 
architects are asked kindly to state how long the 
building has been erected. It does neither them nor 
us much good to illustrate buildings which have been 
some time executed, except under special circum- 

***Drawing3 of selected competition designs, im- 
portant public and private buildings, details of old 
and new work, and good sketches are always wel- 
come, and for such no charge is made for insertion. 
Of more commonplace subjects, small churches, 
chapels, houses, etc. — we have usually far more sent 
than we can insert, but are glad to do so when space 
permits, on mutually advantageous terms, which 
may be ascertained on application. 

Telephone: Gerrard 1291. 
Telegrams: '* Timeserver, Estrand, London." 

Received i—V. T. C. Co., Ltd. -'M. P.. and Co.— K. O. 
and Co.— H., Ltd.— R. I. C. and Co., L d.— F. ilcX. 
Co.. Ltd.— B. O. Co.. Ltd.— G. ar.d Son.— M. an I 
Co.— A. H. and Co.— J. D. and Son— C. W. H.— 
H. P. and Son.— S. H. B., Ltd.— A. W. C. H.— 
C. U. P.— M. P. Co., Ltd.— I. L. G. Co., Ltd.— 
L. C. C. S.— A., Ltd.— E. H. G.— K. F. and R. 

B. H.— Ye.=;. 

T. R. S.— Thanks, no. " 

VoLENS. — Probably ; when peace comes. 

P. H. S. — Because in so many cases the demand is 
too small to test markets, and therefore sellers' 
quotations prevail. 

Senex. — Yes. While there is copyright in works of 
architecture, the 1911 Act expressly permits the 
photographing of architectural works. 

Mr. Thomas Joseph ilessom. of Holme Croft, 
Amyand Park, Twickenham, builder, ha« left 

The London' County and Westminster Bank 
(Ltd.) have decided to open branches in Spain 
for the furtherance of trade between that 
country and Great Britain. 

The Manchester City Council has accepted 
its gas committee's proposal temporarily to 
engage Mr. William Newbigging as consulting 
<;ngineer to the, at a remuneration 
after the rate of £1,000 per annum. 

A sub-committee of the Special Committee 
appointed by the Manchester Corporation to 
consider the question of relieving the con- 
gestion of traffic in the central parts of the 
city, reports in favour of constructing several 
new streets, and utilising a portion of the site 
of the old infirmary, Piccadilly, as a tramway 
centre and for municipal offices. 

The "one thousand and second fact" about 
gas is that although the Gas Light and Coke 
Company is paying the same dividend, its 
chairman. Mr. John Miles, at the half-yearly 
meeting last Friday, told the shareholders it 
was certain that in the near future it would 
be necessary to increase the price. With the 
usual reciuction in South London, where there 
is competition, we suppose? 


A new station at Markliam village on the 
Sirhowy branch of tlie London and North- 
western Railway was opened on the 1st inst. 

No difficulty is anticipated in raising a 
thousand navvies, whom the Austra.lian Gov- 
ernment proposes to send to England for con- 
struction work in connection with the war. 

Mr. F. Parker, of Boston, has been ap- 
pointed county land agent to ihe Holland 
County Council in the place of Mr. E. J. A. 
Christie, who has joined the Colours. Mr, 
Parker is architect to the Lincolnshire County 
Asylum and a Fellow of the Society of Anti- 

In a time of war even the impossible may 
be cheerfully advocated. A local paper sum- 
marises the shortage of labour in the under- 
taking business by annoimcing that the only 
professional gravedigger at Ramham having 
joined up, the local undertakers have to dig 
their own gi"av©s ! 

The first important exhibition of the sculp- 
ture of >Ir. Jacob Epstein will be opened on 
Saturday next at the I/eicester Galleries, 
Leicester Square, Portraits of Lord Fisher, 
the Countess of Drogheda, Mr. W. H .Davies, 
Mr. Muirhead Bone, and other interesting per- 
sonalities will be included in the collection. 

The Engineer's Department of the Liver- 
pool Corporation has contributed a total of 
about 1.400 men to the fighting forces. Of 
that number ninety have now laid down thvir 
fives. This gallant record was a matter of 
comment at the last meeting of the Health 
Committee, when the deaths in action of three 
of the engineer's former staff were regretfully 

At the last meeting of the Ellesmere Urban 
District Council, Mr. Brownlow R. C. Tower, 
the chairman, referred to the death of the 
late surveyor, Mr, J. Groom, who, he said, 
was a straightforward, honourable man, and a 
most conscientious servant. He proposed a 
vote of condolence with the widow. Several 
other members supported, and the motion was 
carried unanimously. 

Under the will of Mr. John Elliot, Bidston, 
near Birkenhead, who died on Decemher 31, it 
is understood that many pictures of the Liver- 
pool School may find their way to the Walker 
Art Gallery, Liverpool, and other pictures to 
the Birkenhead Corporation Art Gallery. The 
testa/tor was president of the Lear Home of 
Recovery, West Kirby, and he left to that in- 
stitution £10,000 for endowment and not for 
building purposes, and a further £5,000 for 
building or general purposes. 


Telephone DALSTON 1388. 

Many years connected with 

the late tinn of W. H. 


BuDlnU Row. 

Mildmay Avenue, ISLINGTON, N. 









120. Bunhill Row. London. E.C 


♦,♦ Correspondent a would in all case« oblige by 
giving the addresses of the parties tendering — at any 
rate, of the acsepted tender: it adds (• tbevoiue of the 

Chelmsford, —For tne foi-..-.truction of footpath 
and surface-water drain in Bectory Lane, for the 
oorporaticn : — 

%V. and C. French £141 16 6 

H. Potter 129 15 10 

F. J. French 115 15 11 

B. H. Hale, Romford (accepted) 111 18 6 
EXKISKILLEN. — For reconstruction of two houses in 

Darling Street, Eaniski.len. .Mr. J. Donnel-y, 1/, 
Darling Scrett, Enniski.len, architect: — 

J. Doonelly and Son, Fnniskiilen £830 17 
J. Howey, EnnLskillen .. .. 811 16 9 
H. Pierce and Son, Enniskillen.. 787 10 
J. BlcomSeM. Bnxikeborough, 
CO. Fermanagh (accepted) .. 724 10 

Hanwell.— For fencing at the Chidren's Home at 
Hanwell, for the .Metropolitan A^^vluras Board : — 

C. H. Boyd and Son (accepted) .. £82 

Leeds. — Foundations, seating?, and flues at the 
new generating station, for the Corporation Elec- 
tricity Committee: — 

Airey and Son £2,600 

(Recommended for acceptance.) 

Leeds. — For construction of a light railway be- 
tween Leeds Fireclay Company's junction and exist- 
ing light railway, for the corporation : — 

C. Bushby and Sons (accepted) £1,550 10 
Leeds. — For supply of 18,000 tons of washed sand 
and 43,000 tons of gravel for concrete, for the cor- 
poration : — 

Leeds Sand and Gravel Company, sand 3s. 6d. 
per ton, gravel 4<i. 3d. per ton"(acc,pted). 

London, S.E.— For supply of water-lifting pump, 
for the Woolwich Borough Council : — 
J. Evans and Sons, Wolverhamp- 
ton (accepted) £88 

Ramsbottom.— For laying 1,000 square yards, or 
thereabouts, of setts on concrete foundation, for 
the Ramsbottom Urban District Council. Mr. T. H. 
Bell, surveyor: — 

T. Coates, 8, Shepherd Street, Bacup (accepted). 
SiDJincTH (Devon).— For the construction of a sea 
wall and other contingent works in connection with 
the sea defences of Sidmouth, for the Sidmoutb 
Urban District Council. Mr. 8. Hutton, A.M.I.C.E.I., 
Public Hall, Exmouth, engineer :— 

H. Pittard and Son, Langport, 
Somerset (accepted) £2,500 

Sleaford. — .\ccepted tenders for .supply of granite 

and slag for the whole of the roads in t-he district, 

and gravel for paths, for year ending February 28. 

1918, for the Sleaford Rural District Council:— 

2J-in. granite :— Gibson and Co., Sleaford, 

14s. tkl. : Enderby and Stoney Stant:n Granite 

Co., Ltd., Narborough, 14s. 8d. : Pattinson and 

Co., Ltd., Sleaford, 143. lod. ; Whitwick Granite 

Co., Ltd.. Whitwick, 14s. lOd.; Cliffe Hill Granite 

Co., Ltd., Markfleld, 14fi. lOd, ; Charnwood 

Granite Co., Ltd., Charnwood, 15s, 3d. 

Slag :— Stanton Ironworks^ Ltd., Stanton, 
63. 9d.; Prestwick and Sons, Dronfleld, 8s. 6d. ; 
Holwell Iron Co., Ltd.. Asfordbv, gs. 7d. ; Pattin- 
son and Co., Ltd., Sleaford, 8s. 9d.; El is and 
Everard, Ltd., Peterborough, 9s. 6d. ; Lavender 
and Bateman, Sutton Bridge, 10s. 

Tre Thomas (Mon.).— For the construction ot 
about 100 lineal yards of concrete culvert and for 
road improvement*! at Tynywern Road, Tre Thomas, 
for the Bedwas and Machen Urban District Coun- 
cil. A. S. V. Taylor, Bedwas, surveyor : — 

Robinson and Parry, Port Ta;bot f R92 19 6 

W. Jones, Nelson 774 13 6 

E. James, Ystrad Mynach .. 543 10 

Williams Broe., Bedwas . . 513 19 2 

P. Smith, Newport 495 7 8 

W. Jenkins, Bedwas 481 6 

E. Williams, Cardiff 444 17 

J. Sutherland, Abercynon, Glam. 
(accepted) 439 4 

WoRTHiNi;.- For t4ie construction of beach cabins, 
for the town council : — 
H. Tier, £6 56. for one, £70 for 12. 
F. Saudell and Sous. £6 and £70. 
W. G. Benn, £5 3s, 6d, and £60 12s. 
R. James. £4 12s. and £52 16s. (accepted for 12). 



Feb. 14, 1917. 


March 3.— Water Supply and Siweragc Scheme 
(pRinium 5.000 pesetas — about £200). Manza- 
nares, Spain. — Secrctaria dei Ayuntaniiento. 



Feb. 23.— Certain Alteratiuns to No6. 5 and 6. 
sorubbs Lano. in conneclion witli flreproofint; 
two front rooms of No. 6, to be awed as an 
electric sub-etation.— For the Hammersmith 
liorouuli Council.— L. Gordon, Town Clerk, Town 
Hall, Haniracr.«mit)i. 

Feb. 28.— New batlirooiiLs, lavatories, etc., at the 
LoutI) County Inllrmary.- J. W. Turner, J.P., 
Secretary, Louth County Infirmary. 

March 1 — General Repairs. Painting, etc., to "jT, 
Victoria Street. Norwich.— A. K. Collin.";, 
M.I.C.K., City Knsineer. Gui'dhall. Norwich. 

No date.— .Erectiion of 33 jyuiirs of Cottages near 
Holbe^ioh Cloujjli, Lincoliu-ihi;re. .\ppro.\ijaate 
distance firom Holb«u)li. Stajt.iou, from tlliree to 
five miles. Tlie work is to be divide<I into st?c- 
tion.s of tliree pairt;. land tt-nders may be sub- 
mitted for one or more sections. Buikltnt! to 
commence in Aipril. «ind tlie ^vork must be com. 
plettid by end of iStiptcmbcT tilfis year. — For the 
Boar(I i>f .AjKricultiire autl Fit^heries. — ^Secretary, 
Boanl of Av'rieulture and Fislieries. i, Wiiiitiohal'l, Jondon. S.W. 

No date.- For Ilcstoration of Wesleyan Chapel, 
Crowlas. — ^Mes.-rs, <"owe 1 and Jirewitt. Archi- 
tects, Penzance. 


Fob. 2 8.— Construction of two Masonry Dams 
across the P.^ri*ati 'lliver in respect of hyd-ro- 
electric \va;torworks and irrigation Bobemes, 
amounting to about ilts. 30, 00.000. e<iual to 
i"200.000 cacli ; one ni-air liudh, and the other 
ibtitween iBassai and Kakt^.— S. K, Gurtu, Mem- 
ber Hoard of Kcvenue for Irrigation, GwaJior 
Government, CVIoti-lMaiial, Ladhkar, Gwallor, 
Central Indi'a. 

June 1. — Storm-water Pumping Plant, Calcutta.— 
For the Corporation. — The /?)dian and Eastern 
Engineer, 50, Fendiurch Street, E.C. 


March 3 0.— Wruimht-ircin Gales and Fencing, for 
the Central Wharf and l^iay Street Lauding, 
AuckhUHl, N.Z. — For the Harbour Board. — The 
Commercial Intelligence Department. 73, Basing- 
hall Street, E.C. 


Feb. 24.- Repainting and Decorating St. Aliaay's 
J';iri.>h Ohur^Oi. Nt*wJy. — Jie^igne and .specillC4l- 
tion can be in^peetcMl at the ollice of .Mr. S. W. 
Reside, Arc*hiiteot, Margiaret Square, Newry. 
Teiulers to bo .sent to the iRe-v. H. B. tSwanzety, 
iM.A.. The Viojypage, Nowrv. 


Feb. 15. — Supply and delivery in full trtick load>. 
as reiiuired, to Newmaikct and Biirwell (G.iF.R.) 
railway stations as follows : — Best broken Loi- 
ce.stershire granite. 11 in.. 2 in., 2i in. gauge, 
about 1.000 tons; best broken alag, 2i in. (gauge, 
about 200 tons ; granit* or slag chippings, free 
from dust, j in. gauge, about 500 tons ; 2 in. 
tarviated granite cliippin;;s, about 250 tone. — 
For the Nowmarket Urbati District Council.— 
K. II. Ennion, Acting Clerk to the Council, Deva 
Chambers. Newmarket. 

Feb. 15.— Broken I'.oadstone. Tar Macadam, and 
Cob Limestone, to be delivered, carriage paid, 
to various railway stations, in quantities required 
by the surveyor (One Year). — For the Wctherby 
Rural District Council. — E. U. Coates, Clerk to 
tlte Council. Wctherby. 

Feb. 17.— ."^ui.plying Jx-st Hand-pick«i and Broken 
Granite and Grouce at Croprcdy, Broadmoor 
Bridge, Claydon, Banbury. Xell Bridge an<l Tivy- 
ford WIia.rveB, and at Banbury. Crojiredy. Blo.\- 
harn, .\dderbury, aiwJ Jlook Norton Railway 
St^atioiiti.— For tilie Banbury KuraJ District 
Council.- E. L. Fisher, Clerk, Union Ofllcos, Ban- 
bury. , 

Feb. 1 7.— tLeicestenhire Oranite and Granite 
Chi/ppin'gs; select«<l Ironstone Slag, free from 
comb; be«t Derby Limestone; Broken Pit or Dug 
Flints and bo.<4 ibright Pit Hoggin aD<l Shingle: 
cartage ol the tadjove matoriab (One Year). — ^For 
the Kingsbury (Middlesex) Urban District 
Coundl.-^H. H. Turner, Clerk, Council Offices. 
KingslniTy iRoad. Kingsbury. 

Feb. 19.- Supply and delivery of Materials (One 
Year), viz., Lancashire and local Sett5. Kerbs, 
and Channels; Portland Cement; I'itcli and 
Creosote Oil: Granite and Limestone Alacadam; 
Earthenware Pipes and Gullies; Lime; Brushes; 
Ironwork (street grates, manhole and Jamphole 
covers) ; Leading Limestime. etc.— Fcr Colne 
Highways and Sewerage Committee. — Chair- 
man of the Highways and Sewerage Committee, 

Feb. 19 About 3.000 tons of Granite and 250 t; ns 

of hciit Blue Slag 'broken), for repair of high- 
ways (One Y'ear).— For the Soutliam Rural Difi 
trict Council.^C. ,W. E. Webb, CCerk, Market 
Hill, Southam. 

Feb. 21. — Granite, Limestone. Slag. Basalt, T.ixred 
Liiiiestone. Tarreil Slag. Rt fined Tar. Pitch, 
Kerb, CliL-innel, iSand, and Stoneware Pipe* (One 
Yoair).— nFor tlie I'olsover Urban District Council. 
-.7. F. Wardle, Town Sur^'eyor. Council OfTices, 
Bolsover. , 

Feb. 21.— Griuiite and Slag for the whole of the 
roads in the dLstrict and Gravel for paths. — For 
the Spalding Rural District Council. — H. S- 
Maples. Clerk, Spalding. 

Feb. 2 2. — Granite and iSiag (One Year), to Ik? 
delivered at various .stations and wlKirves in the 
di.stnict of 'Bridgnorth. — For tlie District 
Council.^F. iRicliair<ls, Surveyor, Bridgnorth. 

Feb. 2 3. — Granite macadam and chippings; Mac- 
cletsfteld macadam and chippiiiigfi: limestone mac- 
adam and chippings; 0-in. grit stone setts; sani- 
tary pipos (One Year). — For the Marple Urban 
Di.s'trict Council. — I). J. Diver, Surveyor, Council 
OfI"Ka:s, .Marple. 

Feb. 24.— Granite Slag land Tarred Macadam, to 
be delivered at various railw-.-^y stations in tbc 
district. Teuam ila>bour necessary in carting the 
m).ateriial on to the roads iwJiere required (One 
Yciar). — For the Rothorhaim (Rural District 
Council.— O.xley and Cowiiml. Clerks to tJre 
Council, 0. Westsate. Rotherham. 

Feb. 2 6.— Setts. M.icadam. and other road mate- 
rials (Six Months).— For the Bredbury and 
Roniiley Urban District Council.— A. Plunkett, 
Surveyor, Council Offices, School Brow, Romiley. 

Feb. 26.— Granite Slag. Tarred Macadam and 
Limest'inc. delivi re<l to the various statii ns and 
wharves in the district (One Year).— For the 
Keynsham Rural District Council.— F. G. Whit- 
tuck, Clerk to Council, Keynsham. 

Feb. 28.— Macarlani. Tar Macadam. Chippings. 
etc.. delivered to railway .stations and c.inal 
wharves in the county (One Year).— For the 
Cheshire County Counci'.— W. Hol'.and, County 
Surveyor. The Castle, Chester. 

March 1.— Road Materials (Channel Igland 
Granite. Channel Island Granite Sittings, 
screened: Pea and Farnluun Gravel, Kentish 
Flints. Cockle Shclk. Rc<l Pit Sand. fcreen;d 
Thumcs S.ind and Kentish Itag) (One Y'ear).- 
For the Commissi<mers of H.M. Works.— Secre- 
tary, H.M. Office of Works. Storey's Gate, Lon. 
don. S.W. 

March 2.— Repair of District Roads (One Year).— 
For the Dorchester Rural District Council.— 
W. W. Reed, Clerk, 24, High West Street. Dor- 

March 2 2 Supply of about 2.D80 yards of Flints. 

about 2.r)5n yards of Granite or other stone, and 
00 yards of Gravel.— For the Chailey Rural Dis- 
trict Council. -H, Kemp Walls, District Sur- 
veyor. North Common. (Chailey. 


Feb. 19.— .Supply of Roadstone and Setts: Kerb- 
stone, Flags, etc.; 6dag or Furnace Dross; 
Tarred Slag and Limestone; PitcJi. Creosote Oil, 
and Rcflnod Tar; S;uid and Gravel; Draioa-;e 
Pipes, etc.; Blue Ch;innel Bricks; Bricks; 
Cement; Brooms; P;iinto; Picks jind Shovels; 
Oils, P.trallli and Cotton NVastes : Disinfectants 
(One Year.)— For tlic Donctistcr Corporation — 
11. X.. Foni, A3I.I.t'.E., Acting Borough Sur- 
veyor, Man.sion House, Donca-ster. 

Feb. 26.— About CO.OOD Rectangular Sleeper^, ti ft. 
bj 10 ins. by 5 ins., cut from Scotch or silver 
flr, delivered on the company's trucks at any 
stations on their system ; 30.000 Sleeper BliK-ks". 
9 ft. by 10 ius. by 10 ins. (contractor t<> 6peci(\ 
description of timber;, delivered on comp ny's 
trucks at their stores department. Oriel Street. 
Dublin, within six months from date of accept- 
ance.— For the Midland Great Western Railway 
of Ireland Company.— p. A. Ha\. Secretary. 
Broadstone Station. Dublin. 



Headquarters, Balderton Street. Oxford Street. W. 

OFFICER FOR THE WEEK.- Platoon Commander 
' J. O. Cheadlc. 

NE.XT FOR DUTT.-Platoon Commander \ 
I Gerard. 

APPOINTMENT.— 200 Sap|>er S. Foster to be Sec 
Cdr., No. 1 Coy. (<kitcd Feb. 8. 1917). 

MONDAY, FEB. 19.— Technical for Platoon No. 9 
at Regency Street. Squad and Platoon Drill, Platoon 
No. 10. Signalling Class. Recruits Drill. IS.30— 6. 

WEDNESDAY. FEB. 21.— Instructional Class, 6.1J. 
Platoon Drill. Platoon No. 1. 

THURSDAY, FEB. 22.— Platoon Drill. Platoon No. 
7. Ambulance Class by M.O.. C.30. 

FRIDAY, FEB. 23.— Technical for Platoon No. lu. 
Regency Street. Squad and Platoon Drill, No. ». 
Signalling Class. Recruits Drill, 6.25— i'.25. 

SATURDAY. FEB. 24.— N.C.O.'s Cl.lss 2.30, under 
(^. Cdr. Fleming. 

ENTRENCHING.— Suspended till further Orders. 

MUSKETRY.— For all Companies, see Notice at 

NOTIB— Unless otherwise indicated, all Drills, etc., 
will tjtko place at headquarters. 

TELEPHONE NU.MBER— The Telephone at Head- 
quarters is now iM.VYF.MR. 111'!!. 

By order, 
February 17. 1917. 

»•» < 

Mr. S. S. Gettings. of Tring, has been 
appointed surveyor under the Dorking Town 

On February 3, at 3 p.m.. the Bishop of 
.Stepney (iodic-iteil and unveile<l a stained glass 
window in St. Mary's church. Stoke Ncwing- 
ton. N., given to the memory of tho lato Mr. 
William Eve, by his sons and dnughtons. The 
window was designed by Miss Margarot Chil- 
ton, of Westbnry-upon-Trym. Bristol, and 
c-arried out by Messrs. Lowndes and Drury. of 
Parson's tlreen, S.W". 

At Wliite Chapel. Cleckheaton. u stained 
window ns to be provided by the parishioners 
as a memorial of tho vicar's two sons. Liouts. 
C S. Hyde and E. Hyde, both of wliom liavo 
been killed in tho war. Two otJicr windows 
are to be given by tJie families of Capt. 
Charles Hiret and Lieut. Lukt Mallin-son 
"Totlow. The [wrishionei-s are also to provide 
for tho building of a, ytovch, in which ie to be 
orixited a momoriaj tablet to all those from 
the parish wjio have fallen or may fall. 


One of the Largest Stocks in the kincdom ol 


Every Leading Section ^ in 
ranging from 24" x 7i" O P 
to S" X li". W g 


Compound Girdeps and Stanoheons Riveted Up \vith despatch 
from Stock Materials. 

Offices and Warehouses: STORE STREET, MANCHESTER. 

February 21, 1917. 

Volume CXII.-No. 3242. 



Effing-ham House, 

Currente CaLiino .. .. . . . ir>T 

Modern Architecturi- in India jjg 

A War-time Sculpture Exhibition 15!) 

Leaves from the Life of the Late W. H. Lyirn. 

"•"■'^ .. J59 

Highways and Byways jOO 

Our Illustrations . . 172 

Tramways Reorganisation 172 

Freezing of Water Mains and Servi i- .. .. 172 

Statues and Memorials 173 

The -irniouries of the Tower of London . . . . 173 

Parliamentary Notes .-. 174 

Professional and Trade SocietiiJs 174 



Legal Intelligeniv 

Trade Xotes 

Our OfBee Table .. 


To Correspondent- 

To Arms ! 

Competitions Open 

List of Tenders Ojien 


Latest Prices 


The Bridge, Manresa, Spain. (Royal Academy Win- 

Strand, 'W.C. 

ter E.xhibitiou of Graphic Art.) From an etching 
by Sir Ernest George, A.E..\. 

Jlodern Architecture in India. Mangla Head Regula- 
tor Dam. JJr. John Begg, F.E.I.B.A., Architect. 
The Hospital and Dispensary, Mussoorie (view 
and plan). Mr. Frank Lishman. F.R.I.B.A.. Archi- 
tect. Postmaster-General's Offices at Lucknow. 
Jlr. John Begg, F.R.I.B.A., Architect-in-Chief to 
the Government of India, .\rchitect. 

Public Washhouses for the Gorgie District of the 
City of Eainburgh at McLeod Street, Edinburgh. 
Plans, elevations, and sections. Mr. J. A. W'il- 
liamson, A.R.I.B.A., City Architect, Edinburgh. 

€nxxtntt (Ealamo. 

Dr. Addison told the House of Commons 
on Monday niglit tliat further limitations 
of licences to builders were inevitable, even 
for small amounts. As regards the ap- 
pointment of Sir Bampfyfde Fuller as 
Chief Controller- of Timber, recorded .m 
another page, it would appear, according 
to a statement made by Mr. Montague L. 
Meyer to a Daily Mail reporter, that " his 
position remains tlie sajiie." 

We are glad to see the Board of Trade is 
to. take control during the war of the caiiais 
and waterways of the United Kingdom. 
The curtailment of the railway service ren- 
dered necessary by the demand of the 
Army authorities for increased rolling 
stock, etc., has led to further pressure 
on the railway companies, and it is hoped 
to relieve this by utilising the canals. It 
is understood that an Executive Committee 
will be set up to regulate the vanous 
waterways. It will consist probably of 
representatives of the railway companies 
owning canals, and of the various ini- 
vately o\\'ned canals. One of the first 
duties of tliis Committee will be to consider 
the traffic rates on the canals. It is hoped 
by this means to facilitate the distributi.m 
' of food and the transport of munitions 
and raw material. We think that it will, 
although the action of railway companies 
in tlie past with reference to canals has 
not been such as to inspire much confi- 
dence in their representation on the pro- 
posed new Committee. If jjrompt action 
is meant, Mr. Neville Chamljerlam is the 
man for the job. 


We are reminded that M. Nenot, who is 
to receive the Royal Gold Medal', is the 
apostolic descendant of the famous coterie 
Messieurs Due, Labrouste, and Duban, 
who in 1830 determined to extend the his- 
toric tradition of building in , France. 
Another distinguished architect of the 
same school, M. Jean Louis Pascal, a few 
years ago received the same honour. As a 
young student of seventeen M. Nenot 
fought against the Germans in 1870. and 
received the French Military Medal. 
Seven years later he won the Grand Prix 
de Rome, and in 1895 he was elected a 
member of the French Institute. The care 

of the national palaces and civic buildings 
has been for some years in his charge. 
His most important work is the remodel- 
ling of the Sorbonne, originally built by 
Le Mercier in 1629. M. Nenot's scheme 
for the remodelling incorporated Le 
Mercier's Church of the Sorbonne as part 
of the plan arrangement. The chief 
feature of the new buildings is the Grand 
Amphitheatre, which is the most recent as 
well as the most complete development of 
the "D" i^lan for lecture theatres and 
halls of public assembly. M. Nenot is 
now sixty-four years of age, and his works 
are to be seen throughout France. It is 
one of the few consolations of the times, 
but a very cheering one, that we are able 
to associate his genius with the ties of 
friendship that bind the two countries in 
an alliance we all trust will prove 

The house famine in Birkenhead con- 
tinues to engage the serious attention not 
only of those concerned in the search for 
dwellings, but of the local health autho- 
rities. Its natural sequel is overcrowd- 
ing, with all that means in the way of 
insanitary conditions of life. A sinister 
connection between the local housing pro- 
blem and the death-rate is suggested by 
the Registrar-General's i-eturns for last 
week. Birkenhead is in the unenviable 
position of having a death-rate of 28 as 
compared with Liverpool's 23, and as com- 
l^ared with an average in the ninety-six 
great towns in England and Wales of 21.3 
per 1,000 of the estimated population. 

Contracts and contract notes are so com- 
mon in all building business that parties 
concerrued should be careful to see that 
tJiey both read and understand them 
before dealing. The recent case of " Roe 
V. R. A. Naylor, Limited," reported in 
our last issue, is a good example of the 
trouble that may arise if such care is not 
taken. The plaintiff had seen defendants' 
traveller with price list and had ordered 
some timber of him. Then, latei- on, he 
called and left a printed contract note, 
which plaintiff glanced at but did not 
read. On this note there was, in small 
^P'6, printed along the margin, so that it 
would have to be read sidewaj-s, '■ Goods 
sold subject to their being on hand and at 
liberty when the order reaches the liead 

office." Plaintifi swore that he never saw 
or read this note, and that it was not 
pointed jout to him. The defendants found 
they could not deliver two itejns of the 
goods as they had been sold elsewhere. 
Plaintiff sued them in the Wolverhamp- 
ton County Court for breach of contr-act, 
and got judgment there for £41 10s. as 
damages. The judge held that the defen- 
dants had not taken reasonable steps to 
call the plaintiff's attention to the small- 
type condition on the contract. But on 
the defendants' appeal to the High Court 
the legal points were fully gone into. It was 
there held that the whole contract must 
be read, and that there was no obligation 
on the seller to draw the buyer's attention 
to its conditions. In short, this Court 
put the onus the other way by holding 
that it was for the plaintiff to prove that 
he was misled by the sityle in which the 
note was printed. The condition itself 
was reasonable and not at all unusual, 
especially in these war times. So the case 
goes back to the County Court for the 
judge to decide whether, as a fact, the 
plaintiff, as a man of business, could be 
fairly said to have been misled by the 
way the note was printed. The practical 
point resulting is that the fiiist duty is 
upon the buyer to read the note upon 
which the sale is being made, and not 
that the seller is bound. to draw his atten- 
tion to any added and special condition. 

Reference- was made to the housing diffi- 
culty locally at the annual meeting of the 
BiiTuingham Incorporated Building 
Society, held at the Grand Hotel last 
week. The chairman staged that the past 
year had been a particularly trying one 
for bmilding societies, and it would be 
found that the majority had vei-y greatly 
re.stricted their advances, and had taken 
advantage of the high rates of inteiiest 
afforded by Government securities an,d 
corporation mortgages. That society 
could have followed that course and made 
more profit, but the directoi-s felt that tlie 
meulbei-s would prefer them to continue 
the proper functions of a building society, 
and tilius enable members to become their 
own landlords and to 23urchase properties 
for investment purposes. A noticeable 
feature of the year's operations was tlie 
unusually large number of advances made 
to members on houses for their own occu- 
pation ; for witli the dearth of houses and 


Tin: BlILDLXG NEWS : Xo. 3242. 

Feb. 21. 1917 

the growing number of would-be tenants 
many of their membei-s liad found tliat 
the only way to obtain a house to live in 
was to purchase it, as undeir the recently- 
passed Kents and Mortgages Act a land- 
lord was allowed to give a tenant notice 
when he required the house for his own 
occupation. We Have ourselves more than 
once drawn attention io this, and are con- 
Minced that house-building by small occu- 
piers will be found their best investment 
for some years to come, and will materi- 
ally increase work for buildei-s when peace 

As here at home, there seems to be con- 
siderable opinion m India tJiat more 
opportunities might be afford<'d to ))rivat<' 
enterprise in the erection of buildings. 
At the Tesumed sitting of the P.AV.D. 
Committee of Inquii-y <>n January 15 Mr. 
W. A. Chambers, F.R.I.B.A., architect 
and civil engineer, of Bonvbay, was 
examined. He expresses! his opinion tliat 
private enterprise was not sufficiently en- 
couraged at present, and it was desirable 
to entrust the construction of buildings 
to agencies other than departmental. The 
S3^t.em of competition should be fosteied 
among engineers or architects in regard 
to public ibuildings. Undei- tliat system 
private? enterprise would be encouraged. 
Technical education in India sliould, he 
t.liought, be broadened. He said tliat a 
number of young men in BonAay were 
establishing themselves as arcihitects. some 
of whom had been trained in Englaii<l 
and had become Associates of the Royal 
Instituto of British Architects. It was 
desirable that some of thos<- young moii, 
whose work was promising enough, should 
l)e sent on Government sciliolai-sliips tn 
undergo furthei- training in Euix>p<-. 
Jlr. G. T. Mawson, of Messi-s. Mai-sland 
Price and Co., said he thought tiliat the 
metlKxls at present adopted for tlie execu- 
tion of civil works were economical and 
suitable. Private ent.eijirise was generally 
encouraged, but more su])7X>iit could be 
itiven. His firm had, after .several attempts, 
failed to get a .suitable type of engineer 
f loin the graduates turned out of the Pooiia 
Engineering College, and hence they had 
to go in for European engineers from 
England to design and su|>crvise their 
works. The Hon. :\Ir. Pratt. Com 
missioner, Noi-thein Division. Bombay 
Presidency, thought it was desirable to 
suUstitute private for <]opartniental 
agency wherever ix>ssible, but he doiibfod 
wlietlier it could be done successfully it 
present, except in a few oases in large 
towns and citi«. 

allowed tlie chance of selling their pic- 
tures before they are turned adrift to 
seek another refuge — no easy thing to find 
even in normal times. 

It is rumoured tliat the galleries of the 
Royal Institute of Paintei-s in Wat<M 
Colours have been inspecte<l with a view 
to their being taken over l>y the Govern- 
ment. One liardly sees the need except 
to meet tdie remarkaible fondness of the 
various Departments for palatial pre- 
mises. As all arrangements have lieon 
made as usual for tlie forthcoming exlii- 
l>ition, and as paintea-s have suffered more 
than most fiom the war, and liave yet 
been self-sacrificing in their contri- 
butions for the benefit of war funds, 
it is to 'be hoped they will at least, be 

IheWar Savings Association in connec- 
tion with Waygood-Otis, Limited, founded 
on August 2, 1916, has already collect^ed 
for War Saving Certificates nearly 
.tl,000. With a view to encouraging the 
employees of the company to make an 
extra effort, tJie company promised to 
buy outright, last week, at least one 
thousand War Certificates -if applied for 
on or before February 16 and paying tlie shilling on eadi certificate. This 
offer met with a very encouraging 
response, and more than the thousand 
certificates were applied for. We con- 
gratulate the firm and the men. United 
effort of this sort is more i-eally patriotic 
than muoh advertisement. 

»e*— <- 



Tile jKuamount claim upon financial co- 
operation throughout the Empire for tlie 
winning of the war in Europe has corre- 
spondingly restricted national expenditure 
in India as well as elsewhere. Con- 
sequently, much of the overdue contribu- 
tions for building purposes under noi-mal 
conditions have not been forthcoming in 
India during the past year. The Works 
Dejiartment Official Report for 1915-16, 
published in Calcutta, just lately to hand, 
emphasises this state of affaire. The review 
opens with the remark that " So peaceful 
a subject as civil architecture is apt to 
afford dull reading in war time." The 
ollicial architwts of the several Depart- 
ments in India have experienced 
considerable difficulty in "carrying on" 
meanwhile. The architect-in-dliief to the 
(Jovirnment of India jiiefacos his general 
annual summary by expressing regret tliat 
he is unable to point nut any definite 
progress iis to the extent, spirit, or ino- 
Uiess of architectural design and building 
in its application to current needs in the 
Indian Empire as evinced by executoil 
works during the past twelve montlis. He 
I'onsiders that no case ^iresents distinction 
of an eminent quality, seeing that not one 
building has attained "a definit*- high- 
water mark." Nevertheless, Mr. John 
Begg is careful to qualify this proviso by 
adding that he does not mean to imply 
that .1 general progress lias not been niain- 
laincd. For all tliat. tliose who examine 
this report will find it difficult to an'ive 
■it anv other conclusion than tint tlie 
work illustrated, taken as a whole, pre- 
sents little continuity of aim bv failin<; 
to display in what special direction archi- 
t^xHural de-sign in India has of late been 
tendinc: When the war is over, new 
conditions and new problems will, no 
doubt, be opened up for enterprise and 
fresh developments, but for the present, 
to speak frankly, the current work here 
represented seems to be too casually con- 
ceived, and mostly germin.nting towards 
a restless mediocrity. Some notable 
exceptions mav readily be admitted, as in 
the case of the lyianjla Head Rosiilator 
Dam. with which Mr. John Begg was 
architecturally associated. We give a 
photographic view of it to-day, -iccom- 
panie<l by his remarks upon this under- 
taking, which ranks amonc the larcer 
nrojocts of the Irrigation Branch of the 
Public Works Department of the 

The Presidency of Bombay comprises 
most of the more important departmental 
public buildings carried out during the 
year. These are tlie new Port Trust Offices 
at Karachi and tlie new Science College 
built in Bombaj-. Tlie Port offices furnish 
only an instalment of a much larger 
scheme, winch includes the long-wanted 
Custom House. Both are stone buildings, 
and eacli of them was designed bv Mr. G. 
Wittet, F.R.I.B.A. They are "detailed 
" with all the serious intent and tliorough- 
ness which the material suggests." Illus- 
trations appear in the report, so it is 
possible to form some opinion upon their 
evident merits. A similar job in point of 
scale is the same architect's Collector's 
Kacheri, Nawabshah, which is described 
by Mr. Begg as " aiming at strengtli and 
massiveness, " the official recorder adding: 
" One trusts that the appearance in these 
respects is not belied by the construction." 
Tliere can be no question alwut tJie solid- 
looking character of the work, which is a 
big structure largely handled. The facade 
is set out in four main pavilions, with 
porticos of Roman severity in style built 
in a barren, sandy district of Sind, for 
which locality it appeai-s admirabl}' appro- 
priate. The plan consists of a cential 
Dubar Hall with offices disposed in flank- 
ing parallel wings carried out in local 
bricks with dressed stone sparingly em- 

Mr. B<^g, continuing, remarks in liis 
preface tliat " more ha.rm tJian good may 
U» done in tlie cause of architectural pro- 
gress by an undue pushing upwards of the 
standaj-d of design and building " ; and 
again we ai-e reminded that " the zeal of 
tlie architect for his craft may, and some- 
times does, outrun the discretion of his 
committee or other controlling autliority, 
to the detriment of progress in the long 
run." Mr. Begg then mentions witJi ap- 
proval the Massoorie Hospital, herewith 
illustrate*!, as an example that certainly 
does not err in this respect,, for, as he saj's. 
'■ it is a very clever bit of design, eloquent 
of its suitability to its position,'" For 
this reaa>n we have selected the subject 
among our choice for illustration, and 
with the view we include its plan. 

The Lady Hardinge Medical College at 
Delhi, of which photographs and plans 
appear in the repoiH, is remarkable for 
many points of well-considered de^, 
consistency of design, and good sound 
qualities which go far to make the build- 
ings clever and original. They certainly 
may be di'Scribed ,as well adapted to India. 
Mr". John Begg, F.R.I.B.A.. is the ai-chi- 
t^x-t His im|X)sing block of offices for the 
Postmaster-General at Lucknow belong to 
a different class of buildings, as will l*' 
evident from our illustration of the main 
front ; and. of course, its pui-poses obri- 
ously give it a moniunental character. In 
the general sunoy of the year's work theiv 
are no particulai-s beyond the sparee refer- 
ence to the completion of the work, also 
that some dei]iartures were made from his 
design in mattoi-s of detail in the principal 
elevation, which detract from its effect 
and caused the architoct some i-egret. 
though on the whole his intentions were 
well realised. The cost was Rs.2. 000.000. 
The i-eason given may account for the 
rather lumpy effect of the set-off between 
the tower and its turret stage bisecting a 
.s''<yline. and which would have gaine<ii by 
being treate<l rather as one composition 
dominating the contour ol the whole 

The other consulting aivhitects furnish- 
ing supplementary contributions to the- 
report are represented by many illu.stra- 
t ions of their individual works. We have 
already named some of Mr. G. Wittet's 
chief designs. Mr. A. Crouoli. F.R.I.B.A., 
of Bengal; Mr. Frank Lishman^ 

Feb. 21, 1917. 



F.R.I.B.A., of Agra ; Mr. Joseph F. Muu- 
mngs, F.R.I.B.A., of Bibaa- i'residency : 
and Mr. Basil M. Sullivan, A.R.I.B.A., 
of Punjab. Mr. Ci-oucli was associated 
with Mr. Jolm Begg in the Arts Building 
and Hostel at Jubbulpore, where they also 
biult the Anglican church. All Saints' 
Lhurch, Lucknow, and St. Peter's Churoh, 
at the same place, were designed by Mr. 
Begg with some success. Mr. Sullivan 
shares the honours with Mr. Begg for the 
\eterinai-y College, Lahore. The School 
of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta, and the 
general bungalow quarters for the Govern- 
ment officials at Dacca are entirely the 
work of Mr. Crouch, who likewise canied 
out the Decca CoUege dining hall Mr 
\\ittet's Kirachi Port Trast building, 
already incidentally mentioned above is 
set out on a segmental flat curve on plan 
and the facade is relieved by a cupola of 
pleasing proportions in the centl^e above 
the frontispiece, which dignifies the main 
entrance without umlue ostentation. 

The Mangla Head Regulator Dam was 
opened by the Viceroy in Decembel-, and 
Jias been finished some little time. Mr 
John Begg tells us he is only partly satis- 
fied with the result from an architectural 
point uf view. Had he been enabled to 
siiare the counsels of the engineers earlier 
m the more initial stage of the project, he 
might have done niore. For instance, he 
should have preferred to use fewer and 
larger vents for the sake of scale of the 
whole edifice, and it appeai-s that this 
happens to have been a detail which might 
have been met without prejudice to the 
engineering aspects of the problem. The 
work had, iKjwever, proceeded too far be- 
fore the consulting architect was called m 
to advise ; consequently Mr. Begg was thus 
prevented from opening up the question. 
. The lower part of this regulating dam, 
with the curved lines of the buttresses 
between the vents, looks vei-y well. The 
upper part is not so happy, and would 
liave looked better, he thinks, had it been 
treated in a bolder and simpler manner, 
all vertical lines perhaps being eliminated, 
and strong horizontal features introduced 
in contradistinction to the bottom forma- 
tion of the building. The whole structure, 
however, is reported on as a fine, massive 
bit of masonry, in spite of the compara- 
tive smallness of the stones of which it is 

The Hospital and Dispensary at Mus- 
soone IS set on a rock, and has the advan- 
tage of an open, elevated, and picturesque 
site. Mr. Frank Lishman, F.R.I.B.A. 
consulting architect for the United Pro- 
vinces of Agra and Oudh, is to be con- 
gratulated on this work, wMch has been 
alluded to alieady in this notice. The plan 
shows its arrangements. The undertaking 
cost, including outhouses and assistants' 
quarters, about Rs. 59,000. The expense of 
the retaining walls amounted to a heavy 
item of Rs.15,500. The laying out of the 
footpaths and ten-aces, witli their steps 
for the approaches, apjjear on the accom- 
panying plan. The Dispensary for females 
is located at a lower level. The lay-out of 
the hospital is exceedingly simple, not- 
withstanding its V-shaped outline. All 
the contrivance is so clearly shown in our 
illustration that further description is not 
required. Among other works by Mr. 
Lishman mentioned in the report is the 
Judge's Court, Bulandshahr, which has 
been postponed waiting for the necessary 
allotment of funds, hut the contract plans 
and estimates are ready, the contemplated 
outlay being stated at Rs. 2. 17. 860. The 
High Court, Allahabad, is nearing com- 
pletion, so much as Rs. 13.09.000 having 
been spent up to the end of the previous 
financial year, ending March, 1916. The 

the architecfs designs, at a cost of 
Rs.9.500. The new courts at Cawnpore 
are soon to be built, the estimate beinc 
for Rs.11.61.950. Another building by 
Mr. Lisliman is the combined office of the 
salutary engineer and the consultin.' 
architect at Allahabad, which has been in 
occupation for about twelve months. The 
chief building cost Rs.81.395, or Rs.8.1.9 
per foot super, and Rs.0.3.8 1-6 per cubic 
foot, as set out in the report. The out- 
liuildings cost Rs. 2.723. The stone em- 
ployed came from Mirzapur, the external 
walls otherwise being finished with 
Kutni plaster. The roofs and floors are of 
"Kleme" hollow hrick. The architec- 
tural treatment of this homely-looking 
building IS broadly handled in an Italian 
Renaissance type of deisign, with simple 
lines and semicircular arches to the porch 
and verandahs to the lower stage, with 
columns dividing off the flanking openings 
to each bay, similar shafts being repeated 
above under the crowning coniice. Judo-- 
ing by the photograph, it makes a suitabfe 
and practical job, in conformity with 
climatic conditions, \vithout being unin- 
teresting, tliough rigidly plain. Many 
more pretentious Indian modern buildings 
never rise above the commonplace. Then- 
cost bears little relation to their paucity 
in that respect. 

The Allahabad LTniversity Library is 
conceived in an ornate manner after the 
Hindoo style, and may be said to be a 
well-balanced performance on regulation 
lines ; but clever as it may be as an adap- 
tation, the result is not distinctive or 
what is called "up to date." Col. Sir 
Swinton Jacob, K.CJ.E.. was the archi- 
tect. The -syork cost Rs.2.44.024, and its 
execution has been supei-vised by Rai 
Bahadur Haiu Kishen Pant, executive 
engineer. The Post Office, Patna, has a 
fresher touch about it, is more free on 
broader principles, though European in 
idea — a plain building by Mr. J. F. Illun- 
nings, A.R.I.B.A., whose work shows 
promise, as in his types C and D for the 
bungalows he has erected at Patna. This 
report is well got up on good paper, but 
the photographs in all cases are not uni- 
formly good, some being dull and lacking 
in light and shade. The publication is 
produced by the superintendent of the 
Government Printing Works at Calcutta. 

small aigosy with an undue amount of rud- 
der. This, however, is not so, because the 
sharp-edged knees and square-formed loms 
sink, as it were, by accident, into a robust 
rooster, with a hen whose head is buried in 
her breast, with her feet extending behind 
the boat-hke form and shaped like tliose of a 
duck in the act of swhnming. Hence our 
original mistake. We fail to follow the ar- 
tist's conception, but the details, as well as 
thj whole composition, baffle us. The design 
is not even Assyrian in austeritv, while its sex 
is clearly marked, as in the Oscar Wilde tomb* 
set up in the cemetery Pere La Chaise five 
years ago, hut which the authorities subse- 
quently covered up. 

The best piece of work shown at Leicester 
Square is perhaps the bronze bust of Meum 
Lindsell-Stewart, No. 26; but the same sub- 
ject with the tousled hair in plaster, No. 11, 
differs very much in facial form, and we can 
but presume that the bronze is a better por- 
trait, though the other work is direct and 
naive in its handling. Lieut. Muirhead Bone 
(24) suffers much at the hand of the modeller. 
■' The Tm Hat," No. 7, shows a weary, 
strong man's head boldly treated in a 
powerful way, and east in bronze, 
evidently the weird face "back from the 
trenches" is crushed by the basin-shaped 
helmet, and this is done intentionally with no 
sense of humour. The bust of Lord Fisher 
next to the last is perhaps worthy of being 
called a portrait, but the exnression of the 
veteran War Lord, with the flat daub of hair 
brushed over the scalp, is not inspiring, but 
so charactered as to become a caricature. 

> ^ »» r 

> ^* i» < 


The collection of Mr. Jacob Epstein's latest 
works now on view in the Leicester Galleries 
occupies the smaller room, which is draped 
in white, so that no colour shall militate or 
by any chance detract from the busts and 
figures arranged for study, though an element 
of uncertainty, apart from the character of 
the exhibits, is suggested by the note that 
the catalogue refigured in ink is under revi- 
sion. Thus a plaster head of Mr. W. H. 
Davies, supposed to be in bronze, remains in 
plaster, the ultimate work not having arrived. 
No. 23. — The granite colossus, called '' Mother 
and Child." is in embryo, so that before being 
informed it is easy to mistake the parent for 
the offspring. The whole thing, however, 
is marked "unfinished," but at present it 
would seem that the weakling facing the rock, 
in form like some wild South Sea god, is 
emerging from the mass of bolstered stone 
designated a.s "carving." The sole references 
to the war is a plaster sketch for a monument 
(No. 12], with French Zouaves scrambling 
along laden with their kit in front of a 
tenantless pedestal with which they seem in 
no way connected, while that part "of the de- 
sign is disorderly and incomplete. 

The chef-d'ceuvre of Mr. Epstein's winter 
show is No. 15. a nine-foot high white marble 
effigy, labelled "Venus," regardless of ana- 
tomy and devoid of beauty, though varied in 

Chinese cabinet-makers or joiners, from I and then a faceless form emerging from a, 

W. H. LYNN, R.H.A. 
Sir Aston Weibb contributes a very hi- 
terestmg paper to the R.I.B.A. Journal under 
the above title founded on " a simple scrap 
albimi lately presented to the Institute 
Librai-y containing veritable scraps of 
illustrations and cuttings from the professional 
papers, photographs of executed buddings, 
letters and sketolies all unmounted and with- 
out an-angeraent, and yet full of interest for 
architects who care to trace tlie career of an 
architect of genius as indicated in tliese 

_ " W. H. Lynn," continues Sir Aston Webb, 
" was probably little known personally to 
this generation, hut he left his mark on the 
architecture of his time. He was the greatest 
Irish ardiitect of his century, and was not 
only an architect of distinction but a man of 
character and a notable citizen of Belfast, a 
city 'which was justly proud of him and one 
which we are told 'he ' seldom left except 
in obedience to professional duties.' " 

"Lynn was one of the finest architectural 
draughtsmen of his day, but he used his gift 
mainly in so far as 'it helped him in his 
work, either in making strong pencil notes of 
old buildings that appealed to him, or in 
representing faithfully the probable effect of 
buildings he was designing. 

Lynn was for some years a frequent 
attendant at the annual excursions of the 
Architectural Association, and he and F. C. 
Penrose were amongst the most indefatigable 
of the sketchers. Some of his drawings will 
be found in this album, notably the East end 
of St. Michael's, Coventry, a fine specimen of 
his uncompromising draughtsmanship. Others 
are the Vicar's Close, Wells ; Woollas Hall 
and Huddington Court, Worcestershire, the 
two latter made during the 1881 excursion, 
when, as President of the Architectural 
Association, I had the pleasure to lead through 
the comity as enthusiastic a party of students 
as could he found. I have a photograph 
group of them before me now sho-wing Lynn 
and Penrose just as hoys amongst boys, and 
none more keen or alert than they. On the 
last evening of the excursion it was usual to 
have a little show of the di-awings made 
during the week, when those of Lynn and 
Penrose were amongst the principal attrac- 
tions, though there were many other fine 
sketchers in the party. 

Lynn was also a good sketcher in water- 
colours, but the album contains no specimen, 
as he probably laid less store far his purpose 
on this method of delineation. Peoiirose's 

Se« BcitDiNG News, May 31, 1912, for photograph. 


Tlir. ]U:iLDIX(. NEWS: Xo. 3242. 

1-KB, 21. 1917. 

sl^etchcs, on the other 'hand, were mainly 
waslied drawings. 

He was a great planner, and in his hands 
the intricate 'buildings became sjininet- 
rical and dignilied, easily ujidurstood by those 
who nsed them. Alfre<l Waterliouse, himself 
...a. great planner, once told me that there was 
nothing ho would better like to do than to 
sit behind Lynn and look over Jiis shoulder 
while ho pinned an antiquarian sheet to his 
board an<l laid oat a large plan. Perhaps one 
of hi.s finest plans was- that for the new 
Pai'liainent House at Sy<lney, a Gothic design 
with a vei-y fine symmetrical lay-out. TJiis 
design was selected in oi)en competition, but 
never executed. Another very fine conception 
was his third premiated design of the Glasgow 
Municipal Buildings, though I beUeve he him- 
self preferred hi.s Clarke Hall, Paisley, which 
he won in competition ;uid carried out. He 
also won 'in competition and erected Town 
Halls at Chester and Barrow-in-Furness, both 
illustrated in the album. 

The album contains a fev.' illustrations from 
the many buildings he designed during his 
extensive private practice, which was of a 
.singularly varied character. He de.signed 
some seventeen clmrche.s, mostly in Ireland, 
the Chateau at Quebec for ].,ord Dufferin, then 
Governor-General of Canada, the Campbell 
College, Belfast, together with many banks 
and other commercial buildings, and also 
many largj houses. 

Lynn, although inciipable of seeking 
luiiiours, appreciated them when they came to 
him, as is shown by his preservation of the 
notification of his election as Associate of the 
P.oyal Hibernian Academy, 1855, and as Full 
Member, 1872 ; as President of ithe Royal In- 
stitute of Architects of Ireland, 1885, and also 
the .award to him of a Gold Medal at the Paris 
Exhibition of 1867 for his drawing of the 
Parliament Houses and Guvernmont Offices 
for 'Sydney. 

Another interesting document preseirved in 
the album is the following account: " W. H. 
Lynn to the Commissioners of Public Works. 
Til salary for attendance as Clerk of Works 
at {Jueen's College, Belfast, from August to 
October, 1847, nine weeks at £3 a week." 
The young man of fc^venty acting as Clerk 
of Works at Queen's College,, made 
many of the drawings for this building, in- 
cluding an elevation of the West front, and 
linally became partner with the architect of 
the building, Sir Charles Lanyon, to whom 
he had been articled. 

It may Im asked " And is this album all the 
record of a great architect's work?" The 
answer, of course, is " C-ertainly not." The 
record of a.n architect's work is to l>e found 
in his buildings, bo they many or few, large 
or small. His drawings are a means to an 
end and not the end itself. Lynn's buildings 
are the record of a life which ,as far as I know 
was, apart from bis work, singularly un- 
eventful. He was never maiTied ; he was a 
strong man and a true artist, firm of purpose, 
brooking no interference with bis work, 
sbunning publicity, and sincere and modest to 
a degrie — such Was the man of w-liom I have 
ventiired to ))on these few unworthy lines at 
the particular request of a mutual friend." 
Aston WEiin, R.A. 


The survovor has iiifornioil tlio Merthyr Cor- 
noiiition Public Works ( '.inunilleo that a start 
hua been made in the demolishing of the old 
St. David's Schools, High Street, on the site of 
whioh will be erected new corjKii-ation offices 
a.n<l a public library. 

The Municipal Council of Vienna decided 
at its last sitting-, says a. Borne message, to 
collect all the romaininR church l)ells in the 
Austrian capital and to hand them over to the 
military authorities for niilitnry purposes. The 
number of bells -thus collected is seventeen, 
with a total weight of about five ions. 

Seoond-Lieutonant Leon Alfred _ O'Moura, 
East Lancashire Regiment (killed in action), 
was the only survivine cliild of Major W. 
O'Mea.ra, bite Royal KiiRini'er.s. barrister-nt- 
law of the Inner Temple, and of Mrs. 0'Meni:i. 
Liimtennnt O'Meara was educated at Cord- 
walles (Maideid)ead), Rugby, and St. Ed- 
ward's. Oxford. Ho had intended .studying en- 
^fineering at Caimbridge. and was entertnl at, 
Pembroke Collcfrc. In Junuuvy. 1916, wlnii 
only I85 years of age, he enlisted under tlic 
Derby scheme, and served in the Artists* Rifb>s 
and the Cadet Battalion. Last August he was 
gazetted to the East Laucashires. 

By Lawrekce \V. Chubb, 
Secretary to the Commons and Footpaths 
Preservation Society. 
.\ jjublic highway may be defined as a strip 
of land over which every subject of the King 
is lawfully entitled to pass. The extent ol 
his rights is another matter. If he is merely 
entitled to passage on foot, the way is a high- 
way for foot-passengors only ; if he is entitled 
to ride a horse over a tracJ<, the way is a 
bridle-path or horseway, and a footpath as 
well. If carriages may lawfully be driven by 
the public over the way, it is a carriage road, 
and also a bridle-path and footpath. 

The i^ublic right is confined to an easement 

of passage; it does not embrace the ownershij) 

of tlio soil, which, in most instances, remains 

vested in the adjoining owner or owners by 

whom, in no:-mal cases, is owned the freehold 

to the centre of the metalled poition of the 

carriage-way. That is why the timber 

growing on the open wastes at the sides of 

roads belongs to the adjoining owners. So 

jealously do the Courts preserve the land- 

owiuer's interests that it has been held that a 

man is not entitled to walk backwards and 

forwai'ds along a public path over a Yorkshire 

moor in such a 'way as Ui interfere with a 

grouse drive (Harrison v. Duke of Rutland 

(1893j. 1 Q.B. 142J. In delivering judgment 

in this case, Lord Justice Lopes enunciated 

the legal principle involved. He said : "If 

a person uses tlie soil of the highway for any 

purposes other than that in respect of which 

the dedication was made and the easement 

accjuired, he is a trespasser. The easement 

iK-ipiired by the public is a right to pass and 

repass at their pleasure for the purpose of 

legitimate travel, and the use of the soil for 

any other purpose, whether lawful or uidaw- 

ful, is an infringement of the rights of the 

owner of the soil, who has, subject to this 

easement, precisely tlie same estate in the 

soil as he had previously to any easement 

being acquired by the public." In another 

case (Hickman v. Maisey (1900), 1 Q.B. 752) 

the defendajit was held to be a trespasser 

because he walked backwards and forwards 

along a jniblic carriage road in order to 

observe the fonn of horses under training on 

adjacent downland. In this case, 'however, 

Loixi .luslioe Smith held out a crumb of 

comfort to the weary wayfarer, for he said : 

"If a man while using a fiighway for passage 

sat down for a time to rest himself by the side 

uf the road, to call that a trespass would be 

unreasonable. Similarly, if a man took a 

sketch from tlie highway 1 should say that 

no reasonable person would treat that as an 

act of trespass.'' Ill another dispute (Ficlden 

V. Cox (1906), 22 T.L.R. 411) the Court de- 

cline<l to grant an injunction to restrain 

])ersons from trespassing on a highway by 

using it for tlie puqjose of catcliing motbs by 

moans of lamps and other appliances, on the 

ground that Uie ta-espasses were merely 


Xevertheless, the strict legal view is Uiat a 
pedestrian is not entitled in a general right 
to stray over land not dedicaletl to the public 
use anil enjoyment, although that land is un- 
enclosed common or ojien down ; and so accus- 
tKim-d iiro we t<i speak with ])rido of ivn 
Knglishmau's rights that it comes almost as 
a shock when we first realise that bis most 
comprehensive right— a right of way— is con- 
fined within exceedingly narrow limits, and 
thai it is ix>ssible that a man may be a tres- 
jjasscr Mpon a public highway. 

Having thus considered the nature of a 
public highway, it becomes necessary to make 
some dnquirv "into the origin and history of 
such ways." Theoretically, every highway 
must have originated cither by the operation 
of an Act of Parliament or by dedication — or presumed^iy some owner of the 
land over which it passes. Altliough. as we 
shall see, a number of carriage roads and 
fewer footpaths have been created by statutory 
authority, the vast majority are deemed to 
have come into existence by means of de- 
dication. "Dedication" is the expression 
used to describe a convenient legal fiction 
devised t<i account for the existence of a 
public interest in highw'sys. 

* From a paper read at a 
c Society of Arte, February 14. 

meeting of tlie Bojal 

When it is remembered that the antiquity 
of highways in general cannot be gainsairt, 
the doctrine of presumed dedication, and all 
that it involves, appears to the la^ mind to 
bo not far removed from the ridiculous. Some 
deeply-scored by-roads in use to-day probably 
existed as foot-|>athB and pack-ways in tlie 
time of the early Britons for the conveyance 
of tin and furs in pre-Roraan days. Yet each 
of tbem is deemed to have originated in 

Tho main Roman roads certainly extended 
for an aggregate distance of 2,500 miles, and 
.some scholars of repute believe tliat their 
total length in Britain amounted, with their 
connections, to over 4,500 miles. When it is 
remembered that the Hint, gravel, and other 
material required for the high causeways on 
which the roiids were formed sometimes had 
to be carried for great distances, it is possible 
to realise something of the marvellous 
achievement of tlie Romans. 

With the im]x>sition of the rule of t^ie 
Norman and the organisation of the manor 
as a unit of local government, tlie main- 
tenance of the King's highway was imposed 
as a theoretical duty upon the lord of the 
manor and hia tenants subject to the adjust- 
ment and control of the Court Leet. Wheeled 
traffic was almost unknown, save for the 
rough carts utilised to carry home the crops, 
■and the customary highways were for 
centuries almost exclusively traversed by 
pedestrians and horsemen. Until the dawn 
of the nineteenth century the principal part 
of the corn in remote districts was conveyed 
to market by pacJi-horses, altliough in some 
places common carriei's were prepared even in 
the fourteenth <-entury to convey grain by 
cart at the rate of oiie penny per ton per 

The Statute of Winchester, passed in 1285. 
was the first Act of Parliament which pur- 
ported to deal with roads. It did not go far. 
for it merely ordered that " highways leading 
from one market town to anotlier shall be eii- 
larged where as bushes, woods, or dykes be. 
.so that there be neither dyke nor bush where- 
by a man niav lurk to do hurt within 200 ft. 
of the one side and 200 ft. of the other side 
of the way." Xo attempt at actual main- 
tenance of tlie surface of the liighway was 
made, or was considered necessary, until the 
growth of vehicular traffic rendered re- 
pair an imjierative necessity. If the way be- 
came foundixius or impassable, the traveller 
might deviate upon the adjoiniiig land, even 
if cultivated, for the judges defided that it 
was "the good passage" that constituted 
the highway and not merely "the beaten 
track." Wiiere the Und on either side of a 
public way remains unenclosed this rule still 
obtains, and if fences are erected to separate 
the highway from the adjoining lamd the 
burden of repair, prim;* facie, still falls on 
the adjoining occupier, as long as his fences 
debar the jniblic from their common law 
right of deviation. 

It was not until 1555 tliat anoUier High- . 
ways Act was passed (The Mending of High- 
ways Act, 2 and 3 Philip and Mary, cap. 8|. 
and this once and for all cast upon the 
inhabitiints the obligation to maintain the 
highways in their parish. Surveyors of liigh- 
ways were ordered to be appointed by the 
parishioners, and were authorised and re- 
<piiiy;d to direct the- performance of statute 
labour uiwn the roads. This was a form of 
>Jational Service which no man might law- 
fiillv evade, but which imiKised a burden 
from which all endeavoured to screen them- 
selves. NevertheJess, loads became more 
neglected than ever, and were monopolised 
bv large dixives of cattle, sheep and pigs ; even 
flocks of geese slowly tramped their way along 
the muddy ways from Norfolk to t'he markets 
of London. Manv new highways, too, came 
into existence with the passage of thousands 
of Acts authorising the inclosure of commons. 
The awards made in pursuance of the Acts 
directed the setting out of convenient ways. 
but the question of rojwir i-emained unsolved. 
Turnpike trusts were therefore devised to 
remedv the deplorable state of neglect into 
which"the King's highway had fallen. Certain , 
individuals, with a view to the repair of| 
l«irticular roads, subscribed among them-| 
selves for that piuTiose, and erected gat 

Feb. 21, 1917. 



upon the roads, taking tolls from those who 
passed through them. 

The first scheme of this kind received the 
consent o£ Parliament in 1663, and dealt with 
ways in Herts, Cambs, and Hajits. It was not, 
however, until 1706 that tlie first Turnpike 
Act profier was passed. This proved so 
successful that, altogether, over 1,100 turn- 
pike trusts were creat-ed in England and 
Wales, having under their control 23,000 
miles of road and enjoying and spending a 
gross annual revenue of £1,500.000. Each 
trust was empowered to construct and main- 
tain a specified piece of road and to levy tolls 
for a limited period, usually twenty -one years. 
The powers were renewed from time to time, 
and Parliament further permitted the Sur- 
veyor of Turnpike Trusts to require the per- 
formance on the roads under his charge of the 
unpopular and personal obligation of Statute 
Duty and Team Labour first sanctioned in 

The friction caused by the erection of tum- 
p kes and the imposition of tolls led to much 
diiorder, "and culminated in the notorious 
Rebi^cca. Riots in South Wales? In the mean- 
time, general Acts were passed authorising 
the punishment by whipping and, in 1734, 
even by death of offenders who destroyed 
i;ates or toll-houses; but the state of friction 
continued until Parliament adopted a recom- 
mendation of a Select Committee of the House 
of Commons made in 1854, and finally declined 
tu renew Turnpike Continuance Bills. The 
Highways and Locomotives Act, 1878, pro- 
vided that such roads should become main 
roads, the expense of repair being jointly de- 
fraj'ed by quarter sessions and by grants from 
the Consolidated Funds. These roads are now 
under the care of the county cou'ncils. 

It is greatly to be regretted that, by an 
obvious oversight. Parliament, when abolish- 
ing turnpike trusts, did not take steps to 
■ensure that their records should be handed 
over to quarter sessions. It was enacted that 
the special powers of the trusts to abate en- 
croachments should he continued ; but the 
plans and records of the trusts, which were 
essential to prove the existence of such en- 
croachments, remained with private in- 
dividuals to whom they were useless. .Such 
records have a definite historic value, and 
should be in the keeping of the count)' authori- 
ties. They throw much light upon economic 
problems of the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries, and are of considerable public in- 
terest and utility. County councils should 
therefore be empowered to acquire these re- 
cords, on the ground that they concern all 
the main highways in the country, many of 
which have been public roads since their con- 
struction by the Romans. 

Few of us, perhaps, realise the vast ex- 
penditure entailed in the upkeep of public 
roads in England and Wales. For the last 
normal year before the war it amounted to 
over ten and a-half million pounds — a sum 
which considerably exceeds the total revenue 
■of Denmark. The burden of repair is increas- 
ing rapidly. Since 1907 it has grown hy llj 
per cent. The total length of roads repaired 
\)y local authorities already amounts to not 
less than 151,112 miles, and if, and when, the 
recently projwsed schemes of arterial road con- 
struction materialise, to meet the growing 
needs of speedy motor traffic, it is clear that 
the State will have to bear a consideiable 
share of the financial burden. 

It is now necessary to invite you to con- 
sider what is perhaps the most important and 
interesting aspect of the subject — the protec- 
t'on of public rights of way from obstruction. 
We have seen that once a highway has been 
■dedicated to the public it can only be lawfully 
closed by Act of Parliament or justices' order. 
To obstruct it ty any other means is unlaw- 
ful, for the obsti-uction of a public way is a 
nuisance. We are all familiar with the 
maxim, " Once a highway always a highway," 
which is based on a decision that no length 
of time can legalise a public nuisance (Rex v. 
Cross, 3 Camp. 227). 

Theoretically, therefore, a highway of any 
kind once created can never be lawfully 
closed by the irregular action of any indivi- 
dual. This principle has held good for genera- 
tions, 'but prior to the reform of local govern- 
ment effected by the Local Government Acts 
1888 and 1894, the burden of protecting rights 

of way was not obligatory upon a local 
authority, 'but mainly depended upon the 
voluntary efforts of the village Hampden. 
The power of the cumulative vote enabled 
one or two owners to disregard the needs and 
wishes of the inhabitants of an entire parish 
in vestry assembled. 

For many years the Commons and Foot- 
paths Preservation Society had found it neces- 
sary to include in its programme the work of 
preserving public rights of way, and the 
National Footpath Preservation Society, 
formed in 1884 by tlie late Mr. Henry Alhiutt, 
also did much u.seful work. 

In 1899 the National Footpaths Preserva- 
tion .Society was amalgamated with the 
Commons Preservation Society, and the work 
has so grown that, during the last twenty 
years, nearly 10,000 cases of obstruction of 
public roads, bridle-ways, and footpaths have 
been dealt with by the society. Relatively 
few of these cases have concerned public car- 
riage roads. These highways are generally 
repaired at the public expense and, when that 
has happened, no question can arise as to the 
existence of a right of way. Only a small 
minority of footpaths, however, are repaired 
by the public, and disputes with regard to 
them are of frequent occurrence. 

It is, therefore, fortunate that local authori- 
ties have far-reaching powers which, if wisely 
and fearlessly employed, render difficult, if 
not impossible, unlawful attempts to obstruct 
rights of way. The reasons for their inac- 
tivity are manifold. Sometimes they fear a 
lawsuit with its attendant ex-pense, trouble, 
and uncertainty ; or they may be composed of 
persons who have no sympathy with the 
public point of view. Again, - in an even 
greater number of cases, they may be in- 
fluenced by the fact that many of their mem- 
bers work for, or are tenants of, the land- 
owner who is endeavouring to shut up a 
public path. 

When a right of passage over a path which 
has hitherto been open is challenged, the first 
step which must be taken is to ascertain and 
marshal the facts both for and against the 
popular claim. A puhlic path has certain 
definite characteristics. As a rule, it is pro- 
vided with stiles, wicket, or other gates and 
footbridges ; it is often a. short cut, and it 
must be a thoroughfare leading from and to a 
place where the public has a right to he. 
Above aD, it is desirable to be able to prove 
that the path has, in fact, been used for a 
long time as a public way by all who have 
desired to traverse it. Records, such as tithe 
or inclosure awards, sale plans, or ancient 
maps may be available to prove the antiquity 
of the way, although in view of recent de- 
cisions many maps are not admissible as 
evidence unless the surveyor by whom they 
were made can be produced to prove them. 

Unfortunately, up to the present. Parlia- 
ment has prescribed no fixed period of years 
of user for establishing a public as distin- 
guished from a private right of way. The 
period varies in accordance with the views of 
particular judges, and with all the circum- 
stances in connection with the formation, 
location, and history of the path. In one 
metropolitan case (North London Railway 
Company v. Islington Vestry (1872), Q.B. 37, 
J.P. 341), the brief period of eighteen months' 
user was deemed to 'be sufficient to support 
the presumption of dedication. In others, as 
we shall see, evidence stretching back as far 
as the oldest men can recollect has been held 
to be inadequate. It is, therefore, desirable 
to aim at securing evidence of forty or, if 
possible, of sixty years' duration. 

Assuming that inquiry has proved satisfac- 
tory upon these points, and that no adverse 
evidence has come to light, it is fairly safe to 
conclude that the path in question is, prime, 
facie, a public right of way. But it must 
not be forgotten that, in the case of most ways 
which have been challenged, evidence of some 
sort is also available on the owner's side, and 
it is of extreme importance that this also 
should be ascertained. 

The public should be on their guard against 
the unauthorised diversion of rights of way. 
It sometimes happens that diversions are 
effected without a magistrate's certificate. 
The new path is quite as convenient as the 
old, and no objection is raised to the change. 
But disputes have been decided against the 

public largely on this point, for it is argued 
that, since everyone is expected to know that 
certain elaborate formalities must be complied 
with before the line of a public path may be 
lawfully changed, acquiescence in an irregu- 
lar diversion may be taken to indicate that the 
path was not a reputed public way. 

It is not always safe for members of the 
public to take the law into their own hands 
by removing obstructions. In any event, it is 
imperative that they should be certain that 
the obstructed path is a public way, and that 
they should do no more damage than is 
actually necessary to ■ secure reasonable 

The oaging in of Stonehenge by means of a 
ibarbed wire fence and the charge of one shil- 
ling admission to the enclosure aroused violent 
opposition, for this famous circle of stones is 
recognised as the most imposing and interest- 
ing of all the prehistoric remains in England. 
For hundreds, if not for thousands, of years 
this early cathedral of the British race had 
been approached by deeply scored roadways 
which cross the Wiltshire Downs for long 
distances. It was alleged that the stones were 
suffering damage ; but the Society pointed out 
that if that were the case it was open to the 
owner, while retaining all his proprietary in- 
terests in the monument, to' constitute the 
Office of Works guardians of Stonehenge under 
the Ancient Monuments Act, and they -ivould 
thereupon fee bound to protect the remains. 

It offered to raise £10,000 in order to pur- 
chase the owner's rights and to protect the 
stones without enclosure. This offer was 
declined, although, after first asking an enor- 
mous sum for his interests, the owner came 
down in price to £50,000. The Society felt 
that it would be neither right nor possible 
to raise this exorbitant amount, and with 
oreat regret Lord Eversley and the Committee 
eventually decided to institute legal proceed- 
ings against the owner, Sir Edmund Antrobus, 
who had obstructed the ancient tracks. 

The hearing lasted seven days, and finally 
the judge decided against the Society'? 
claims : in the first place, because the exist- 
ence of a long-standing settlement was deemed 
to prevent the presumption of the dedication 
of through routes; and, in the second place, 
because, in his view, a public way could not 
end at a place of historic interest, such as 
Stonehenge. . • , .i. 

This has been the only case in which the 
Society has suffered defeat in the Law Courts 
during a fifty years' fight for public rights of 
way, and the sympathy aroused by its efforts 
to maintain an "important public principle has 
determined it not to rest content until this 
point, too, is finally seittled by Parliament in 
accordance with the dictates of common sense 

and equity. , „. -^j j 

In the meantime the death of Sir tdmund 
Antrobus led last year to the sale of Stone- 
henge The monument realised at pu'blic 
auction £6.600, or £3.400 less than the 
Society offered to raise in 1901 m order that 
the remains might be permanently preserved 
for the nation. Stonehenge is still in private 
hands, and the estate is considerably poorer 
than would have been the case had the 
Society's offer been accepted. 

Litigation with regard to rig'nts of way is an 
expensive matter. The Stonehenge case cost 
the Society almost £4,000; that amount 
although large, is smaU in comparison with 
costs which followed a bitterly-contested 
action about Yorkshire footpaths, and which 
amounted to over £15.000. Heavy expense is 
miavoidable, because a host of witnesses must 
he produced on each side, and also because the 
cost of investigating ancient titles is often con- 
siderable. By simplifying the law, and lajnng 
down fixed rules for tiie guidance of judges 
and counsel, the Society's Public Rights ot 
Way Bill will greatly reduce the burden ot 
expense in connection with footpath litiga- 


Last week at a meeting at Rhyl, presided 
over by Lord Kenyon, it was resolved that the 
erection of the new Science Buildings at 
Bangor L'niversitv shall be the North Wale, 
-Memorial for Fallen Men in the War. Lord 
Kenyon was appointed chairman, aad it -wa, 
st.ated that the King and the Prime Mmister 
approved of the scheme, which will cost 














The Postmaster General's Office, Lucknow. The Ma 

The European Hospital and Dispensary, Mussoorie (Sc 


Iead Regulator Dam : Mr. John Begg, F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 
Vkiew and Plan) : Mr. F. Lishman, F.R.I.P.A., Architect. 





Z tc 



























1 — 1 




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Eeb. 21, 1917. 

'nr lllnstratinns. 

The "Manresii Bridge, Spain," is a repro- 
ihiction of Sir Ernest George's beautiful and 
powerful etching now in the Royal Academy 
E.xhibition. It shows the romantic bridge 
that spans the Llobiegat. Manresa is sur- 
rounded by the fantastic peaks of the Mon- 
serrat Range. The height of the bridge and 
the strength of its piers were determined by 
the varying conditions of the stream, which, 
like most Spanish rivers, show a dry water- 
bed at times, and anon, when imder spate, is a 
rushing torrent. This imposing structure has 
only the width of a mule patli or track for 
pack-horses. On the side of the hill a convent 
has grown up around the rock cave in which 
Ignatius Loyola saw visions and spent his 
rigorous days. This etching is one of a pair 
shown as alxne stated, which are Sir Ernest 
George's present work, but his studies for 
tliem were made some thirty years ago. The 
second picture, which we .shall shortly illus- 
trate, represents the Castello and Ponte S. 
Angelo at Rome.